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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27342, 2021 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Worldwide despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome still causes morbidity and mortality among patients. In Sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome remains a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern antiretroviral therapy era in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. We searched relevant studies from 3 databases which are Google Scholar, PubMed, and CINAHL. Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles in duplicate, extracted data, and assessed bias. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion or arbitration of a third review author. R software version 3.6.2 was used to analyze the data. Maximum values were used in order to show which disease was mostly spread out by looking at the highest prevalence reported. This systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). RESULTS: A total of 409 articles were obtained from the database search, finally 12 articles met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for data extraction. Among them, 3 were conducted in Nigeria, 2 were conducted in Uganda, 3 were conducted in South Africa, 1 in Gabon, 1 in Ethiopia, 1 in Ghana, and 1 in Burkina Faso. In most of the included studies, tuberculosis was the leading cause of hospitalization which accounted for between 18% and 40.7% and it was also the leading cause of death and accounted for between 16% and 44.3%, except in 1 which reported anemia as the leading cause of hospitalization and in 2 which reported wasting syndrome and meningitis respectively as the leading causes of death. Opportunistic malignancies accounted between for 1.8% to 5% of hospitalization and 1.2% to 9.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of hospitalization and death in Sub-Saharan Africa, but it is always followed by other infectious disease and other non-AIDS related causes.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5599588, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513993

RESUMEN

Background: Despite being sexually active and engaging in risky sexual behaviours similar to young adults, older adults (50 years or older) are less likely to receive HIV testing, and disaggregated data are still scarce about HIV prevention and treatment in this vulnerable population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This systematic review is aimed at examining sex differences in HIV testing and counseling (HTC) among older adults in SSA. Methods: A systematic search of four databases, namely, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Web of Science, and Global Health, was conducted from 2000 to January 2020. The primary outcome of interest for this study was gender differences in HTC among older adults in SSA. Observational studies including cross-sectional, retrospective, and prospective cohort studies were included. Eligible studies must have reported sex differences in HIV testing uptake in a standard HTC service among older adults in SSA. Results: From the database search, 4143 articles were identified. Five studies were ultimately included in the final review. Of the 1189 participants, 606 (51.1%) and 580 (48.9%) were female and male, respectively. The review findings suggested that both men and women preferred HTC providers that are the same sex as them with women additionally preferring a provider who is also of a similar age. Men and women differed in their pathways to getting tested for HIV. The review documented mixed results with regard to the associations between sex of older adults and uptake of HTC. Older adult HTC uptake data are limited in scope and coverage in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion: This review revealed shortage of evidence to evaluate optimum HTC utilization among older adults. Few studies examined sex differences in HIV testing among older adults in the region. There is a need for stakeholders working in the area of HIV prevention and treatment to focus on older adult health utilization evidence organization, disaggregated by age and sex. Hence, high-quality research designs are needed on the topic in order to generate good quality evidence for targeted interventions to improve HTC among older adults in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Prueba de VIH/tendencias , Conducta Sexual/psicología , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Anciano , Consejo , Estudios Transversales , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Prueba de VIH/ética , Prueba de VIH/métodos , VIH-1/patogenicidad , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales
3.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105202, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562555

RESUMEN

Giardia duodenalis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea, mostly in underdeveloped nations of Africa and Asia. The present review provides insights into the prevalence, odds ratios (ORs) and associated risk factors of giardiasis in HIV/AIDS patients. Four major English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were excavated for relevant literature without time limitation until 20 November 2020. Next, meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). As well, heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Cochran's Q and the I2-statistic. Totally, 19,218 HIV/AIDS patients in 130 studies were examined, showing a 5% (95% CI: 4.2%-6%) pooled prevalence. Also, the weighted random-effects OR of G. duodenalis infection among HIV/AIDS patients in comparison with their controls in 48 case-control studies was estimated as 1.71% (95% CI: 1.1%-2.66%, p = 0.016). Based on sensitivity analysis, there was no remarkable variation in the pooled OR upon omitting individual studies. Diarrhea was a potent risk factor, since HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhea were 3.8-times (95% CI: 1.6-8.9, p = 0.002) more prone to G. duodenalis infection than those without diarrhea. Moreover, the prevalence of the parasitic infection was 1.2-times higher in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) than those with ART (p = 0.312). Meta-regression was employed to evaluate the possible association between G. duodenalis frequency in HIV/AIDS patients and some variables such as sample size, publication year, and HDI. Additionally, the pooled prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was estimated based on several subgroups, including publication years, WHO regions, countries, continents, country incomes, and CD4+ T-cell levels. Altogether, the epidemiology of giardiasis in HIV/AIDS patients and its association with various risk factors is still open to question and requires more detailed and comprehensive investigations.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Giardia lamblia , Infecciones por VIH , Heces , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256948, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473774

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, optimal adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) improves quality of life. Patients who use ART have varying characteristics in terms of where they live. The effect of place of residence on ART adherence is unclear in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled association between place of residence and adherence to ART. METHODS: Articles were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, African Journals Online (AJOL), Journal Storage (JSTOR), and Web of Science. The data was extracted using Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet. Review Manager 5.3 and STATA version 14 were used for the analysis. The Cochrane Q statistic was used to assess between-study heterogeneity. I2 was used to quantify between-study heterogeneity. A weighted inverse variance random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Seven studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The Begg's test (Z = 0.15, P = 0.881) and Egger's test (t = 0.14, P = 0.894) revealed no evidence of publication bias. Urban residence was associated with an increased likelihood of good adherence (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.22-3.51). CONCLUSIONS: The study recommends that policy-makers should enact policies that increase access to ART services in a rural area in order to improve adherence. It is recommended that implementation studies be conducted in order to identify practical and affordable interventions.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Población Rural , Población Urbana , Adulto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Calidad de Vida
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257630, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543340

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytopenia and leucopenia are frequently encountered hematological disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to indicate the national prevalence of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia among HIV/AIDS patients. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic search was conducted from February 01, 2021 to April 02, 2021 using electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google, EMBASE, SCOPUS and ResearchGate. The quality of the included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) adapted for cross-sectional studies. Data analysis was done using STATA version 14 using metan commands. Random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. RESULT: Of the 349 initially searched articles, 90 were assessed for eligibility and only 13 articles published from 2014 to 2020 were included in the final meta-analysis. A total of 3854 participants were involved in the included studies. The pooled prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 9.69% (95%CI; 7.40-11.97%). Significant heterogeneity was observed with I2 value of 84.7%. Thrombocytopenia was 11.91% and 5.95% prevalent among HAART naive and HAART exposed HIV/AIDS patients, respectively. The pooled prevalence of leucopenia among HIV/AIDS patients was 17.31% (95%CI: 12.37-22.25%). CONCLUSION: This study showed a high prevalence of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia among people living with HIV/AIDS, indicating the necessity of regular screening of HIV seropositive patients for different hematological parameters and providing treatment.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/patología , Infecciones por VIH/patología , Leucopenia/epidemiología , Trombocitopenia/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Bases de Datos Factuales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucopenia/complicaciones , Leucopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/complicaciones , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e1018-e1028, 2021 08 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to identify which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing (HIVST) distribution strategies are most effective. METHODS: We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies published between 4 June 2006 and 4 June 2019. RESULTS: We included 33 studies, yielding 6 HIVST distribution strategies. All distribution strategies increased testing uptake compared to standard testing: in sub-Saharan Africa, partner HIVST distribution ranked highest (78% probability); in North America, Asia, and the Pacific regions, web-based distribution ranked highest (93% probability), and facility based distribution ranked second in all settings. Across HIVST distribution strategies HIV positivity and linkage was similar to standard testing. CONCLUSIONS: A range of HIVST distribution strategies are effective in increasing HIV testing. HIVST distribution by sexual partners, web-based distribution, as well as health facility distribution strategies should be considered for implementation to expand the reach of HIV testing services.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Autoevaluación , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Metaanálisis en Red , Parejas Sexuales
7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(9): 755-758, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are significant drug-drug interactions between human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral therapy and intranasal steroids, leading to high serum concentrations of iatrogenic steroids and subsequently Cushing's syndrome. METHOD: All articles in the literature on cases of intranasal steroid and antiretroviral therapy interactions were reviewed. Full-length manuscripts were analysed and the relevant data were extracted. RESULTS: A literature search and further cross-referencing yielded a total of seven reports on drug-drug interactions of intranasal corticosteroids and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors, published between 1999 and 2019. CONCLUSION: The use of potent steroids metabolised via CYP3A4, such as fluticasone and budesonide, are not recommended for patients taking ritonavir or cobicistat. Mometasone should be used cautiously with ritonavir because of pharmacokinetic similarities to fluticasone. There was a delayed onset of symptoms in many cases, most likely due to the relatively lower systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Síndrome de Cushing/inducido químicamente , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/efectos adversos , VIH , Administración Intranasal , Corticoesteroides/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Cobicistat/administración & dosificación , Cobicistat/efectos adversos , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Fluticasona/administración & dosificación , Fluticasona/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Masculino , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos
8.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2021: 5440722, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434041

RESUMEN

Introduction: A dual contraceptive method is the usage of any modern contraceptive method with male or female condoms which could lower sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancy. Ethiopian standard utilization of dual contraceptive is low. The hassle is more severe for HIV/AIDS-infected people. Therefore, this review was aimed at assessing dual contraceptive utilization and factor associated with people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Method: International databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Hinari, Embase, African Journals Online, Scopus, and Google Scholar) and Ethiopian university repository online have been covered in this review. Microsoft Excel was used for extraction, and the Stata 14 software program was used for analysis. We detected the heterogeneity between studies using the Cochran Q statistic and I 2 test. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot and Egger's and Begg's tests. Result: The overall prevalence of dual contraceptive use among people living with HIV/AIDS was 27.73% (95% CI: 20.26-35.19) in Ethiopia. Discussion with the partner (OR: 3.78, 95% CI: 3.08-4.69), HIV status disclosure to the spouse/partner (OR: 2.810, 95% CI: 2.26-3.48), postdiagnosis counseling (OR: 5.00, 95% CI: 3.71-6.75), schooling in secondary and above education (OR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.41-5.93), partner involvement in counseling (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.99-3.82), urban residence (OR: 2.84, 95% CI 2.03-3.94), and having no fertility desire (OR: 4.01, 95% CI 2.91-5.57) were significantly associated with dual contraceptive use. Conclusion: Dual contraceptive utilization among people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be low in Ethiopia. This will be a significant concern unless future intervention focuses on rural residence, involvement of the partner in postdiagnosis counseling, encouraging the people living with HIV/AIDS to disclose HIV status, and discussion with the partner. Providing counseling during the antenatal and postnatal period also enhances dual contraceptive use.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Anticoncepción , Conducta Anticonceptiva , Anticonceptivos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16655, 2021 08 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404814

RESUMEN

Co-infection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the severity and mortality rates of both diseases. A better understanding of the effects of co-infections could help in the diagnosis, prompt treatment, prevention, and control of malarial parasites among HIV-infected patients. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimated the prevalence and characteristics of severe malaria (SM) caused by co-infection with HIV. We included relevant studies that were conducted between the years 1991 and 2018 and reporting on SM. We pooled the prevalence of SM in patients with co-infection, pooled odds ratios of SM in patients with co-infection and Plasmodium mono-infection, and differences in laboratory parameters such as parasite density and leucocyte counts, between co-infected and Plasmodium mono-infected patients. The meta-analysis included 29 studies (1126 SM cases). The pooled prevalence of SM in co-infected patients using the data of 23 studies (SM = 795 cases, all co-infection cases = 2534 cases) was 43.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.0-56.0%; I2, 98.0%). Overall, the odds of SM from 18 studies were pooled. The odds of SM were significantly higher in co-infected patients than in Plasmodium mono-infected patients (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.43-4.08; I2 = 85%; P = 0.001) and also significantly higher in children (OR 9.69; 95% CI 5.14-18.3; I2, 0%; P < 0.0001; two studies) than in adults (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.52-4.73; I2, 79.0%; P = 0.0007; 12 studies). Co-infected patients with SM had a higher parasite density than those with Plasmodium mono-infection when the data of seven studies were analysed (SMD, 1.25; 95% CI 0.14-2.36; I2, 98.0%; P = 0.03) and higher leukocyte counts when the data of four studies were analysed (MD, 1570 cells/µL; 95% CI 850-2300 cells/µL; I2, 21.0%; P < 0.0001). Thus, the prevalence of SM among patients co-infected with Plasmodium spp. and HIV is high. Because co-infections could lead to SM, patients with Plasmodium spp. and HIV co-infection should be identified and treated to reduce the prevalence of SM and the number of deaths.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Coinfección/diagnóstico , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e204, 2021 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420541

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) has become a common diagnostic method for tuberculosis, its value in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients remains controversial. Therefore, this systematically reviews the data for exploring the diagnostic value of IGRA in HIV-infected individuals complicated with active tuberculosis, aiming to provide a clinical basis for future clinical diagnosis of the disease. METHODS: Relevant studies on IGRA for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients were comprehensively collected from Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Medline, Cochrane Library, Chinese Sci-tech Periodical Full-text Database, Chinese Periodical Full-text Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Wanfang Data up to July 2020. Subsequently, Stata 15.0, an integrated statistical software, was used to analyse the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) to create receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: A total of 18 high-quality articles were selected, including 20 studies, 11 of which were related to QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and nine to T-SPOT.TB. The meta-analysis indicated that the pooled sensitivity = 0.75 (95% CI 0.63-0.85), the pooled specificity = 0.82 (95% CI 0.66-0.92), PLR = 4.25 (95% CI 1.97-9.18), NLR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.18-0.50), DOR = 14.21 (95% CI 4.38-46.09) and the area under summary ROC curve was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81-0.88). CONCLUSION: IGRA has a good diagnostic value and therefore can aid in the preliminary screening of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals. Its diagnostic effectiveness can be improved by modifying and optimizing the assay design.


Asunto(s)
Seropositividad para VIH/complicaciones , Ensayos de Liberación de Interferón gamma , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis/complicaciones
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(7): e25772, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289243

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV and tuberculosis are frequently diagnosed concurrently. In March 2021, World Health Organization recommended that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be started within two weeks of tuberculosis treatment start, at any CD4 count. We assessed whether earlier ART improved outcomes in people with newly diagnosed HIV and tuberculosis. METHODS: We did a systematic review by searching nine databases for trials that compared earlier ART to later ART initiation in people with HIV and tuberculosis. We included studies published from database inception to 12 March 2021. We compared ART within four weeks versus ART more than four weeks after TB treatment, and ART within two weeks versus ART between two and eight weeks, and stratified analysis by CD4 count. The main outcome was death; secondary outcomes included IRIS and AIDS-defining events. We pooled effect estimates using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We screened 2468 abstracts, and identified nine trials. Among people with all CD4 counts, there was no difference in mortality by earlier ART (≤4 week) versus later ART (>4 week) (risk difference [RD] 0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2% to +1%). Among people with CD4 count ≤50 cells/mm3 , earlier ART (≤4 weeks) reduced risk of death (RD -6%, -10% to -1%). Among people with all CD4 counts earlier ART (≤4 weeks) increased the risk of IRIS (RD +6%, 95% CI +2% to +10%) and reduced the incidence of AIDS-defining events (RD -2%, 95% CI -4% to 0%). Results were similar when trials were restricted to the four trials which permitted comparison of ART within two weeks to ART between two and eight weeks. Trials were conducted between 2004 and 2014, before recommendations to treat HIV at any CD4 count or to rapidly start ART in people without TB. No trials included children or pregnant women. No trials included integrase inhibitors in ART regimens. DISCUSSION: Earlier ART did not alter risk of death overall among people living with HIV who had TB disease. For logistical and patient preference reasons, earlier ART initiation for everyone with TB and HIV may be preferred to later ART.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Coinfección/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Embarazo , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1110, 2021 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112135

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alternative models for sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery are necessary to meet the increasing demand to maintain population-wide ART for all people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a review of published literature comparing health facility-based care (HFBC) with non-health facility based care (nHFBC) models of ART delivery in terms of health outcomes; viral suppression, loss to follow-up, retention and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase and Global Health databases from 2010 onwards. UNAIDS reports, WHO guidelines and abstracts from conferences were reviewed. All studies measuring at least one of the following outcomes, viral load suppression, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and mortality were included. Data were extracted, and a descriptive analysis was performed. Risk of bias assessment was done for all studies. Pooled estimates of the risk difference (for viral suppression) and hazard ratio (for mortality) were made using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 3082 non-duplicate records, 193 were eligible for full text screening of which 21 published papers met the criteria for inclusion. The pooled risk difference of viral load suppression amongst 4 RCTs showed no evidence of a difference in viral suppression (VS) between nHFBC and HFBC with an overall estimated risk difference of 1% [95% CI -1, 4%]. The pooled hazard ratio of mortality amongst 2 RCTs and 4 observational cohort studies showed no evidence of a difference in mortality between nHFBC and HFBC with an overall estimated hazard ratio of 1.01 [95% CI 0.88, 1.16]. Fifteen studies contained data on LTFU and 13 studies on retention. Although no formal quantitative analysis was performed on these outcomes due to the very different definitions between papers, it was observed that the outcomes appeared similar between HFBC and nHFBC. CONCLUSIONS: Review of current literature demonstrates comparable outcomes for nHFBC compared to HFBC ART delivery programmes in terms of viral suppression, retention and mortality. PROSPERO NUMBER: CRD42018088194 .


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Carga Viral
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 308, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178226

RESUMEN

Introduction: women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. In 2019, they constituted 59% of new infections; thus, they remain a key population for control. Public health interventions to prevent acquisition of HIV in this high-risk population are urgently needed. Tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (TFV-PrEP) has been shown to reduce HIV infections in other key populations. However, comprehensive evidence regarding TFV-PrEP effectiveness in women living in SSA has not been determined. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of tenofovir-1% (TFV-1%) vaginal gel, oral tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis for primary acquisition of HIV in at-risk women living in SSA. Methods: OVID Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, Web of Science and Clinical Trials.gov were searched for eligible studies from 1st January 2020 to 31st July 2020. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in women living in SSA were included. Measures of effectiveness (hazard ratios (HR), incidence rate ratios (IRR)) were extracted from individual studies to determine the effectiveness of TFV-PrEP in preventing HIV infection among at-risk women living in SSA. Results: from 2002 non-duplicate articles, four RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of one or more of the interventions against placebos were included. TFV-1% vaginal gel, oral TDF or TDF-FTC were not effective in preventing the acquisition of HIV infection in women living in SSA. However, poor adherence by study participants could have confounded the true effectiveness of TFV-PrEP in this high risk population. Meta-analysis was not conducted given the limited number of eligible studies identified from the search. Conclusion: the current evidence does not support the effectiveness of TFV-PrEP for HIV in SSA women. More studies aimed at addressing factors driving low adherence to HIV interventions in this high risk population are urgently needed in order to improve the design of future RCTs leading to the determination of more reliable estimates of TFV-1% vaginal gel or oral TDF or TDF-FTC effectiveness. Protocol registration: this systematic review was not registered in PROSPERO.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Tenofovir/administración & dosificación , África del Sur del Sahara , Combinación Emtricitabina y Fumarato de Tenofovir Disoproxil/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(5): e1003646, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048443

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in the community and outside of a traditional health facility has the potential to improve linkage to ART, decongest health facilities, and minimize structural barriers to attending HIV services among people living with HIV (PLWH). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of offering ART initiation in the community on HIV treatment outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched databases between 1 January 2013 and 22 February 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared offering ART initiation in a community setting to offering ART initiation in a traditional health facility or alternative community setting. We assessed risk of bias, reporting of implementation outcomes, and real-world relevance and used Mantel-Haenszel methods to generate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs) with 95% confidence intervals. We evaluated heterogeneity qualitatively and quantitatively and used GRADE to evaluate overall evidence certainty. Searches yielded 4,035 records, resulting in 8 included studies-4 RCTs and 4 observational studies-conducted in Lesotho, South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, Malawi, Tanzania, and Haiti-a total of 11,196 PLWH. Five studies were conducted in general HIV populations, 2 in key populations, and 1 in adolescents. Community ART initiation strategies included community-based HIV testing coupled with ART initiation at home or at community venues; 5 studies maintained ART refills in the community, and 4 provided refills at the health facility. All studies were pragmatic, but in most cases provided additional resources. Few studies reported on implementation outcomes. All studies showed higher ART uptake in community initiation arms compared to facility initiation and refill arms (standard of care) (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.45; RD 30%, 95% CI 10% to 50%; 5 studies). Retention (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.54; RD 19%, 95% CI 11% to 28%; 4 studies) and viral suppression (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.49; RD 15%, 95% CI 10% to 21%; 3 studies) at 12 months were also higher in the community-based ART initiation arms. Improved uptake, retention, and viral suppression with community ART initiation were seen across population subgroups-including men, adolescents, and key populations. One study reported no difference in retention and viral suppression at 2 years. There were limited data on adherence and mortality. Social harms and adverse events appeared to be minimal and similar between community ART initiation and standard of care. One study compared ART refill strategies following community ART initiation (community versus facility refills) and found no difference in viral suppression (RD -7%, 95% CI -19% to 6%) or retention at 12 months (RD -12%, 95% CI -23% to 0.3%). This systematic review was limited by few studies for inclusion, poor-quality observational data, and short-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data from a limited set of studies, community ART initiation appears to result in higher ART uptake, retention, and viral suppression at 1 year compared to facility-based ART initiation. Implementation on a wider scale necessitates broader exploration of costs, logistics, and acceptability by providers and PLWH to ensure that these effects are reproducible when delivered at scale, in different contexts, and over time.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Participación de la Comunidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
15.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 25, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Integrase inhibitors (INIs)-based antiretroviral therapies (ART) are more recommended than efavirenz (EFV)-based ART for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Yet, the advantage of integrase inhibitors in treating TB/HIV coinfection is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects and safety of INIs- versus EFV-based ART in TB/HIV coinfection, and demonstrate the feasibility of the regimens. METHODS: Four electronic databases were systematically searched through September 2020. Fixed-effects models were used to calculate pooled effect size for all outcomes. The primary outcomes were virologic suppression and bacteriology suppression for INIs- versus EFV-based ART. Secondary outcomes included CD4+ cell counts change from baseline, adherence and safety. RESULTS: Three trials (including 672 TB/HIV patients) were eligible. ART combining INIs and EFV had similar effects for all outcomes, with none of the point estimates argued against the INIs-based ART on TB/HIV patients. Compared to EFV-based ART as the reference group, the RR was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.05) for virologic suppression, 1.00 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.05) for bacteriology suppression, 0.98 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01) for adherence. The mean difference in CD4+ cell counts increase between the two groups was 14.23 cells/µl (95% CI 0- 6.40 to 34.86). With regard to safety (adverse events, drug-related adverse events, discontinuation for drugs, grade 3-4 adverse events, IRIS (grade 3-4), and death), INIs-based regimen was broadly similar to EFV-based regimens. The analytical results in all sub-analyses of raltegravir- (RAL) and dolutegravir (DTG) -based ART were valid. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates similar efficacy and safety of INIs-based ART compared with EFV-based ART. This finding supports INIs-based ART as a first-line treatment in TB/HIV patients. The conclusions presented here still await further validation owing to insufficient data.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efectos adversos , Coinfección/tratamiento farmacológico , Ciclopropanos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Inhibidores de Integrasa/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
16.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 55, 2021 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001138

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a common practice of almost all communities worldwide and it is more common among persons with HIV infection. Alcohol consumption among people with HIV/AIDS may result in poor treatment adherence, further immunity suppression and increase the risk of comorbid illness (diseases) which collectively diminish the anti-retroviral therapy responses. Although there are separate studies conducted regarding alcohol use among people with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, the finding results are highly variable and inconsistent. Therefore, conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis has a paramount importance to show the pooled prevalence of alcohol use and to identify its determinants among people with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases of PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Hinnari and Cochrane library was employed. Additionally, the grey literature was searched from Google and Google Scholar. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft Excel . STATA-version 14 statistical software was used for analysis. Heterogeneity of primary studies was found as evaluated using the I2 test result. As a result, a random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of alcohol use. RESULTS: A total of 22 primary studies which comprises 8,368 study participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of lifetime, current and hazardous alcohol use among HIV patients in Ethiopia were 36.42% [95% CI (19.96, 52.89)], 19.00% [95% CI (12.98, 25.01)] and 21.64% [95% CI (12.72, 30.55)], respectively. Khat chewing [OR = 3.53, (95% CI 1.31, 9.51)] and cigarette smoking [OR = 7.04, (95% CI 3.53, 14.04)] were found as statistically significant determinants of hazardous alcohol use among people with HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this review showed that alcohol drinking is highly practiced among people with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. The magnitude of alcohol use was highly variable based on the screening methods used to measure alcohol use. Comorbid substance use (khat and cigarette) increases the risk of alcohol consumption among HIV patients. This suggests a need for designing appropriate and culturally applicable intervention programs and policy responses. Trial registration PROSPERO 2019, "CRD42019132524."


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Catha , Etiopía/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos
17.
AIDS Behav ; 25(12): 4225-4234, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939035

RESUMEN

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be highly effective at reducing the risk of HIV. Despite efforts to employ various social marketing strategies to promote PrEP among young people at greater risk for HIV, PrEP awareness and uptake remain low. We conducted a comprehensive review of current literature that presents or evaluates the use of social media and/or specific communication campaigns to increase PrEP awareness among young Black and Latinx men who have sex with men (MSM) and women. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. The most used platforms included Facebook, Instagram, and custom mobile applications. Social media is a dynamic and promising tool that may be used to increase PrEP awareness, uptake, and adherence among young Black and Latinx MSM and women.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 431, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962558

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-management interventions aim to enable people living with chronic conditions to increase control over their condition in order to achieve optimal health and may be pertinent for young people with chronic illnesses such as HIV. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management interventions for improving health-related outcomes of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) and identify the components that are most effective, particularly in low-resource settings with a high HIV burden. METHODS: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and controlled before-after (CBA) studies. We did a comprehensive search up to 1 August 2019. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We synthesised results in a meta-analysis where studies were sufficiently homogenous. In case of substantial heterogeneity, we synthesised results narratively. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE and presented our findings as summaries in tabulated form. RESULTS: We included 14 studies, comprising 12 RCTs and two non-RCTs. Most studies were conducted in the United States, one in Thailand and four in Africa. Interventions were diverse, addressing a variety of self-management domains and including a combination of individual, group, face-to-face, cell phone or information communication technology mediated approaches. Delivery agents varied from trained counsellors to healthcare workers and peers. Self-management interventions compared to usual care for ALHIV made little to no difference to most health-related outcomes, but the evidence is very uncertain. Self-management interventions may increase adherence and decrease HIV viral load, but the evidence is very uncertain. We could not identify any particular components of interventions that were more effective for improving certain outcomes. CONCLUSION: Existing evidence on the effectiveness of self-management interventions for improving health-related outcomes of ALHIV is very uncertain. Self-management interventions for ALHIV should take into account the individual, social and health system contexts. Intervention components need to be aligned to the desired outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019126313.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , África , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Crónica , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados como Asunto , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Automanejo , Tailandia , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 23, 2021 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906698

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is particularly common among adolescents with HIV/AIDS and has been associated with disruption of the important developmental process, subsequently leading to a wide range of negative mental, physical and psychosocial consequences, as well as poor quality of life in those population groups. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, there are no prior systematic reviews and meta-analytic studies that determined the prevalence of depression among adolescents with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for relevant literature until May 2020. A random-effect meta-analysis was used to pool prevalence rates from individual studies. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneities and to compare the prevalence estimates across the groups. The Joanna Briggs Institute's quality assessment checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Cochran's Q and the I2 tests were used to assess heterogeneity between the studies. RESULTS: A total of ten studies were included for the final analysis, with 2642 adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. Our final meta-analysis showed that more than a quarter of adolescents with HIV had depression [26.07% (95% CI 18.92-34.78)]. The prevalence was highest amongst female adolescents (32.15%) than males (25.07%) as well as amongst the older adolescents aged 15-19 years (37.09%) than younger adolescents aged 10-14 years (29.82%). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that a significant proportion of adolescents with HIV had depression, indicating the imperativeness of intervention strategies to alleviate the suffering and possibly reduce the probable negative ramifications.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Adolescente , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida
20.
AIDS Behav ; 25(10): 3183-3193, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903996

RESUMEN

There are few studies on the occurrence of food insecurity (FI) in pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS (PrWLWHA). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity among PrWLWHA and to analyse the association between HIV and FI. For this we searched eight databases. We used the prevalence and prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) as the summary measurements for the meta-analysis. We identified 300 studies, 13 of which were eligible. The prevalence of FI was 64%, ranging between 26% (mild), 33% (moderate) and 27% (severe). People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had a 23% greater chance of facing FI (PR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.38) compared to those not living with HIV. The results revealed a high prevalence and positive association with FI among PLWHA, which suggests the need for food security assessments in HIV/AIDS clinical care.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Estudios Transversales , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Renta , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas
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