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3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Amazon tropical rainforest has the most dense and diverse ecosystem worldwide. A few studies have addressed rodent-borne diseases as potential hazards to humans in this region. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting mammarenavirus and orthohantavirus antibodies in 206 samples collected from rural settlers of the Brazilian Western Amazonian region. RESULTS: Six (2.91%) individuals in the age group of 16 to 36 years were found to possess antibodies against mammarenavirus. CONCLUSION: Evidence of previous exposure to mammarenavirus in the rural population points to its silent circulation in this region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Arenaviridae/epidemiologia , Arenaviridae/imunologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Orthohepadnavirus/imunologia , Roedores/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Arenaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Arenaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arenaviridae/transmissão , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthohepadnavirus/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Roedores/classificação , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 49(2): 331-346, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389366

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are common and are associated with a variety of liver manifestations. EBV and CMV infections, in immunocompetent hosts, commonly manifest as acute hepatitis, with severity varying from asymptomatic, self-limited icteric hepatitis to acute liver failure. Atypical manifestations, such as cholestasis, chronic hepatitis, precipitation of acute-on-chronic liver failure, and autoimmune hepatitis, are reported with EBV infection, whereas cholestasis, portal vein thrombosis, and Budd-Chiari syndrome are reported with CMV infection. In the setting of liver transplantation, CMV is the most common infectious complication and carries significant morbidity; EBV is the major cause of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Hepatite Viral Humana/transmissão , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Fígado , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 943-950, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124729

RESUMO

Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne flaviviral infection in the world today. Several factors contribute and act synergistically to cause severe infection. One of these is dysregulated host immunological mediators that cause transient pathophysiology during infection. These mediators act on the endothelium to increase vascular permeability, which leads to plasma leakage compromising hemodynamics and coagulopathy. We conducted a prospective study to explore the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and how they relate to clinical dengue manifestations, by assessing their dynamics through acute dengue infection in adults admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand. We performed cytokine analysis at three phases of infection for 96 hospitalized adults together with serotyping of confirmed dengue infection during the outbreaks of 2015 and 2016. The serum concentrations of seven cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma) were measured in duplicate using a commercial kit (Bio-Plex Human Cytokine Assay). In this study, the cytokine profile was suggestive of a T-helper 2 response. Most patients had secondary infection, and the levels of viremia were higher in patients with plasma leakage than those without plasma leakage. In addition, we observed that bleeding and hepatitis were associated with significantly higher levels of IL-8 during the early phases of infection. Furthermore, IL-6 levels in the early phase of infection were also elevated in bleeding patients with plasma leakage. These results suggest that IL-6 and IL-8 may act in synergy to cause bleeding in patients with plasma leakage.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Dengue/metabolismo , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/etiologia , Dengue Grave/metabolismo , Adulto , Citocinas/sangue , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/patologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Hemorragia/virologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/metabolismo , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Dengue Grave/complicações , Dengue Grave/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Carga Viral
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(2): 396-400, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes only 2-4% of all acute hepatitis but has high morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is a risk factor for HSV hepatitis. We describe a case of gestational HSV hepatitis. CASE: A 32-year old woman, gravida 2 para 1, presented at 38 2/7 weeks of gestation with back pain and fetal tachycardia. She became febrile after admission, had spontaneous rupture of membranes, and was delivered by cesarean for malpresentation. Postpartum, she became persistently febrile and developed transaminitis, symptomatic hypotension, and pancytopenia despite antibiotics. Imaging revealed acute liver injury, splenomegaly, pleural effusions, and cardiomyopathy. Serum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening identified HSV-1 infection. The patient recovered on acyclovir. There was no evidence of neonatal seroconversion. CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus hepatitis causes significant morbidity, and pregnant women are susceptible to severe infections. Pregnant or peripartum women with acute febrile hepatitis require prompt evaluation for HSV with serum PCR screening.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Herpes Simples/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Cesárea , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Simplexvirus/isolamento & purificação
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is a global public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of deaths due to acute and persistent infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Providing updated serologic data can improve both surveillance and disease control programs. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of markers for viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D and E) and the epidemiology of such infections in the general population of southern Iran's Hormozgan province. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 562 individuals with ages ranging from 1 to 86 years, who visited governmental public laboratories for routine check-ups, were tested for the presence of serological markers to hepatitis virus types A to E using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The overall anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody seroprevalence was 93.2% (524/562). The prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies was 15.8% (89/562) among which 1.6% (9/562) of the seropositive individuals also had evidence of recent exposure to the virus (IgM positivity). Two and a half percent (14/562) were positive for hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen, whereas 11.6% (65/562) tested positive for anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies. Among anti-HBc positive patients, 11% (7/65) had HBs Ag and 5% (3/65) were positive for anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibodies. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies was 0.7% (4/562). The seroprevalence of anti-HAV, HEV IgG, anti-HBc antibodies, and HBs Ag increased with age. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms a high seroprevalence of HAV infection among the examined population and reveals high levels of endemicity for HEV in the region. Planned vaccination policies against HAV should be considered in all parts of Iran. In addition, improvements on public sanitation and hygiene management of drinking water sources for the studied area are recommended.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus de Hepatite/imunologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 33(4): 1045-1062, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668190

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is a major global public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Five major biologically unrelated hepatotropic viruses cause most of the global burden of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are associated with a significant number of chronic infections. Most deaths from viral hepatitis are due to hepatitis B and hepatitis C. An estimated 257 million people were living with HBV and 71 million people were living with HCV. Most people are asymptomatic. New diagnostics and highly effective, pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals provide opportunities to cure and eradicate chronic hepatitis C virus infection.


Assuntos
Vírus de Hepatite/classificação , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Saúde Global , Vírus de Hepatite/patogenicidade , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Humanos
18.
Immunol Med ; 42(2): 71-78, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498713

RESUMO

Results of recent studies have shown that disease models using human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have recapitulated the pathophysiology of genetic liver diseases, viral hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The utilization of human iPS cells as a model of liver diseases has several substantial advantages compared with primary hepatocytes and cancer cell lines, such as the potential for unlimited expansion and similarity of biological characteristics to normal liver cells. In this review, we have focused on modeling liver diseases using human iPS cells and discussed the experimental evidence that supports the utility of such disease models, including that in our recent studies. Genetically modified or patient-derived human iPS cells can mimic congenital liver disease phenotypes. Human iPS-derived hepatic cells can be infected with the hepatitis viruses. The co-culture of human iPS-derived hepatocytes and mesenchyme partially mimics the process of liver fibrosis. Human iPS cell-derived hepatic cells and the co-culture system of such cells will contribute to the progress of studies on the pathophysiology of genetic and non-genetic liver diseases and development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating liver diseases.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Hepatopatias , Hepatite Viral Humana/genética , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Hepatopatias/genética , Hepatopatias/terapia
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 29(5): e2075, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322806

RESUMO

Hepatitis virus infections affect a large proportion of the global population. The host responds rapidly to viral infection by orchestrating a variety of cellular machineries, in particular, the mitochondrial compartment. Mitochondria actively regulate viral infections through modulation of the cellular innate immunity and reprogramming of metabolism. In turn, hepatitis viruses are able to modulate the morphodynamics and functions of mitochondria, but the mode of actions are distinct with respect to different types of hepatitis viruses. The resulting mutual interactions between viruses and mitochondria partially explain the clinical presentation of viral hepatitis, influence the response to antiviral treatment, and offer rational avenues for novel therapy. In this review, we aim to consider in depth the multifaceted interactions of mitochondria with hepatitis virus infections and emphasize the implications for understanding pathogenesis and advancing therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Vírus de Hepatite/fisiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/metabolismo , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Vírus de Hepatite/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Replicação Viral
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