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2.
Int Braz J Urol ; 482022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic role of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer (PCa) is unknown due to absence of randomized trials. OBJECTIVE: to present a critical review on the therapeutic benefits of PLND in high risk localized PCa patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the literature on PLND was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline database. Articles obtained regarding diagnostic imaging and sentinel lymph node dissection, PLND extension, impact of PLND on survival, PLND in node positive "only" disease and PLND surgical risks were critically reviewed. RESULTS: High-risk PCa commonly develops metastases. In these patients, the possibility of presenting lymph node disease is high. Thus, extended PLND during radical prostatectomy may be recommended in selected patients with localized high-risk PCa for both accurate staging and therapeutic intent. Although recent advances in detecting patients with lymph node involvement (LNI) with novel imaging and sentinel node dissection, extended PLND continues to be the most accurate method to stage lymph node disease, which may be related to the number of nodes removed. However, extended PLND increases surgical time, with potential impact on perioperative complications, hospital length of stay, rehospitalization and healthcare costs. Controversy persists on its therapeutic benefit, particularly in patients with high node burden. CONCLUSION: The impact of PLND on biochemical recurrence and PCa survival is unclear yet. Selection of patients may benefit from extended PLND but the challenge remains to identify them accurately. Only prospective randomized study would answer the precise role of PLND in high-risk pelvis confined PCa patients.

3.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414166

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a regulated, non-apoptotic form of cell death, characterized by hydroxy-peroxidation of discrete phospholipid hydroperoxides, particularly hydroperoxyl (Hp) forms of arachidonoyl- and adrenoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, with a downstream cascade of oxidative damage to membrane lipids, proteins and DNA, culminating in cell death. We recently showed that human trophoblasts are particularly sensitive to ferroptosis caused by depletion or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) or the lipase PLA2G6. Here, we show that trophoblastic ferroptosis is accompanied by a dramatic change in the trophoblast plasma membrane, with macro-blebbing and vesiculation. Immunofluorescence revealed that ferroptotic cell-derived blebs stained positive for F-actin, but negative for cytoplasmic organelle markers. Transfer of conditioned medium that contained detached macrovesicles or co-culture of wild-type target cells with blebbing cells did not stimulate ferroptosis in target cells. Molecular modeling showed that the presence of Hp-phosphatidylethanolamine in the cell membrane promoted its cell ability to be stretched. Together, our data establish that membrane macro-blebbing is characteristic of trophoblast ferroptosis and can serve as a useful marker of this process. Whether or not these blebs are physiologically functional remains to be established.

4.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(2)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722956

ABSTRACT

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cranial nerve anomalies and disordered oropharyngeal function, including pediatric dysphagia. Using the LgDel 22q11DS mouse model, we investigated whether sensory neuron differentiation in the trigeminal ganglion (CNgV), which is essential for normal orofacial function, is disrupted. We did not detect changes in cranial placode cell translocation or neural crest migration at early stages of LgDel CNgV development. However, as the ganglion coalesces, proportions of placode-derived LgDel CNgV cells increase relative to neural crest cells. In addition, local aggregation of placode-derived cells increases and aggregation of neural crest-derived cells decreases in LgDel CNgV. This change in cell-cell relationships was accompanied by altered proliferation of placode-derived cells at embryonic day (E)9.5, and premature neurogenesis from neural crest-derived precursors, reflected by an increased frequency of asymmetric neurogenic divisions for neural crest-derived precursors by E10.5. These early differences in LgDel CNgV genesis prefigure changes in sensory neuron differentiation and gene expression by postnatal day 8, when early signs of cranial nerve dysfunction associated with pediatric dysphagia are observed in LgDel mice. Apparently, 22q11 deletion destabilizes CNgV sensory neuron genesis and differentiation by increasing variability in cell-cell interaction, proliferation and sensory neuron differentiation. This early developmental divergence and its consequences may contribute to oropharyngeal dysfunction, including suckling, feeding and swallowing disruptions at birth, and additional orofacial sensory/motor deficits throughout life.

5.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912961

ABSTRACT

Septins colocalize with membrane sterol-rich regions and facilitate recruitment of cell wall synthases during wall remodeling. We show that null mutants missing an Aspergillus nidulans core septin present in hexamers and octamers (ΔaspAcdc11, ΔaspBcdc3 or ΔaspCcdc12) are sensitive to multiple cell wall-disturbing agents that activate the cell wall integrity MAPK pathway. The null mutant missing the octamer-exclusive core septin (ΔaspDcdc10) showed similar sensitivity, but only to a single cell wall-disturbing agent and the null mutant missing the noncore septin (ΔaspE) showed only very mild sensitivity to a different single agent. Core septin mutants showed changes in wall polysaccharide composition and chitin synthase localization. Mutants missing any of the five septins resisted ergosterol-disrupting agents. Hexamer mutants showed increased sensitivity to sphingolipid-disrupting agents. Core septins mislocalized after treatment with sphingolipid-disrupting agents, but not after ergosterol-disrupting agents. Our data suggest that the core septins are involved in cell wall integrity signaling, that all five septins are involved in monitoring ergosterol metabolism, that the hexamer septins are required for sphingolipid metabolism and that septins require sphingolipids to coordinate the cell wall integrity response.

6.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912962

ABSTRACT

Membrane contact sites (MCSs) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/lys) are emerging as critical hubs for diverse cellular events, and changes in their extents are linked to severe neurological diseases. While recent studies show that the synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding (SMP) domain-containing protein PDZD8 may mediate the formation of ER-LE/lys MCSs, the cellular functions of PDZD8 remain largely elusive. Here, we attempt to investigate the lipid transfer activities of PDZD8 and the extent to which its cellular functions depend on its lipid transfer activities. In accordance with recent studies, we demonstrate that PDZD8 is a protrudin (ZFYVE27)-interacting protein and that PDZD8 acts as a tether at ER-LE/lys MCSs. Furthermore, we discover that the SMP domain of PDZD8 binds glycerophospholipids and ceramides both in vivo and in vitro, and that the SMP domain can transport lipids between membranes in vitro. Functionally, PDZD8 is required for LE/lys positioning and neurite outgrowth, which is dependent on the lipid transfer activity of the SMP domain.

7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 223, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brain image genetics provides enormous opportunities for examining the effects of genetic variations on the brain. Many studies have shown that the structure, function, and abnormality (e.g., those related to Alzheimer's disease) of the brain are heritable. However, which genetic variations contribute to these phenotypic changes is not completely clear. Advances in neuroimaging and genetics have led us to obtain detailed brain anatomy and genome-wide information. These data offer us new opportunities to identify genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect brain structure. In this paper, we perform a genome-wide variant-based study, and aim to identify top SNPs or SNP sets which have genetic effects with the largest neuroanotomic coverage at both voxel and region-of-interest (ROI) levels. Based on the voxelwise genome-wide association study (GWAS) results, we used the exhaustive search to find the top SNPs or SNP sets that have the largest voxel-based or ROI-based neuroanatomic coverage. For SNP sets with >2 SNPs, we proposed an efficient genetic algorithm to identify top SNP sets that can cover all ROIs or a specific ROI. RESULTS: We identified an ensemble of top SNPs, SNP-pairs and SNP-sets, whose effects have the largest neuroanatomic coverage. Experimental results on real imaging genetics data show that the proposed genetic algorithm is superior to the exhaustive search in terms of computational time for identifying top SNP-sets. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed and applied an informatics strategy to identify top SNPs, SNP-pairs and SNP-sets that have genetic effects with the largest neuroanatomic coverage. The proposed genetic algorithm offers an efficient solution to accomplish the task, especially for identifying top SNP-sets.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Genome , Humans , Neuroimaging , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 91, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 emergency, IRST IRCCS, an Italian cancer research institute and promoter of no profit clinical studies, adapted its activities and procedures as per European and national guidelines to maintain a high standard of clinical trials, uphold participant safety and guarantee the robustness and reliability of the data collected. This study presents the measures adopted by our institute with the aim of providing information that could be useful to other academic centers promoting clinical trials during the pandemic. MAIN TEXT: After an in-depth analysis of European and Italian guidelines and consultation and analysis of publications regarding the actions implemented by international no profit clinical trial promoters during the emergency, we monitored the way in which the institute managed clinical trials, verifying compliance with regulatory guidelines and clinical procedures, and evaluating screening and recruitment trends in studies. During the pandemic, our center activated a new clinical trial for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. A number of procedural changes in clinical trials were also authorized through notified amendments, in accordance with Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) guidelines. Patient screening and enrolment was not interrupted in any site participating in multicenter interventional clinical trials on drugs. The institute provided clear indications about essential procedures to be followed, identifying those that could be postponed or carried out by telephone/teleconference. All external sites were monitored remotely, avoiding on-site visits. Although home-working was encouraged, the presence of staff in the central office was also guaranteed to ensure the continuity of promoter activities. CONCLUSIONS: Some measures adopted by IRST could also be effective outside of the COVID-19 period, e.g. numerous activities relating to clinical trial management could be performed on a home-working basis, using suitable digital technologies. In the future, electronic medical records and shared guidelines will be essential for the correct identification and management of trial risks, including the protection of the rights and privacy of subjects taking part. Promoter supervision could be increased by implementing centralized monitoring tools to guarantee data quality. Closer collaboration between promoters and local study staff is needed to optimize trial management.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 829, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the increasing spread of COVID-19, healthcare workers, especially front-line medical staff, have become more vulnerable to emotional exhaustion. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the influence of time pressure on the emotional exhaustion of front-line healthcare workers, and explore the effects of social sharing and cognitive reappraisal on this. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020. A total of 232 questionnaires were completed by front-line healthcare workers in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Hierarchical linear regression and conditional process analysis were performed to explore the relationships among time pressure, social sharing, cognitive reappraisal, and emotional exhaustion. RESULTS: Time pressure was positively associated with social sharing and emotional exhaustion. Social sharing presented the dark side, a negative effect that was always kept concealed, in terms of the impact on emotional exhaustion. Cognitive reappraisal negatively moderated the relationship between time pressure and social sharing, and it further indirectly influenced the relationship between time pressure and emotional exhaustion through social sharing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed light on how time pressure influences the emotional exhaustion of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 period. Although social sharing is commonly regarded as a positive behavior, we identified a dark side in terms of its impact. We also identified that improving cognitive reappraisal may present a positive strategy toward alleviating emotional exhaustion.

10.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 84, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major public health issue, with the primary preventive measure being an annual influenza vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination coverage among the at-risk population is low. Our understanding of the behaviour of the influenza virus during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic is limited, meaning influenza vaccination is still recommended for individuals at risk for severe complications due to influenza infection. The aim of the study is to determine the intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza among the at-risk population in the 2020-21 campaign during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to analyse the factors which influence such intention. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (aged over 18) with risk factors in central Catalonia where the need for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (SIV) was recommended. RESULTS: A total of 434 participants responded to the survey, 43.3% of whom intended to be vaccinated against influenza for the 2020-2021 influenza season, 40.8% had no intention to be vaccinated and 15.9% were uncertain or did not express their opinion. The intention to get vaccinated against influenza is associated with having dependents, the individual's perception of the risk of being infected with influenza and the perceived risk of transmission to dependents. It is also associated with age, whether the individual had received influenza vaccine the previous season or any other season before. The best predictors of the intention to vaccinate are the individual's perception of the risk of catching influenza and whether the individual had been vaccinated in the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: Intention to vaccinate can be a good predictor of individual behaviour in relation to vaccination. During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic many individuals are hesitant to influenza vaccination. In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage in people included in risk groups, it is necessary to promote educational actions, especially among those who express doubts.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 833, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has seriously affected the lives of millions of people across the world. It has also heavily burdened healthcare professionals and the virus poses serious risks for their personal and professional lives. Therefore, the present study examined the associations between fear of COVID-19 and workplace phobia among doctors in Pakistan during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among 421 doctors in Pakistan between April 10 and May 25, 2020. The Workplace Phobia Scale (WPS) and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) were the main psychometric instruments used in this study. RESULTS: There was a significant positive relationship between fear of COVID-19 and workplace panic anxiety and workplace avoidance behavior. Significantly higher fear of COVID-19 was found among (i) females compared to males, (ii) doctors with 5 years or less of work experience compared to those with more than 5 years, and (iii) postgraduate trainees compared with other ranks. Two groups (doctors who were above 30 years old and postgraduate trainees) were found to have higher levels of workplace phobia compared to their counterparts. Doctors with severe levels of fear of COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of workplace panic anxiety and workplace avoidance behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with workplace phobia which may negatively affect doctors' performance. Therefore, important steps are needed to protect doctors' health by providing sufficient resources to allay their fears and anxieties which consequently help them in carrying out their frontline duties in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 832, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The word 'pandemic' conjures dystopian images of bodies stacked in the streets and societies on the brink of collapse. Despite this frightening picture, denialism and noncompliance with public health measures are common in the historical record, for example during the 1918 Influenza pandemic or the 2015 Ebola epidemic. The unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-its high basic reproduction number (R0), time-limited natural immunity and considerable potential for asymptomatic spread-exacerbate the public health repercussions of noncompliance with interventions (such as vaccines and masks) to limit disease transmission. Our work explores the rationality and impact of noncompliance with measures aimed at limiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this work, we used game theory to explore when noncompliance confers a perceived benefit to individuals. We then used epidemiological modeling to predict the impact of noncompliance on control of SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating that the presence of a noncompliant subpopulation prevents suppression of disease spread. RESULTS: Our modeling demonstrates that noncompliance is a Nash equilibrium under a broad set of conditions and that the existence of a noncompliant population can result in extensive endemic disease in the long-term after a return to pre-pandemic social and economic activity. Endemic disease poses a threat for both compliant and noncompliant individuals; all community members are protected if complete suppression is achieved, which is only possible with a high degree of compliance. For interventions that are highly effective at preventing disease spread, however, the consequences of noncompliance are borne disproportionately by noncompliant individuals. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, our work demonstrates the limits of free-market approaches to compliance with disease control measures during a pandemic. The act of noncompliance with disease intervention measures creates a negative externality, rendering suppression of SARS-CoV-2 spread ineffective. Our work underscores the importance of developing effective strategies for prophylaxis through public health measures aimed at complete suppression and the need to focus on compliance at a population level.

14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 222, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of growing concerns about seafarers' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of psychosocial distress among seafarers of ocean-going vessels during the current health emergency. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 470 multinational seafarers working on two oil tanker international shipping companies. Psychosocial distress was assessed by using Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS-21). General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were used to assessed genral psychiatry disorders and self-rate anxiety. Perceived health status was assessed by a single-item question. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between demographic and work-related variables with mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 439 out of 470 invited seafarers with a mean age of 34.5 (SD: 8.05) participated in this study (participation rate: 93.4%). The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of depression, anxiety, stress, self-rated anxiety, general psychiatric disorders, and poor perceived health status was 12.3% (9.4-15.7), 11.6% (8.7-15.0), 5.9% (3.9-8.5), 2.1% (0.9-3.8), 42.6% (38.0-47.4), and 4.3% (2.6-6.6), respectively. In the multivariate model, by increasing the duration of stay (per month) on board, the odds of depression increased by 20% (OR: 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02-1.40)). Also, non-officer seafarers experienced significantly lower psychosocial distress such as anxiety and stress levels than officers. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of depression, anxiety, and general psychiatric disorders among seafarers during COVID-19 was observed. Our findings also highlight the factors that need to be considered to protect seafarers' mental well-being. Further studies to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on psychological health issues at sea are recommended.

15.
Virol J ; 18(1): 92, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931090

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought more widespread attention to the basic reproductive number (Ro), an epidemiologic measurement. A lesser-known measure of virologic infectivity is the particle-to-plaque ratio (P:PFU). We suggest that comparison between the two parameters may assist in better understanding viral transmission dynamics.

17.
Virol J ; 18(1): 90, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to exist in the Middle East sporadically. Thorough investigations of the evolution of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are urgently required. In the current study, we studied amplified fragments of ORF1a/b, Spike (S) gene, ORF3/4a, and ORF4b of four human MERS-CoV strains for tracking the evolution of MERS-CoV over time. METHODS: RNA isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirate, sputum, and tracheal swabs/aspirates from hospitalized patients with suspected MERS-CoV infection were analyzed for amplification of nine variable genomic fragments. Sequence comparisons were done using different bioinformatics tools available. RESULTS: Several mutations were identified in ORF1a/b, ORF3/4a and ORF4b, with the highest mutation rates in the S gene. Five codons; 4 in ORF1a and 1 in the S gene, were found to be under selective pressure. Characteristic amino acid changes, potentially hosted and year specific were defined across the S protein and in the receptor-binding domain Phylogenetic analysis using S gene sequence revealed clustering of MERS-CoV strains into three main clades, A, B and C with subdivision of with clade B into B1 to B4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, MERS-CoV appears to continuously evolve. It is recommended that the molecular and pathobiological characteristics of future MERS-CoV strains should be analyzed on regular basis to prevent potential future outbreaks at early phases.

18.
Virol J ; 18(1): 89, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relation to infections with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: From February 2017 to December 2019, 3660 respiratory samples submitted to Zhejiang Children Hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were tested for four human coronaviruses RNA by a novel two-tube multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Samples were also screened for the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Coronavirus RNAs were detected in 144 (3.93%) specimens: HCoV-HKU1 in 38 specimens, HCoV-NL63 in 62 specimens, HCoV-OC43 in 38 specimens and HCoV-229E in 8 specimens. Genomes for SARS-CoV-2 were absent in all specimens by RT-PCR analysis during the study period. The majority of HCoV infections occurred during fall months. No significant differences in gender, sample type, year were seen across species. 37.5 to 52.6% of coronaviruses detected were in specimens testing positive for other respiratory viruses. Phylogenic analysis identified that Zhejiang coronaviruses belong to multiple lineages of the coronaviruses circulating in other countries and areas. CONCLUSION: Common HCoVs may have annual peaks of circulation in fall months in the Zhejiang province, China. Genetic relatedness to the coronaviruses in other regions suggests further surveillance on human coronaviruses in clinical samples are clearly needed to understand their patterns of activity and role in the emergence of novel coronaviruses.

19.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 68, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main goal of this research was to explore whether migraineurs had a higher level of perceived stress than healthy controls during the times of the coronavirus and related restrictive measures, and to examine the relationship between different subtypes of rumination and perceived stress in these groups. We measured two facets of depressive rumination, brooding and reflection, along with rumination about the current COVID-19 situation to see whether these different subtypes of rumination explained perceived stress among migraineurs and healthy controls. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 64) and migraine patients (n = 73) filled out self-report questionnaires online. A multiple linear regression model was used to test whether depressive rumination (i.e. brooding and reflection) and COVID-related rumination explained perceived stress among adults with and without migraine during the times of COVID-19, after controlling for gender, age, migraine/control group status and migraine disability. RESULTS: Although we did not find any difference in the level of perceived stress among migraineurs and the control group, perceived stress was more strongly associated with brooding as well as COVID-related rumination among migraineurs than healthy controls. COVID-related rumination and brooding (but not reflection) explained the level of perceived stress after controlling for gender, age, migraine/control group status and migraine disability. CONCLUSIONS: The similar degree of perceived stress among migraineurs and the control group may imply that there is great variation in the personal experience of people regarding the pandemic, that may be determined by numerous other factors. Our results demonstrate that ruminating about the pandemic and related difficulties, as well as brooding (but not reflection) appear to be associated with higher level of perceived stress during the times of the coronavirus. This association was slightly stronger among migraineurs, hinting at the increased vulnerability of this patient group in stressful situations like the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results also suggest that ruminating about the pandemic and its consequences is weakly associated with trait-level depressive rumination, thus may be more contingent on specific factors.


Subject(s)
Migraine Disorders , Adult , Depression , Humans , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological
20.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(5): 627-634, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931222

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the bridging and dimensions of the sella turcica and calcification of the ponticulus posticus in subjects with different dental anomalies. METHODS: Pretreatment records of orthodontic patients with palatally impacted canines (n = 95), mandibular second premolar agenesis (n = 45), maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (n = 75), tooth transpositions (TT, n = 25), peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors (n = 30), and third molar agenesis (TMA, n = 145) were analyzed and compared with the control group (CG) consisting of 145 subjects with skeletal Class I malocclusion and no dental anomalies. The length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were calculated for each patient. The degree of sella turcica bridging was scored as type I, II, and III, whereas the extent of ponticulus posticus was classified as Class I, II, and III. RESULTS: Only decreases in the length and diameter of the sella turcica in subjects with TT were found to be statistically significant. Although type II bridging frequency was found to be significantly lower in subjects with mandibular second premolar agenesis, maxillary lateral incisor agenesis, TT, and TMA, type III bridging frequency was found to be significantly higher only in subjects with TMA. The decrease in Class I calcification frequencies and the increase in Class II calcification frequencies were found to be significant in subjects with palatally impacted canines, TT, and TMA compared with the CG. In addition, the presence of Class III calcification was found to be significantly more frequent in subjects with TMA than in the CG. CONCLUSIONS: Although type II and type III bridging frequencies were found to be higher than in previous studies because of the higher type II bridging frequency in the CG, type II bridging frequency was found to be insignificant. Furthermore, an increased frequency of ponticulus posticus calcification was observed in subjects with palatally impacted canines, TT, and TMA.


Subject(s)
Cervical Atlas , Tooth, Impacted , Bicuspid , Cephalometry , Humans , Sella Turcica/diagnostic imaging , Tooth, Impacted/diagnostic imaging
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