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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(4): e001954, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399255

RESUMEN

Introduction: Violence against women is a pressing global health problem that is being met with a new intervention strategy-mobile applications. With this systematic review, we provide an initial analysis and functional categorisation of apps addressing violence against women. Methods: We conducted a systematic online search conforming with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify apps addressing violence against women in five World Bank regions (Europe and Central Asia; North America, Latin America and the Caribbean; Middle East and North Africa; South Asia; and sub-Saharan Africa). Applications with location of initiation in mentioned regions and ≥100 downloads were included. Data on sector, target group(s), year of release, location of initiation and implementation were extracted. By means of a structured qualitative content analysis, applications were then categorised according to their main functions. Results: Of 327 relevant applications, 171 were included into the systematic review and assigned to one of five identified categories of main functions, respectively: emergency, avoidance, education, reporting and evidence building, and supporting apps. The largest proportion (46.78%) consisted of emergency apps, followed by education, reporting and evidence building, supporting and avoidance apps in descending order. With regards to the geographical distribution of app categories, significant (χ2(20)=58.172; p=0.000) differences among the included regions were found. Conclusion: A vast proportion of apps addressing violence against women primarily draw on one-time emergency or avoidance solutions, as opposed to more preventative approaches. Further research is necessary, critically considering questions of data security, personal safety and efficacy of such mobile health interventions.

2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-04-28.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52043

RESUMEN

El abuso sexual, que abarca la agresión sexual o la violación, de niños y adolescentes es un grave problema de salud pública en todo el mundo y una violación de los derechos humanos que tiene muchas consecuencias para la salud a corto y a largo plazo. Las consecuencias físicas, sexuales, para la salud reproductiva y la salud mental de ese abuso son de amplio alcance y deben abordarse. Los datos recabados en diferentes entornos indican que los niños y adolescentes están representados desproporcionadamente entre los casos de abuso sexual que se llevan a la atención de los prestadores de atención de salud. En esta directriz se formulan recomendaciones dirigidas en especial a los prestadores de atención de salud que se encuentran en la primera línea de acción (por ejemplo, médicos generales, enfermeras, pediatras, ginecólogos), que atienden a niños y adolescentes hasta la edad de 18 años, que han sufrido, o podrían haber sufrido algún tipo de abuso sexual, como la agresión sexual o la violación. También puede ser útil para otros cuadros de prestadores especializados de atención de salud que tienen probabilidad de atender a niños o adolescentes. En la directriz, aunque es de alcance mundial, se asigna particular importancia a su aplicación en entornos de atención de salud de los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, teniendo en cuenta que allí los recursos de atención de salud son más limitados. Por consiguiente, en la redacción se tuvo en cuenta la factibilidad de poner en práctica las recomendaciones en entornos de escasos recursos... La directriz se formuló según las normas y los requisitos especificados en el manual de la OMS para la elaboración de directrices, segunda edición. El proceso incluyó: a) la determinación de las preguntas de investigación fundamentales y sus resultados; b) la recuperación de la evidencia, lo que incluyó la ejecución de revisiones sistemáticas; c) la síntesis de la evidencia; d) la evaluación de la calidad, efectuada por un Grupo de Elaboración de las Directrices (GED); y e) la formulación de recomendaciones con el GED y aportes de un Grupo de Revisión Externa. No se detectaron conflictos de intereses importantes para el GED ni el Grupo de Revisión Externa. El documento también comprende principios generales que sustentan la práctica clínica y que se derivan de normas internacionales éticas y de derechos humanos. Incluye enunciados de prácticas adecuadas que se basan tanto en los principios orientadores como en los valores y las preferencias de las personas sobrevivientes, sus cuidadores y los prestadores de atención de salud. Las recomendaciones se fundamentan en las recomendaciones vigentes de la OMS, así como en el nuevo contenido elaborado como parte de este proceso de formulación de directrices. A continuación, se resumen los principios orientadores, las recomendaciones y los enunciados de las prácticas adecuadas.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Violencia de Género , Exposición a la Violencia , Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos , Derechos Humanos , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud del Adolescente , Servicios de Salud del Niño
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024080

RESUMEN

This study aimed to systematically review studies that examined the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV) that included intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-IPV among women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This evidence is an important aspect to work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) target of eliminating all forms of violence in SSA. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Ovid Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science were used to source articles with stringent eligibility criteria. Studies on GBV in SSA countries that were published in English from 2008 to 2019 were included. A random effect meta-analysis was used. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of IPV among women was 44%, the past year-pooled prevalence of IPV was 35.5% and non-IPV pooled prevalence was 14%. The highest prevalence rates of IPV that were reported included emotional (29.40%), physical (25.87%) and sexual (18.75%) violence. The sub-regional analysis found that women residing in Western (30%) and Eastern (25%) African regions experienced higher levels of emotional violence. Integrated mitigation measures to reduce GBV in SSA should focus mainly on IPV in order to achieve the SDG's that will lead to sustainable changes in women's health.

4.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930358

RESUMEN

Importance: Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youths. Objective: To test an athletic coach-delivered relationship abuse and sexual violence prevention program among middle-school male athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants: An unblinded cluster randomized clinical trial from spring 2015 to fall 2017 at 41 middle schools (38 clusters). The study included 973 male middle school athletes (ages 11-14 years; grades 6-8; participation rate 50%) followed up for 1 year (retention 86%). Interventions: Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is a prevention program that trains athletic coaches to talk to male athletes about (1) respectful relationship behaviors, (2) promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and (3) positive bystander intervention when harmful behaviors among peers are witnessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in positive bystander behaviors (ie, intervening in peers' disrespectful or harmful behaviors); secondary outcomes were changes in recognition of what constitutes abusive behavior, intentions to intervene, gender-equitable attitudes, and reduction in recent ARA/SV perpetration (at end of sports season and 1-year follow up). Results: Of the 973 participants, 530 were white (54.5%), 282 were black (29.0%), 14 were Hispanic (1.4%), and the remainder were multiracial, other race/ethnicity, or not reported. Positive bystander behaviors increased at end of sports season and at 1-year follow-up (relative risk, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06-2.16 and 1.53; 95% CI, 1.10-2.12, respectively) as did recognition of abuse (mean risk difference, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.01-0.27 and 0.14; 95% CI, 0.00-0.28, respectively). At 1-year follow-up, among those who ever dated, athletes on teams receiving CBIM had lower odds of reporting recent ARA/SV perpetration (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.65). Gender attitudes and intentions to intervene did not differ between study arms. In exploratory intensity-adjusted and per protocol analyses, athletes on teams receiving CBIM were more likely to report positive bystander behaviors and to endorse equitable gender attitudes and less likely to report ARA and sexual harassment perpetration 1 year later. Conclusions and Relevance: An athletic coach-delivered program for middle school male athletes is an effective strategy for reducing relationship abuse among younger adolescents. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02331238.

5.
Glob Public Health ; 15(5): 734-748, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971878

RESUMEN

Urban environments marked by violence create fear that can have real impacts on the urban poor, particularly women and girls. Any efforts to tackle poverty and promote health must address the impacts to their access to livelihoods and education, healthcare, markets, and social support that underlie wellbeing. This study aimed to elucidate specific impacts that violence and fear have on the very poor in rapidly growing cities and the coping strategies employed. This multi-country qualitative study was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Participants in all three cities employed similar tactics to avoid violence. People adjusted how, when, and where they travel and how they interact with people who threaten them. These coping strategies led participants to spend more money on goods and to restrict access to livelihood opportunities, education, healthcare, and social activities. Women are impacted more than men in all spheres and city specific differences are highlighted. Residents of urban slums, particularly women, in these three cities cope with urban violence in many ways, suffering consequences in a range of categories - leading to significant impacts to their own health and well-being and their families.

6.
Violence Against Women ; : 1077801219895331, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948380

RESUMEN

This study examines the link between the loss of men's status as breadwinners and their use of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Kirumba (Mwanza city, Tanzania), mediated by the entry of women into the cash work force. Using qualitative data from 20 in-depth interviews and eight focus groups with men (n = 58) and women (n = 58), this article explores how the existing gender-related social norm linked to male breadwinning was threatened when women were forced to enter into paid work (linked to the family's impoverishment), and how these changes eventually increased partner violence. The study draws implications for IPV reduction strategies in patriarchal contexts experiencing declining economic opportunities for men.

7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519898445, 2020 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984827

RESUMEN

Huge efforts have been made to make society aware of the concerns of violence against women (VAW). Hiding this phenomenon creates obstacles to quantify and clearly understand related aspects as well as leads to barriers to undertake actions for the reduction or elimination of VAW. The aim of this study is to estimate costs associated with VAW and produce data that will help in the design of strategies for the reduction or elimination of VAW. The economic cost of VAW was calculated for the cities of Maputo, Matola, Beira, and Nampula, for a time horizon of 4 years (2005-2008). Calculation of economic costs of VAW considered costs for health care, judicial costs, the assistance provided by the justice services, and support from civil society organizations offering services to women subjected to violence. The economic cost of VAW in Maputo, Matola, Beira, and Nampula, for a time horizon of 4 years (2005-2008), was US$1,473,828.7, with the health sector absorbing about 81% of the amount, justice 17%, and organizations working in the area of prevention with 2%. Although calculated costs represent an estimate, it is clear that VAW consumes a significant amount of the state budget. Estimated value is much higher than the budget allocated to the National Action Plan for Prevention and Combat of Violence Against Women. The improvement of collection of statistical data may lead to producing more robust estimates and have more absolute and comparable data.

8.
J Sex Res ; : 1-20, 2020 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902238

RESUMEN

Gender-based violence (GBV) against women and girls is pervasive and has negative consequences for sexual and reproductive health (SRH). In this systematic review of reviews, we aimed to synthesize research about the SRH outcomes of GBV for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). GBV exposures were child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting, child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner sexual violence. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus searches were supplemented with expert consultations, reference-list searches, and targeted organizational website searches. Reviews had to contain samples of girls and young women ages 10-24, although inclusion criteria were expanded post-hoc to capture adolescent-adult combined samples. Twenty-seven reviews were quality-rated. Study-level data were extracted from the 10 highest quality reviews (62 unique studies, 100 samples). Reviews were mostly from Africa and Asia and published between 2011 and 2015. We found consistent associations between GBV and number of sexual partners, gynecological conditions (e.g., sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), unwanted/unplanned pregnancy, and abortion. Some types of IPV also were associated with greater use of contraception/STI prevention. Addressing GBV is essential to improve SRH for girls and women in LMICs.

9.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-18, jan.-abr. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090461

RESUMEN

A violência entre parceiros íntimos é considerada pelos órgãos governamentais como uma das maiores causas de alterações do estado de saúde das mulheres. O presente trabalho investigou por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura as consequências da violência doméstica entre parceiros íntimos para a saúde da mulher. Foram selecionados artigos das seguintes bases de dados: PubMed, PsycInfo, Redalyc, SciELO, Pepsic e Bireme. Os trabalhos foram divididos em duas planilhas, uma para Violência Doméstica e outra para Violência entre Parceiros Íntimos. Após, aplicados os critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram incluídos 13 produtos da tabela de VD e sete da tabela de VPI, totalizando uma amostra de 20 artigos para análise. Os resultados sugerem que existe uma significativa relação entre violência entre parceiros íntimos e agravos à saúde da mulher, especialmente à saúde mental. A partir deste estudo, considera-se imprescindível que intervenções que visem minimizar os agravos sejam desenvolvidas.


Violence among intimate partners is considered by government agencies as one of the major causes of changes in the health status of women. Through a systematic review of the literature, the present work investigated the consequences of domestic violence among intimate partners for women's health. Articles from the following databases were selected: PubMed, PsycInfo, Redalyc, SciELO, Pepsic and Bireme. The papers were divided into two spreadsheets, one for Domestic Violence and another for Violence between Intimate Partners. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 products of the DV table and 7 of the IPV table were included, totaling a sample of 20 articles for analysis. The results suggest that there is a significant relationship between intimate partner violence and women's health, especially mental health. From this study, it is considered essential that interventions aimed at minimizing these diseases be carried out.


Asunto(s)
Salud de la Mujer , Violencia de Pareja , Psicología Social , Salud Mental , Violencia Doméstica
10.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047809

RESUMEN

Objetivo: caracterizar a produção científica acerca da violência contra mulher e suas repercussões sociais, em periódicos online no âmbito da saúde, publicados no período de 2011 a 2016. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada através das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Bases de Dados de Enfermagem (BDENF). Resultados: a análise dos 15 artigos evidenciou a caracterização da violência, a atuação e percepção dos profissionais de saúde acerca da violência e do aborto legal, destacando a relevância de estudar a violência e suas repercussões sociais, com o objetivo de proporcionar uma melhor assistência. Conclusão: conclui-se que fortalecer às políticas de erradicação da violência contra a mulher, oferecer uma rede de apoio multiprofissional eficiente e a intensificar as políticas de conscientização são imprescindíveis a nossa sociedade


Objective: to characterize the scientific production about violence against women and its social repercussions in online health journals published in the period from 2011 to 2016. Method: this is an integrative review of the literature, carried out through databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (MEDLINE), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Nursing Databases (BDENF). Results: the analysis of the 15 articles showed the characterization of violence, the performance and perception of health professionals about violence and legal abortion, highlighting the relevance of studying violence and its social repercussions, in order to provide better care. Conclusion: it is concluded that strengthening policies to eradicate violence against women, providing an efficient multiprofessional support network, and intensifying awareness-raising policies are essential to our society


Objetivo: caracterizar la producción científica acerca de la violencia contra la mujer y sus repercusiones sociales, en periódicos online en el ámbito de la salud, publicados en el período de 2011 a 2016. Método: se trata de una revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada a través de las bases de datos (MEDLINE), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS), Bases de Datos de Enfermería (BDENF). Resultados: el análisis de los 15 artículos evidenció la caracterización de la violencia, la actuación y percepción de los profesionales de salud acerca de la violencia y del aborto legal, destacando la relevancia de estudiar la violencia y sus repercusiones sociales, con el objetivo de proporcionar una mejor asistencia. Conclusión: se concluye que fortalecer a las políticas de erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer, ofrecer una red de apoyo multiprofesional eficiente intensificar las políticas de concientización son imprescindibles para nuestra sociedad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Delitos Sexuales , Sistema Único de Salud , Violencia Doméstica , Violencia contra la Mujer , Salud Pública , Aborto Legal , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Promoción de la Salud
11.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519885118, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702407

RESUMEN

Violence against women and girls (VAWG) has important social, economic, and public health impacts. Governments and international donors are increasing their investment in VAWG prevention programs, yet clear guidelines to assess the "value for money" of these interventions are lacking. Improved costing and economic evaluation of VAWG prevention can support programming through supporting priority setting, justifying investment, and planning the financing of VAWG prevention services. This article sets out a standardized methodology for the economic evaluation of complex, that is, multicomponent and/or multiplatform, programs designed to prevent VAWG in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It outlines an approach that can be used alongside the most recent guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions in LMICs. It defines standardized methods of data collection and analysis, outcomes, and unit costs (i.e., average costs per person reached, output or service delivered), and provides guidance to investigate the uncertainty in cost-effectiveness estimates and report results. The costing approach has been developed and piloted as part of the "What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls?" (What Works?) program in five countries. This article and its supplementary material can be used by both economists and non-economists to contribute to the generation of new cost-effectiveness data on VAWG prevention, and ultimately improve the allocative efficiency and financing across VAWG programs.

12.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 29, 2019 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against women has particular importance for women's health and wellbeing in the Arab world, where women face persistent barriers to social, political and economic equality. This review aims to summarize what is known about the prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in the 22 countries of the Arab League, including geographic coverage, quality and comparability of the evidence. METHODS: A systematic review of IPV prevalence in Arab countries was carried out among peer-reviewed journal articles and national, population-based survey reports published by international research programmes and/or governments. Following PRISMA guidelines, Medline and the Social Sciences Citation Index were searched with Medical Subject Headings terms and key words related to IPV and the names of Arab countries. Eligible sources were published between January 2000 and January 2016, in any language. United Nations databases and similar sources were searched for national surveys. Study characteristics, operational definitions and prevalence data were extracted into a database using Open Data Kit Software. Risk of bias was assessed with a structured checklist. RESULTS: The search identified 74 records with population or facility-based IPV prevalence data from eleven Arab countries, based on 56 individual datasets. These included 46 separate survey datasets from peer-reviewed journals and 11 national surveys published by international research programmes and/or governments. Seven countries had national, population-based IPV estimates. Reported IPV prevalence (ever) ranged from 6% to more than half (59%) (physical); from 3 to 40% (sexual); and from 5 to 91% (emotional/ psychological). Methods and operational definitions of violence varied widely, especially for emotional/psychological IPV, limiting comparability. CONCLUSIONS: IPV against women in Arab countries represents a public health and human rights problem, with substantial levels of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological IPV documented in many settings. The evidence base is fragmented, however, suggesting a need for more comparable, high quality research on IPV in the region and greater adherence to international scientific and ethical guidelines. There is a particular need for national, population-based data to inform prevention and responses to violence against women, and to help Arab countries monitor progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals.

13.
AIDS ; 33(14): 2219-2236, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373916

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE(S): This study explored the effectiveness of gender-based violence (GBV) interventions on young people living with or affected by HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We pre-registered a protocol, then searched 13 databases and grey literature. We screened randomized and quasi-experimental studies (n = 2199) of young people (aged 10-24) living with or affected by HIV in LMICs. Outcomes were GBV and/or GBV-related attitudes. We appraised the data for risk of bias and quality of evidence. Narrative syntheses and multilevel random effects meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: We included 18 studies evaluating 21 interventions. Intervention arms were categorized as: sexual health and social empowerment (SHSE; n = 7); SHSE combined with economic strengthening (n = 4); self-defence (n = 3); safer schools (n = 2); economic strengthening only (n = 2); GBV sensitization (n = 2) and safer schools and parenting (n = 1). Risk of bias was moderate/high and quality of evidence low. Narrative syntheses indicated promising effects on GBV exposure, but no or mixed effects on GBV perpetration and attitudes for self-defence and GBV sensitization interventions. Safer school interventions showed no effects. For SHSE interventions and SHSE combined with economic strengthening, meta-analyses showed a small reduction in GBV exposure but not perpetration. Economic-only interventions had no overall effect. CONCLUSION: SHSE, SHSE plus and self-defence and gender sensitization interventions may be effective for GBV exposure and GBV-related attitudes but not for GBV perpetration. However, the quality of evidence is poor. Future intervention research must include both boys and girls, adolescents living with HIV and key populations.

14.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427462

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Compared with cisgender (nontransgender), heterosexual youth, sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) experience great inequities in substance use, mental health problems, and violence victimization, thereby making them a priority population for interventions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review interventions and their effectiveness in preventing or reducing substance use, mental health problems, and violence victimization among SGMY. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Education Resources Information Center. STUDY SELECTION: Selected studies were published from January 2000 to 2019, included randomized and nonrandomized designs with pretest and posttest data, and assessed substance use, mental health problems, or violence victimization outcomes among SGMY. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extracted were intervention descriptions, sample details, measurements, results, and methodologic rigor. RESULTS: With this review, we identified 9 interventions for mental health, 2 for substance use, and 1 for violence victimization. One SGMY-inclusive intervention examined coordinated mental health services. Five sexual minority-specific interventions included multiple state-level policy interventions, a therapist-administered family-based intervention, a computer-based intervention, and an online intervention. Three gender minority-specific interventions included transition-related gender-affirming care interventions. All interventions improved mental health outcomes, 2 reduced substance use, and 1 reduced bullying victimization. One study had strong methodologic quality, but the remaining studies' results must be interpreted cautiously because of suboptimal methodologic quality. LIMITATIONS: There exists a small collection of diverse interventions for reducing substance use, mental health problems, and violence victimization among SGMY. CONCLUSIONS: The dearth of interventions identified in this review is likely insufficient to mitigate the substantial inequities in substance use, mental health problems, and violence among SGMY.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Violencia/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Violencia/psicología
15.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220919, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442243

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure the prevalence and associated factors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) among women living with and without HIV in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study design was used to interview the 816 women between 18-49 years of age (408 = HIV positive, 408 = HIV negative). Using a multistage sampling technique, participants were recruited from nine health facilities based on probability proportional to the number of clients. After data entry (EpiData version 4.4.2.0) the data were exported to STATA/SE 15 software. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were undertaken and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) are presented. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of IPV among all women was 59.7%, [95% CI: 56.31%-63.05%]. IPV was slightly higher among women living with HIV, 250(61.3%), than those who were HIV negative, 238(58.1%). Lifetime prevalence of emotional violence 413(50.6%), physical violence 349(42.8%), sexual violence 219(26.8%), and controlling behaviours by husbands/partners 489(59.9%) were reported. Associations were found between IPV and controlling behaviour of husband/partner [AOR = 8.13; 95% CI: 4.93-13.42],income [AOR = 3.97; 95% CI:1.81-8.72], bride price payment [AOR = 3.46; 95% CI:1.74-6.87], women's decision to refuse sex [AOR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.39-6.41],age group of women [AOR = 2.86; 95% CI:1.67-4.90], partner's family choosing wife [AOR = 2.83; 95% CI:1.70-4.69], alcohol consumption by partner [AOR = 2.36;95% CI:1.36-4.10], number of sexual partners [AOR = 2.35; 95% CI:1.36-4.09], and if partner ever physically fought with another man [AOR = 1.83; 95% CI:1.05-3.19]. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of IPV against women both living with and without HIV. Policy priorities should therefore involve males in programs of gender-based violence prevention in order to change their violent behaviour, and interventions are required to improve the economic status of women. Both sexes should be advised to have a single partner and marriage arrangements should be by mutual consent rather than being made by parents.

16.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 93, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One in three women experience intimate partner violence worldwide, according to many primary studies. However, systematic review and meta-analysis of intimate partner violence is very limited. Therefore, we set to summarize the findings of existing primary studies to generate evidence for informed decisions to tackle domestic violence against women in low and lower-middle income countries. METHODS: Studies were searched from main databases (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PopLine and Web of Science), Google scholar and other relevant sources using electronic and manual techniques. Published and unpublished studies written in English and conducted among women aged (15-49 years) from 1994 to 2017 were eligible. Data were extracted independently by two authors, and recorded in Microsoft Excel sheet. Heterogeneity between included studies was assessed using I2, and publication bias was explored using visual inspection of funnel plot. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the pooled prevalence using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. In addition, sub-group analysis was carried out by study-setting and types of intimate partner violence. RESULTS: Fifty two studies were included in the systematic review. Of these, 33 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 55% (95% CI: 52, 59%). Of these, main categories were lifetime physical violence [39% (95% CI: 33, 45%); psychological violence [45% (95% CI: 40, 52%)] and sexual violence [20% (95% CI: 17, 23%)]. Furthermore, the pooled prevalence of current intimate partner violence was 38% (95% CI: 34, 43%). Of these, physical violence [25% (95% CI: 21, 28%)]; psychological violence [30% (95% CI: 24, 36%)] and sexual violence [7.0% (95% CI: 6.6, 7.5%)] were the pooled prevalence for the major types of intimate partner violence. In addition, concurrent intimate partner violence was 13% (95% CI: 12, 15%). Individual, relationship, community and societal level factors were associated with intimate partner violence. Traditional community gender-norm transformation, stakeholders' engagement, women's empowerment, intervention integration and policy/legal framework were highly recommended interventions to prevent intimate partner violence. CONCLUSION: Lifetime and current intimate partner violence is common and unacceptably high. Therefore, concerned bodies will need to design and implement strategies to transform traditional gender norms, engage stakeholders, empower women and integrate service to prevent violence against women. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42017079977 .


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Femenino , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e34, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093258

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify the critical pathway taken by women facing domestic violence in the world in their search for help. Method: An integrative review was performed. LILACS, MEDLINE/ PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched until year 2017. The following were inclusion criteria: full text available online, Portuguese, Spanish, or English as language of publication, focus on the theme of interest, and answering the guiding question (Which critical path is taken by women facing domestic violence?). Results: Thirty-eight articles published from 2001 to 2017 were included. Factors driving the search for help included economic empowerment and increased schooling, severity of the violence, and presence of structured and qualified support services. Factors inhibiting the search for help were immigrant status, cultural gender norms, feelings of guilt, fear, and shame, lack of confidence and little knowledge and/or limited availability of formal support services. Children as well as family and community support may function as both inhibitors or drivers of the search for help. The types of formal help most often sought are police and health care services, whereas family, community, and religious leadership provide informal support. Conclusion: The critical pathway of women facing domestic violence in the world includes both formal and informal elements. Therefore, it is necessary to address sociocultural, community, and family issues so as to encourage women to break free from the violent environment and seek qualified formal support networks.

19.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 1524838019843198, 2019 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122182

RESUMEN

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a global public health issue which disproportionately affects women. Health-care providers have an important role in recognizing and addressing GBV in practice, yet research suggests that the issue remains underrecognized, with many qualified professionals reporting lack of confidence and a sense of unpreparedness. Prequalifying GBV educational strategies are inconsistent in both quantity and quality worldwide, and to date, there has been no comprehensive review of those programs' effectiveness. This internationally focused literature review aimed to identify best educational practices in GBV for prequalifying health-care students. A systematic search of six databases yielded 17 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, with all studies examining one or more educational intervention. Quality appraisal was undertaken and data were tabulated to capture relevant information. Thematic findings suggest that interactive educational strategies yield better results than didactic approaches. Similarly, interventions with a focus on practical application of learning are generally preferred over strictly theoretical approaches. Courses of longer duration seem to be more effective in instilling attitudinal changes. Lastly, gendered differences were noted in a number of studies, with female students consistently outperforming males. However, more research is needed before conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of single- versus mixed-gender audiences. This review makes a useful contribution to the literature of health education, supporting many findings from previous studies and identifying knowledge gaps to be explored in future research. There are implications for both educators and practitioners in creating discernible change for women in their care.

20.
Nurse Educ Today ; 77: 71-76, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health-care professionals, and nurses especially among them, play an essential role in the health sector's response to gender-based violence. To be able to successfully address this major public health issue they need specific training in the topic. OBJECTIVE: To analyse training on gender-based violence that nursing students receive at universities in Spain. DESIGN: Mixed-methods approach. SETTING: Spain. METHODS: Systematic review of public documents followed by in-depth interviews with university lecturers. RESULTS: Eighty per cent (92/115) of nursing training programmes included content regarding gender-based violence. There was great variability in the topics included in the training. Health consequences due to gender-based violence exposure and the role of the health sector in addressing these health consequences were the most frequently included topics. Ethical issues and legislation were the least frequent ones, as these were only dealt with in one and 18 training programmes, respectively. In the qualitative analysis of the interviews, two categories were identified: 'Supportive legislation and supportive lecturers are essential for integrating gender-based violence training' and 'Approach to gender-based violence shapes the contents and the subject in which it is incorporated'. The first category refers to the main drivers for training integration, while the second category refers to how lecturers' perceptions influenced the way in which training was implemented. CONCLUSIONS: As many as 80% of the nursing education programmes included specific training in gender-based violence, although with great variability in the contents among the universities. For this study's participants, enacted legislation, and lecturers interested in the topic and in decision-making positions were key drivers for this extensive implementation. The variability observed across universities might be explained by lecturers' different approaches to gender-based violence and the nursing profession.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería/normas , Violencia de Género/tendencias , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum/normas , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa , España
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