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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(3): e002173, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337083

RESUMEN

Introduction: Undernutrition rates remain high in rural, low-income settings, where large, gender-based inequities persist. We hypothesised that increasing gender equity in agriculture could improve nutrition. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to assess the associations between gender-based inequities (in income, land, livestock, and workloads) and nutrition, diets and food security outcomes in agricultural contexts of low-income and middle-income countries. Between 9 March and 7 August 2018, we searched 18 databases and 14 journals, and contacted 27 experts. We included quantitative and qualitative literature from agricultural contexts in low-income and middle-income countries, with no date restriction. Outcomes were women's and children's anthropometric status, dietary quality and household food security. We conducted meta-analyses using random-effects models. Results: We identified 19 820 records, of which 34 studies (42 809 households) met the inclusion criteria. Most (22/25) quantitative studies had a high risk of bias, and qualitative evidence was of mixed quality. Income, land and livestock equity had heterogeneous associations with household food security and child anthropometric outcomes. Meta-analyses showed women's share of household income earned (0.32, 95% CI -4.22 to 4.86; six results) and women's share of land owned (2.72, 95% CI -0.52 to 5.96; three results) did not increase the percentage of household budget spent on food. Higher-quality studies showed more consistently positive associations between income equity and food security. Evidence is limited on other exposure-outcome pairings. Conclusions: We find heterogeneous associations between gender equity and household-level food security. High-quality research is needed to establish the impact of gender equity on nutrition outcomes across contexts. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018093987.

2.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 26, 2020 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gender inequality within academic medicine and dentistry is a well-recognised issue, but one which is not completely understood in terms of its causes, or interventions to facilitate equality. This systematic review aims to identify, critically appraise, and synthesise the literature on facilitators and barriers to progression through a clinical academic career across medicine and dentistry. It will also explore interventions developed to increase recruitment and retention to clinical academic careers, with a particular focus on gender inequality. METHODS: The search will cover five databases (MEDLINE (including MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and MEDLINE Daily), Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, and Education Resource Information Center (ERIC)), reference lists, and forward citation searching. We will include studies of doctors, dentists, and/or those with a supervisory role over their careers, with or without an academic career. Outcomes will be study defined, but relate to success rates of joining or continuing within a clinical academic career, including but not limited to success in gaining funding support, proportion of time spent in academic work, and numbers of awards/higher education qualifications, as well as experiences of professionals within the clinical academic pathway. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised controlled trials, the Newcastle-Ottawa tool for non-randomised studies, and the QARI tool for qualitative studies. Detailed plans for screening, data extraction, and analysis are provided within this protocol. DISCUSSION: This systematic review is situated within a larger project evaluating gender inequalities in clinical academic careers. This review will identify and synthetize barriers, facilitators, and interventions addressing gender inequalities in clinical academia. Our findings will increase awareness of inequalities in clinical academic careers through informing clinical academics, regulators and funders of the issues involved, and potential interventions to counteract these. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/mfy7a.

3.
Health Promot Int ; 35(1): 27-41, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916577

RESUMEN

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e225-e236, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879212

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and the shifting global burden of disease, this systematic review analyses the evidence from rigorously evaluated programmes that seek to transform the gendered social norms undermining the health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and young adults. The aim of this study was threefold: to describe the landscape of gender-transformative programmes that attempt to influence health-related outcomes; to identify mechanisms through which successful programmes work; and to highlight where gaps might exist in implementation and evaluation. METHODS: We systematically reviewed rigorous evaluations published between Jan 1, 2000, and Nov 1, 2018 of programmes that sought to decrease gender inequalities and transform restrictive gender norms to improve the health and wellbeing of 0-24 year olds. We included rigorously evaluated health programmes that met the Interagency Gender Working Group definition of gender-transformative programming, regardless of where in the world they were implemented and what area of health they focused on. FINDINGS: Among 22 993 articles identified by our search, 61 evaluations of 59 programmes met review criteria. Programmes were concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (25 [42%]), south Asia (13 [22%]), and North America (13 [22%]) and mainly measured health indicators related to reproductive health (29 [48%]), violence (26 [43%]), or HIV (18 [30%]). Programmes most frequently focused on improving the individual power of the beneficiaries, rather than working on broader systems of inequality. 45 (74%) of the evaluations measured significant improvements in health-related and gender-related indicators; however, only ten (16%) showed evidence of, or potential for, broader norm change. These ten programmes worked with sectors beyond health, included multiple stakeholders, implemented diversified strategies, and fostered critical awareness and participation among affected community members. INTERPRETATION: This review can accelerate efforts to improve global health by leading to more strategic investment in programmes that promote gender equality and target restrictive gender norms among young people. Such programmes can lead to a lifetime of improved health and wellbeing by challenging not only attitudes and behaviours related to gender at an early age, but also the gendered systems that surround them. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225039, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The survival rates from breast cancer in Africa are poor and yet the incidence rates are on the rise. In this study, we hypothesized that, in Africa, a continent with great disparities in socio-economic status, race, tumor biology, and cultural characteristics, the survival rates from breast cancer vary greatly based on region, tumor biology (hormone receptor), gender, and race. We aimed to conduct the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on region, gender, tumor-biology and race-specific 5-year breast cancer survival rates in Africa and compared them to 20-year survival trends in the United States. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify studies on breast cancer survival in African published before October 17, 2018. Pooled 5-year survival rates of breast cancer were estimated by random-effects models. We explored sources of heterogeneity through subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression. Results were reported as absolute difference (AD) in percentages. We compared the survival rates of breast cancer in Africa and the United States. FINDINGS: There were 54 studies included, consisting of 18,970 breast cancer cases. There was substantial heterogeneity in the survival rates (mean 52.9%, range 7-91%, I2 = 99.1%; p for heterogeneity <0.0001). Meta-regression analyses suggested that age and gender-adjusted 5-year survival rates were lower in sub-Saharan Africa compared to north Africa (AD: -25.4%; 95% CI: -34.9 - -15.82%), and in predominantly black populations compared to predominantly non-black populations (AD: -25.9%; 95% CI: 35.40 - -16.43%). Survival rates were 10 percentage points higher in the female population compared to male, but the difference was not significant. Progesterone and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer subtypes were positively associated with survival (r = 0.39, p = 0.08 and r = 0.24, p = 0.29 respectively), but triple-negative breast cancer was negatively associated with survival. Survival rates are increasing over time more in non-black Africans (55% in 2000 versus 65% in 2018) compared to black Africans (33% in 2000 versus 40% in 2018); but, the survival rates for Africans are still significantly lower when compared to black (76% in 2015) and white (90% in 2015) populations in the United States. CONCLUSION: Regional, sub-regional, gender, and racial disparities exist, influencing the survival rates of breast cancer in Africa. Therefore, region and race-specific public health interventions coupled with prospective genetic studies are urgently needed to improve breast cancer survival in this region.

6.
Gac Sanit ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708124

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify in the international scientific literature the obstacles and potential promoters for the advancement of women academics and researchers in biomedical sciences during their professional careers. METHOD: PubMed, Scopus, CinahlPlus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycInfo and Sociological Abstracts were systematically searched for articles published in English and Spanish between January 2006 and December 2016 on the phenomenon of the glass ceiling in women academics and researchers in biomedical sciences. The screening was carried out by independent reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 2254 studies were found, of which 23 were included in the review. The obstacles identified for the promotion of women academics and/or researchers in biomedical sciences are: gender bias in the evaluation of research results, individualism and lack of collaboration, women's lack of influence, the existence of gender inequalities in access to employment. The perception of sexism and discrimination in the work environment, and the difficulties in reconciling work and family life. The promoting elements are: examples of women in leadership positions, mentoring, facilitating conciliation, transparency in recruitment, participation in decision-making, gender assessment of research, awareness of gender inequalities in institutions, promoting collaboration, and pay equity. CONCLUSIONS: By enhancing the elements favouring the promotion of academic women in biomedical sciences would help to reduce the glass ceiling in the career paths of women academics and health science researchers by increasing their participation, leadership and representation. A change of organizational and institutional values is required to achieve this.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754064

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current global maternal and child health policies rarely value gender equality or women's rights and are restricted to policies addressing clinical interventions and family planning. Gender equality influences the knowledge, autonomy and utilisation of contraception and healthcare, thereby affecting maternal and child health. This systematic review aims to analyse the concurrent effect of gender equality and contraception on maternal and under-5 child mortality. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate the current evidence. Studies were eligible if three themes-namely, indicators of gender equality (such as female education, labour force participation, gender-based violence), contraception, and maternal or child mortality-were present together in a single article analysing the same sample at the same time. RESULTS: Even though extensive literature on this topic exists, only three studies managed to fit the selection criteria. Findings of two studies indicated an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and infant mortality, and also reported that women's contraceptive use increased the risk of IPV. The third study found that the mother's secondary education attainment significantly reduced child mortality, while the mother's working status increased the odds of child mortality. The researchers of all included studies specified that contraceptive use significantly reduced the risk of child mortality. CONCLUSION: Improvement in gender equality and contraception concurrently affect the reduction in child mortality. These findings provide strong support to address the research gaps and to include a gender equality approach towards maternal and child health policies.

8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(12): 2447-2454, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573074

RESUMEN

Supporting gender equity for women working in geriatrics is important to the growth of geriatrics across disciplines and is critical in achieving our vision for a future in which we are all able to contribute to our communities and maintain our health, safety, and independence as we age. Discrimination can have a negative impact on public health, particularly with regard to those who care for the health of older Americans and other vulnerable older people. Women working in the field of geriatrics have experienced implicit and explicit discriminatory practices that mirror available data on the entire workforce. In this position article, we outline strategic objectives and accompanying practical recommendations for how geriatrics, as a field, can work together to achieve a future in which the rights of women are guaranteed and women in geriatrics have the opportunity to achieve their full potential. This article represents the official positions of the American Geriatrics Society. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2447-2454, 2019.

9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001634, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565410

RESUMEN

Objectives: Working with men/boys, in addition to women/girls, through gender-transformative programming that challenges gender inequalities is recognised as important for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) for all. The aim of this paper was to generate an interactive evidence and gap map (EGM) of the total review evidence on interventions engaging men/boys across the full range of WHO SRHR outcomes and report a systematic review of the quantity, quality and effect of gender-transformative interventions with men/boys to improve SRHR for all. Methods: For this EGM and systematic review, academic and non-academic databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index-expanded, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, Embase, Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched using terms related to SRHR, males/masculinities, systematic reviews and trials (January 2007-July 2018) with no language restrictions for review articles of SRHR interventions engaging men/boys. Data were extracted from included reviews, and AMSTAR2 was used to assess quality. Outcomes were based on WHO reproductive health strategy. Results: From the 3658 non-duplicate records screened, the total systematic reviews of interventions engaging men/boys in SRHR was mapped through an EGM (n=462 reviews) showing that such interventions were relatively evenly spread across low-income (24.5%), middle-income (37.8%) and high-income countries (37.8%). The proportion of reviews that included gender-transformative interventions engaging men/boys was low (8.4%, 39/462), the majority was in relation to violence against women/girls (n=18/39, 46.2%) and conducted in lower and middle-income countries (n=25/39, 64%). Reviews of gender-transformative interventions were generally low/critically low quality (n=34/39, 97.1%), and findings inconclusive (n=23/39, 59%), but 38.5% (n=15/39) found positive results. Conclusion: Research and programming must be strengthened in engagement of men/boys; it should be intentional in promoting a gender-transformative approach, explicit in the intervention logic models, with more robust experimental designs and measures, and supported with qualitative evaluations.

10.
Eat Behav ; 33: 85-90, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030007

RESUMEN

Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than heterosexual peers to engage in maladaptive eating behaviors such as restrictive dieting. However, prior studies relied on cross-sectional data and did not test potential mechanisms. This study examined longitudinal associations between adolescent sexual minority status and three maladaptive eating behaviors (restrictive dieting, diet pill use, and drug-related dieting) in young adulthood and tested higher perceived weight status as a mediator of observed disparities. Data were drawn from Waves 2 (11th grade in 2010/2011) to 7 (4 years post high school in 2015/2016) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, a U.S. national longitudinal cohort of adolescents (n = 1925). Logistic regression analyses revealed that, relative to heterosexual females, sexual minority females were more likely to report any restrictive dieting (extreme food intake restriction) in the past year (62.9% vs. 37.0%; Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.07, 4.76). Associations between sexual minority status and diet pills use or drug-related dieting were not found. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that higher perceived weight status was a significant mediator of the association between sexual minority status and restrictive dieting among females. These findings highlight higher perceived weight status as an important cognitive mechanism explaining why sexual minority females are at heightened risk for restrictive dieting in young adulthood. To optimally inform prevention efforts, additional research is needed to test the extent to which minority stressors may shape weight perceptions and their contribution to maladaptive and disordered eating behaviors among sexual minority adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Reductora/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Adulto Joven
11.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 26(3): 189-199, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767630

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Women bear an inequitable burden of blinding conditions compared to men primarily because they have more limited access to eye care services. This systematic review sought evidence regarding interventions to increase gender equity in eye care. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and EBSCO CINAHL, and contacted experts to identify studies in low- and middle-income countries of health services interventions for age-related cataract, childhood cataract, and trachoma. Eligible studies could be clinical trials or observational studies, but had to present sufficient data for intervention effects to be estimated separately for women and men. RESULTS: We included four cluster RCTs and nine observational studies. All were judged to have serious risk of bias. Six studies examined interventions involving training rural community volunteers to identify, educate and assist individuals with unmet eye care needs. Interventions were associated with reduced gender inequities in all-cause blindness, clinic attendance, cataract surgery coverage and trachoma treatment coverage (low-to-very low quality evidence). Studies in Nepal and Tanzania examining a multicomponent intervention to improve follow-up after pediatric cataract surgery found reduced gender inequities in follow-up rates at 10 weeks (low quality evidence). CONCLUSION: Limited evidence exists to inform health service planners regarding interventions to reduce gender inequity in visual impairment and blindness. Training community volunteers to identify and counsel affected individuals, and empower them to circumvent or challenge socioeconomic barriers to accessing care holds promise. Future interventions ought to explicitly consider gender in their design and implementation, and incorporate high-quality evaluation efforts.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Equidad en Salud/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Oftalmología/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
12.
Lancet ; 393(10171): 587-593, 2019 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739694

RESUMEN

In August 2018, the president of the World Bank noted that "'Human capital'-the potential of individuals-is going to be the most important long-term investment any country can make for its people's future prosperity and quality of life". Nevertheless, leaders and practitioners in academic science and medicine continue to be unaware of and poorly educated about the nature, extent, and impact of barriers to full participation of women and minorities in science and medicine around the world. This lack of awareness and education results in failures to fully mobilise the human capital of half the population and limits global technological and medical advancements. The chronic lack of recruitment, promotion, and retention of women in science and medicine is due to systemic, structural, organisational, institutional, cultural, and societal barriers to equity and inclusion. These barriers must be identified and removed through increased awareness of the challenges combined with evidence-based, data-driven approaches leading to measurable targets and outcomes. In this Review, we discuss these issues and highlight actions that could achieve gender equality in science and medicine. We survey approaches and insights that have helped to identify and remove systemic bias and barriers in science and medicine, and propose tools that will help organisational change toward gender equality. We describe tools that include formal legislation and mandated quotas at national or large-scale levels (eg, gender parity), techniques that increase fairness (eg, gender equity) through facilitated organisational cultural change at institutional levels, and professional development of core competencies at individual levels. This Review is not intended to be an extensive analysis of all the literature currently available on achieving gender equality in academic medicine and science, but rather, a reflection on finding multifactorial solutions.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Ciencia , Sexismo/prevención & control , Derechos de la Mujer , Selección de Profesión , Movilidad Laboral , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Innovación Organizacional , Objetivos Organizacionales
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 111: 36-43, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665010

RESUMEN

Depression is a serious mental health problem with a high prevalence among medical students. It is unclear whether a gender disparity of depression exists in this population, and whether gender inequality influences depression estimates by gender. We conducted a systematic search for published systematic reviews or meta-analyses in six databases and primary studies were obtained from those records. Studies were included if they contained original data on the prevalence of depression among male and female medical students. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Human Development Index (HDI) were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme website. A random effects meta-analysis of the odds ratio for depression between females and males was conducted. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of GII and prevalence of depression. The HDI was later incorporated in a multivariable model. We included a total of 106 studies and 84,119 students from 32 different countries. Female medical students are at higher odds of depression (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.17-1.44, p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between GII and prevalence of depression for female (ß = 0.24, p = 0.02) medical students, but not for male medical students. This association remained significant after adjusting for HDI. The female gender was associated with higher prevalence of depression in this population. The gender disparity in depression may be explained by the effect of gender inequality.

14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(1): 89-111, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492768

RESUMEN

Sexual minorities are at increased risk of suicide; however, it is unclear whether there are within-sexual minority differences in risk across specific sexual identities-notably between bisexual and lesbian/gay subgroups. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify associations between bisexual identity and self-reported suicide ideation and attempt and the moderation of these associations by gender/sex, age, sampling strategy, and measurement of sexuality. Abstracts and full texts were independently screened by two reviewers, resulting in a total of 46 studies that met inclusion criteria and reported 12-month or lifetime prevalence estimates for suicide ideation or attempt. A consistent gradient was observed across all four outcomes, whereby bisexual respondents reported the highest proportion of suicide ideation or attempt, lesbian/gay respondents the next highest proportion, and heterosexual respondents the lowest proportion. Random-effects meta-analysis comparing bisexual individuals with lesbian/gay individuals yielded odds ratios (ORs) ranging between 1.22-1.52 across the four outcomes examined. Between-study variability in ORs was large. Thirty-one percent of heterogeneity was explained by sample type (e.g., probability vs. non-probability) and 17% by gender/sex. ORs were consistently larger for women (range: 1.48-1.95, all statistically significant at p < .05) than for men (range: 1.00-1.48, all p > .05), suggesting that gender/sex moderates the association between bisexual identity and suicide risk. Within-sexual minority differences in suicide risk may be attributed to structural and interpersonal experiences of monosexism, bisexual erasure and invisibility, or lack of bisexual-affirming social support, each of which may be experienced differently across gender/sex identities.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/tendencias , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
15.
Gac Sanit ; 33(2): 203-210, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. METHODS: A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literatura search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing. RESULTS: The Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings. CONCLUSIONS: The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
16.
Health Promot Int ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534989

RESUMEN

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.

18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 132(2): 539-540, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045209

RESUMEN

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reaffirms its support of unrestricted access to legal marriage for all adults. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that no matter how a child comes into a family, all children and parents deserve equitable protections and access to available resources to maximize the health of that family unit. Obstetrician-gynecologists should recognize the diversity in parenting desires that exists in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and gender nonconforming communities and should take steps to ensure that clinical spaces are affirming and open to all patients, such that equitable and comprehensive, reproductive health care can meet the needs of these communities. This Committee Opinion is updated to include and capture a broader diversity of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and gender nonconforming communities, and their desires surrounding family formation, including legal recognition and benefits, and additional support of the positive effect marriage equality has on physical, mental, and financial health.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Derechos Humanos/normas , Matrimonio , Obstetricia/normas , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva/normas , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Femenino , Ginecología/ética , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/ética , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/normas , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Obstetricia/ética , Responsabilidad Parental , Defensa del Paciente , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva/ética , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva/legislación & jurisprudencia , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos
19.
Psychol Sci ; 29(9): 1491-1503, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980167

RESUMEN

Despite global gender inequalities, findings on gender differences in subjective well-being have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in subjective well-being to account for the type of subjective-well-being measure, sampling variability, and levels of national gender inequality from which samples are gathered. Based on 281 effect sizes for life satisfaction ( N = 1,001,802) and 264 for job satisfaction ( N = 341,949), results showed no significant gender differences in both types of subjective well-being. Supplementary meta-analyses found significantly lower job satisfaction, but not life satisfaction, in women for studies that used both life-satisfaction and job-satisfaction measures, and studies that relied on measures that previously demonstrated measurement equivalence. Using the Gender Inequality Index, we found that greater national gender inequality significantly predicts greater gender differences in job satisfaction, but not life satisfaction. We discuss the implications of these findings and the use of subjective well-being as a measure of societal progress.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Satisfacción Personal , Factores Sexuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 18(1): 108, 2018 06 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction affects 41% of reproductive-age women worldwide, making it a highly prevalent medical issue. Predictors of female sexual dysfunction are multifaceted and vary from country to country. A synthesis of potential risk factors and protective factors may aid healthcare practitioners in identifying populations at risk, in addition to revealing modifiable factors to prevent sexual dysfunction among reproductive-age women. METHODS: Observational studies which assessed the prevalence and predictors of female sexual dysfunction in reproductive-age women were systematically sought in relevant databases (2000-2014). Significant predictors were extracted from each included publication. A qualitative analysis of predictors was performed with a focus on types of sexual regimes and level of human development. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five studies from 41 countries were included in the systematic review. The types of predictors varied according to the location of the study, the type of sexual regime and the level of gender inequality in that country/region. Consistently significant risk factors of female sexual dysfunction were: poor physical health, poor mental health, stress, abortion, genitourinary problems, female genital mutilation, relationship dissatisfaction, sexual abuse, and being religious. Consistently significant protective factors included: older age at marriage, exercising, daily affection, intimate communication, having a positive body image, and sex education. Some factors however had an unclear effect: age, education, employment, parity, being in a relationship, frequency of sexual intercourse, race, alcohol consumption, smoking and masturbation. CONCLUSIONS: The sexual and reproductive lives of women are highly impacted by female sexual dysfunction, and a number of biological, psychological and social factors play a role in the prevalence of sexual dysfunction. Healthcare professionals who work with women should be aware of the many risk factors for reproductive-age women. Future prevention strategies should aim to address modifiable factors, e.g. physical activity and access to sex education; international efforts in empowering women should continue.


Asunto(s)
Sexismo , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas/epidemiología , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Factores Protectores , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo
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