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2.
Health Econ ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746116

RESUMO

Starting from December 2012, insurers in the European Union were prohibited from charging gender-discriminatory prices. We examine the effect of this unisex mandate on risk segmentation in the German health insurance market. Although gender used to be a pricing factor in Germany's private health insurance (PHI) sector, it was never used as a pricing factor in the social health insurance (SHI) sector. The unisex mandate makes PHI relatively more attractive for women and less attractive for men. Based on data from the German socio-economic panel, we analyze how the unisex mandate affects the difference between women and men in switching rates between SHI and PHI. We find that the unisex mandate increases the probability of switching from SHI to PHI for women relative to men. On the other hand, the unisex mandate has no effect on the gender difference in switching rates from PHI to SHI. Because women have on average higher health care expenditures than men, our results imply a worsening of the PHI risk pool and an improvement of the SHI risk pool. Our results demonstrate that regulatory measures such as the unisex mandate can affect risk selection between public and private health insurance sectors.

4.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 38(1): 17, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387643

RESUMO

Household nutrition is influenced by interactions between food security and local knowledge negotiated along multiple axes of power. Such processes are situated within political and economic systems from which structural inequalities are reproduced at local, national, and global scales. Health beliefs and food taboos are two manifestations that emerge within these processes that may contribute beneficial, benign, or detrimental health outcomes. This study explores the social dimensions of food taboos and health beliefs in rural Khatlon province, Tajikistan and their potential impact on household-level nutrition. Our analysis considers the current and historical and political context of Tajikistan, with particular attention directed towards evolving gender roles in the wake of mass out-migration of men from 1990 to the present. Considering the patrilieneal, patrilocal social system typical to Khatlon, focus group discussions were conducted with the primary decision-making groups of the household: in-married women, mothers-in-law, and men. During focus groups, participants discussed age- and gender-differentiated taboos that call for avoidance of several foods central to the Tajik diet during sensitive periods in the life cycle when micronutrient and energy requirements peak: infancy and early childhood (under 2 years of age), pregnancy, and lactation. Participants described dynamic and complex processes of knowledge sharing and food practices that challenge essentialist depictions of local knowledges. Our findings are useful for exploring entaglements of gender and health that play out across multiple spatial and temporal scales. While this study is situated in the context of nutrition and agriculture extension, we hope researchers and practitioners of diverse epistemologies will draw connections to diverse areas of inquiry and applications.

5.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427462

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Compared with cisgender (nontransgender), heterosexual youth, sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) experience great inequities in substance use, mental health problems, and violence victimization, thereby making them a priority population for interventions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review interventions and their effectiveness in preventing or reducing substance use, mental health problems, and violence victimization among SGMY. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Education Resources Information Center. STUDY SELECTION: Selected studies were published from January 2000 to 2019, included randomized and nonrandomized designs with pretest and posttest data, and assessed substance use, mental health problems, or violence victimization outcomes among SGMY. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extracted were intervention descriptions, sample details, measurements, results, and methodologic rigor. RESULTS: With this review, we identified 9 interventions for mental health, 2 for substance use, and 1 for violence victimization. One SGMY-inclusive intervention examined coordinated mental health services. Five sexual minority-specific interventions included multiple state-level policy interventions, a therapist-administered family-based intervention, a computer-based intervention, and an online intervention. Three gender minority-specific interventions included transition-related gender-affirming care interventions. All interventions improved mental health outcomes, 2 reduced substance use, and 1 reduced bullying victimization. One study had strong methodologic quality, but the remaining studies' results must be interpreted cautiously because of suboptimal methodologic quality. LIMITATIONS: There exists a small collection of diverse interventions for reducing substance use, mental health problems, and violence victimization among SGMY. CONCLUSIONS: The dearth of interventions identified in this review is likely insufficient to mitigate the substantial inequities in substance use, mental health problems, and violence among SGMY.

6.
Health Soc Work ; 44(3): 149-155, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359065

RESUMO

Contemporary research suggests that transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) adults encounter formidable barriers to health care, including access to quality therapeutic interventions. This systematic review is one of the first to specifically explore obstacles to TGNC mental health care. A rigorous literature review identified eight relevant studies: six qualitative designs and two quantitative designs. Thematic synthesis revealed three major barriers to care and five corresponding subthemes: (1) personal concerns, involving fear of being pathologized or stereotyped and an objection to common therapeutic practices; (2) incompetent mental health professionals, including those who are unknowledgeable, unnuanced, and unsupportive; and (3) affordability factors. Results indicate an acute need for practitioner training to ensure the psychological well-being of TGNC clients.

7.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2440-2454, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155275

RESUMO

Gender is not accurately captured by the traditional male and female dichotomy of sex. Instead, it is a complex social system that structures the life experience of all human beings. This paper, the first in a Series of five papers, investigates the relationships between gender inequality, restrictive gender norms, and health and wellbeing. Building upon past work, we offer a consolidated conceptual framework that shows how individuals born biologically male or female develop into gendered beings, and how sexism and patriarchy intersect with other forms of discrimination, such as racism, classism, and homophobia, to structure pathways to poor health. We discuss the ample evidence showing the far-reaching consequences of these pathways, including how gender inequality and restrictive gender norms impact health through differential exposures, health-related behaviours and access to care, as well as how gender-biased health research and health-care systems reinforce and reproduce gender inequalities, with serious implications for health. The cumulative consequences of structured disadvantage, mediated through discriminatory laws, policies, and institutions, as well as diet, stress, substance use, and environmental toxins, have triggered important discussions about the role of social injustice in the creation and maintenance of health inequities, especially along racial and socioeconomic lines. This Series paper raises the parallel question of whether discrimination based on gender likewise becomes embodied, with negative consequences for health. For decades, advocates have worked to eliminate gender discrimination in global health, with only modest success. A new plan and new political commitment are needed if these global health aspirations and the wider Sustainable Development Goals of the UN are to be achieved.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Sexismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036795

RESUMO

Background: The association between age and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is still under debate. While some research shows older age is associated with better HRQoL, other studies show no or negative association between age and HRQoL. In addition, while the association between age and HRQoL may depend on race, ethnicity, gender, and their intersections, most previous research on this link has been performed in predominantly White Middle Class. Objective: To explore gender differences in the association between age and mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American (AA) older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Los Angeles between 2015 to 2018. A total number of 740 economically disadvantaged AA older adults (age ≥ 55 years) were enrolled in this study, using non-random sampling. This includes 266 AA men and 474 AA women. The independent variable of interest was age. Dependent variables of interest were physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS), two main summary scores of the HRQoL, measured using Short Form-12 (SF-12). Gender was the moderator. Socioeconomic status (educational attainment and financial difficulty) were covariates. Linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: AA women reported worse PCS; however, gender did not impact MCS. In the pooled sample, high age was associated with better PCS and MCS. In the pooled sample, a significant interaction was found between gender and age on PCS, suggesting a stronger effect of age on PCS for AA men than AA women. In gender-stratified models, older age was associated with better PCS for AA men but not AA women. Older age was similarly and positively associated with better MCS for AA men and women. Conclusions: There may be some gender differences in the implications of ageing for the physical HRQoL of AA older adults. It is unclear how old age may have a boosting effect on physical HRQoL for AA men but not AA women. Future research should test gender differences in the effect of age on physical health indicators such as chronic disease as well as cognitive processes involved in the evaluation of own's health in AA men and women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Envelhecimento , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Los Angeles , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Populações Vulneráveis
9.
Ecohealth ; 16(2): 306-316, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016438

RESUMO

One health emphasizes the interdependent health of humans, animals, and their shared environments and shows promise as an integrated, equitable transdisciplinary approach to important ecohealth issues. Notably, research or programming explicitly examining the intersection of gender and one health is limited, although females represent half of the human population and play important roles in human and animal health around the world. Recognizing these gaps, scholars from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in collaboration with United States Department of Agriculture convened a consultative workshop, "Women and One Health," in 2016. This paper outlines the workshop methods and highlights outcomes toward shared terminology and integration of frameworks from one health, gender analysis, and women in agriculture. Further, recommendations for education, policy, and service delivery at the intersection of women's empowerment and one health are offered as important efforts toward the dual goals of gender equality and sustainable health of humans, animals, and their shared ecosystems.

10.
Am J Community Psychol ; 63(3-4): 511-526, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989666

RESUMO

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and gender non-conforming (LGBTQ & GNC) youth experience more economic hardship and social stress than their heterosexual and cisgender peers. However, the ways that LGBTQ & GNC youth resist these damaging social factors and the corresponding implications for their health have not been addressed. Data were analyzed from a national participatory survey of LGBTQ & GNC youth ages 14-24 (N = 5,860) living in the United States. Structural equation models indicated that economic precarity was associated with experiences of health problems. This association was mediated by the negative influence of minority stress on health as well as by activism, which had a positive association with health. Findings suggest that minority stress explanations of health inequalities among LGBTQ & GNC youth can benefit from including a focus on economic precarity; both in terms of its deleterious impact on health and its potential to provoke resistance to structural oppression in the form of activism.

11.
Glob Health Action ; 11(sup3): 1570645, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The right to health was enshrined in the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1946 and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The latter Declaration, which also guaranteed women's rights, was signed by almost all countries in the world. Subsequent international conventions reinforced these rights, requiring that women be able to realize their fundamental freedoms and dignity. Although the value of incorporating gender into health systems has been increasingly acknowledged over the years, gender inequalities in health persist. OBJECTIVE: To introduce a tool to help countries assess their performance in addressing gender inequalities in their health systems, using the example of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in countries of the Americas. METHODS: This paper is based on comprehensive reviews of the literature on the links between gender equality, health systems and human rights, and available scientific evidence about an adequate response to ZIKV. RESULTS: The authors present a simple two-part framework from the human rights perspectives of the health system as duty bearer, incorporating WHO's six health system building blocks, and of its clients as rights holders. The authors apply the framework to ZIKV in the Americas, and identify strengths and weaknesses at every level of the health system. They find that when considering gender, health systems have focused mainly on dichotomous sex differences, failing to consider broader gender relations and processes affecting access to services, quality of care, and health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' framework will permit countries to assess progress toward gender equality in health, within the context of their human rights commitments, by examining each health system building block, and the degree to which clients are realizing their rights. By applying the framework to specific health conditions, gender-related achievements and shortcomings can be identified in each health system component, fostering a more comprehensive and gender-sensitive response.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Direitos da Mulher , Infecção por Zika virus , Américas , Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Médica , Parto , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zika virus
12.
Hum Resour Health ; 17(1): 3, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India's accredited social health activist (ASHA) programme consists of almost one million female community health workers (CHWs). Launched in 2005, there is now an ASHA in almost every village and across many urban centres who support health system linkages and provide basic health education and care. This paper examines how the programme is seeking to address gender inequalities facing ASHAs, from the programme's policy origins to recent adaptations. METHODS: We reviewed all publically available government documents (n = 96) as well as published academic literature (n = 122) on the ASHA programme. We also drew from the embedded knowledge of this paper's government-affiliated co-authors, triangulated with key informant interviews (n = 12). Data were analysed thematically through a gender lens. RESULTS: Given that the initial impetus for the ASHA programme was to address reproductive and child health issues, policymakers viewed volunteer female health workers embedded in communities as best positioned to engage with beneficiaries. From these instrumentalist origins, where the programme was designed to meet health system demands, policy evolved to consider how the health system could better support ASHAs. Policy reforms included an increase in the number and regularity of incentivized tasks, social security measures, and government scholarships for higher education. Residential trainings were initiated to build empowering knowledge and facilitate ASHA solidarity. ASHAs were designated as secretaries of their village health committees, encouraging them to move beyond an all-female sphere and increasing their role in accountability initiatives. Measures to address gender based violence were also recently recommended. Despite these well-intended reforms and the positive gains realized, ongoing tensions and challenges related to their gendered social and employment status remain, requiring continued policy attention and adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: Gender trade offs and complexities are inherent to sustaining CHW programmes at scale within challenging contexts of patriarchal norms, health system hierarchies, federal governance structures, and evolving aspirations, capacities, and demands from female CHWs. Although still grappling with significant gender inequalities, policy adaptations have increased ASHAs' access to income, knowledge, career progression, community leadership, and safety. Nonetheless, these transformative gains do not mark linear progress, but rather continued adaptations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Emprego , Programas Governamentais , Política de Saúde , Sexismo , Direitos da Mulher , Assistência à Saúde , Características da Família , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Índia , Poder (Psicologia) , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(2): 143-151, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender individuals are more likely to experience social and economic barriers to health and health care, and have worse mental health outcomes than cisgender individuals. Our study explores variations in mental health among minority genders after controlling for sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multistate data were obtained from the 2014 to 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data were included from respondents who were asked whether they identified as transgender, and if so, as male-to-female (MTF), female-to-male (FTM), or gender nonconforming. Frequent mental distress (≥14 days in the last month of "not good" mental health) was the primary outcome of interest. Analysis was performed using design-adjusted Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models of frequent mental distress with gender identity as the independent variable of interest. RESULTS: Of 518,986 respondents, 0.51% identified as transgender. Higher rates of frequent mental distress were found between FTM (24.7% [18.5-32.3]) and gender nonconforming populations (25.4% [18.7-33.5]), compared with the MTF population (14.2% [10.9-18.3]). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, non-transgender female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.39 [confidence interval, CI 1.32-1.46]), FTM (aOR 1.93 [CI 1.26-2.95]), and gender nonconforming (aOR 2.05 [CI 1.20-3.50]) identities were associated with increased odds of frequent mental distress compared with non-transgender males. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest differences in the mental health of transgender and non-transgender individuals, and between gender minorities within transgender population. The differences persist after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Our results suggest that considering the spectrum of minority genders within the transgender population may be important in understanding health outcomes.

15.
Health Promot Int ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534989

RESUMO

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.

16.
Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud Pública ; 36(3): 18-30, sep.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985111

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Identificar la evolución teórico-metodológica del análisis de situación de salud (asis) en América Latina y el Caribe, y analizar los desafíos en su implementación. Metodología: Revisión narrativa a partir del estudio de trabajos de investigación, artículos de reflexión y manuales publicados en las bases de datos ebsco, PubMed, Redalyc, Scielo y Lilacs, entre los años 2000 y 2017, relacionados con el análisis de la situación de salud a nivel poblacional. Se analizaron los 67 documentos seleccionados y se hizo comparación de contenidos de los asis realizados en la región. Resultados: Se encontró que las guías para orientar la implementación de los asis reproducen un modelo de diagnóstico de salud epidemiológico/administrativo, aunque algunas suscriben, como ejes del análisis, la perspectiva de género, de determinantes sociales, la intersectorialidad y la participación social; esto se refleja en el 90 % de los 19 informes gubernamentales recuperados. El 80 % de las 10 investigaciones originales recuperadas se identifican como estudios descriptivos, observacionales y transversales, con escasa actuación de los equipos de salud del primer nivel y mínima participación de las poblaciones y los representantes de otros sectores vinculados con la salud. Las principales fuentes utilizadas son estadísticas demográficas y epidemiológicas oficiales, y una mínima proporción de los asis concluye en la generación de propuestas de actuación. Conclusiones: La implementación de los asis enfrenta, como desafíos, trascender la noción patológica y sectorial de la salud; incorporar indicadores de salud positiva, así como otros de inequidad en salud, que permitan una valoración amplia de la situación de salud poblacional, sus determinantes sociales y los gradientes de desigualdad en la expresión de la enfermedad y del acceso a servicios para su atención; articular, en su práctica, el método epidemiológico, con técnicas etnográficas y de participación social, para apoyar el análisis integral e interseccional de la salud; y capacitar a los equipos de salud, especialmente de primer nivel, para el desarrollo efectivo de estos estudios, con fines de monitoreo y comprensión de las tendencias y los diferenciales en la salud/enfermedad de los grupos poblacionales.


Abstract Objective: To identify the methodological-theoretical evolution of the Health Situation Analysis (HAS) in Latin America and the Caribbean, and analyze the challenges to implement it. Methodology: A narrative review based on research studies, reflective articles and manuals pu blished in databases as EBSCO, PubMed, Redalyc, Scielo and Lilacs, from 2000 to 2017, related to the analysis of the population's health situation. 67 documents were cho sen and analyzed and contents were compared with HAS conducted in the region. Results: The study found that the guidelines to direct the implementation of HAS reproduced an epidemiological/administrative health diagnosis model, many of which subscribe gender perspective, social deter minants, intersectionality and social participation as their axis of analysis, which is demonstrated in 90 % of the 19 government reports recovered. 80 % of the 10 original re search studies recovered were identified as descriptive, observational and cross-sectional studies, with little par ticipation from first level Healthcare teams and minimum participation from populations and representatives of other sectors linked to health. The main sources used were offi cial demographic and epidemiological statistics, and a very small part of the HSA result in producing action proposals. Conclusions: Implementing HSA represents challenges like transcending the pathological and sectorial notion of health, incorporating positive health indicators, as well as other health inequality indicators that allow a broader as sessment of the population's health situation, their social determinants and the gradients of inequality expressed in diseases and access to health care services. Epidemiological methods with ethnographic and social participation techni ques should be used in practice to support a comprehen sive intersectional health analysis; and healthcare teams, particularly first level teams, should be trained to conduct effective studies to monitor and understand the trends and differentials in the health/diseases of population groups.


Resumo Objetivo: Identificar a evolução teórico-metodológica da análise de situação da saúde (asis) na América Latina e o Ca ribe, e analisar os desafios na sua implementação. Metodo logia: Revisão narrativa partindo do estudo de trabalhos de investigação, artigos de reflexão e manuais publicados nas bases de dados ebsco, PubMed, Redalyc, Scielo e Lilacs, entre os anos 2000 e 2017, enlaçados com a análise da rea lidade da saúde no nível populacional. Se analisaram os 67 documentos escolhidos fazendo um versus de conteúdos dos ASIS compendiados na região. Resultados: Se encontrou que as instruções para indicar a implementação dos asis re produz um modelo de diagnóstico de saúde epidemiológico/ administrativo, ainda que algumas assinalam, como eixos da análise, a visão de género, de determinantes sociais, a pluris setorialidade e o envolvimento social; isto se reflete num 90 % dos 19 informes governamentais recuperados. Um 80 % das 10 investigações originais recuperadas se identificam como estudos descritivos, observacionais e na forma do viés, com escassa atuação dos corpos de saúde do primeiro nível e o mínimo envolvimento das populações e os líderes das outras áreas vinculadas com a saúde. As principais fontes uti lizadas são estatísticas demográficas e epidemiológicas ofi ciais, e uma mínima proporção dos asis concluem na geração de propostas de atuação. Conclusões: A implementação dos asis enfrenta, como desafios, transcender a noção patológica e setorial da saúde; incorporar indicadores de saúde positiva, assim como outros de inequidade em saúde, que permitam uma valoração amplia da situação de saúde populacional, os seus determinantes sociais e os ingredientes de desigualdade na expressão da doença e do acesso aos serviços para a sua atenção; articular, na sua prática, o método epidemiológico, com técnicas etnográficas e de participação social, para su portar a análise integral e interseccional da saúde; e capacitar aos times da saúde, especialmente aqueles de primeiro nível, para o desenvolvimento efetivo destes estudos, com fins de tamisado e compreensão dessas tendências e os diferenciais na saúde/doença dos grupos populacionais.

17.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 13(40): 1-11, jan.-dez. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-970980

RESUMO

Introdução: Disforia de Gênero em crianças é um tema pouco abordado no treinamento clínico, apesar do aumento do interesse das famílias sobre as questões de gênero. Objetivos: Realizar revisão integrativa de pesquisas sobre Disforia de Gênero em crianças e identificar recomendações para o manejo na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando termos MeSH nas bases de dados Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs e Scielo para artigos publicados entre 2008 e 2018 que utilizaram crianças transgêneras em suas análises. Resultados: Dos 2.488 artigos identificados pela chave de busca, 12 artigos foram selecionados para estudo. A maioria de centros especializados no atendimento a crianças transgêneras em quatro países. O profissional de saúde deve realizar anamnese direcionada às questões de comportamento da criança em casa e na escola, dinâmica familiar, contexto cultural, história familiar de não conformidade de gênero, vida social da criança e segurança infantil. Deve-se atentar para a avaliação psicossocial adequada para a idade da criança. Cabe à equipe de Atenção Primária à Saúde esclarecer as principais dúvidas das famílias, realizar a suspeita diagnóstica e encaminhar ao centro especializado no atendimento a crianças transgêneras do seu estado. Conclusão: Cabe à equipe de Atenção Primária à Saúde providenciar um ambiente acolhedor e sem discriminação para que estas famílias sejam avaliadas e conduzidas de forma adequada.


Introduction: Gender dysphoria in children is a subject rarely addressed in clinical training, despite the increased interest of families on gender issues. Objective: Achieve an integrative review of papers about Gender Dysphoria in children and identify recommendations for management in Primary Health Care. Methods: Integrative literature review using MeSH terms in the Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases for articles published between 2008 and 2018 that used transgender children in their analyzes. Results: From the 2,488 articles identified by the search key, 12 articles were selected. Most of them are from specialized centers for the care of transgender children in four countries. The health professional should carry out anamnesis directed to the child's behavioral issues at home and at school, family dynamics, cultural context, family history of non-compliance of gender, social life of the child and child safety. Attention should be paid to psychosocial assessment appropriate to the child's age. It is up to the Primary Health Care team to clarify the main doubts of the families, to carry out the diagnostic suspicion and to refer to the specialized center for the care of the transgender children of their state. Conclusion: It is up to the Primary Health Care team to provide a welcoming and non-discriminatory environment so these families can be properly evaluated and conducted.


Introducción: La disforia de género en los niños es un tema poco abordado en el entrenamiento clínico, a pesar del aumento del interés de las familias sobre las cuestiones de género. Objetivo: Lograr una revisión integrativa de investigación sobre la Disforia de Género en los niños e identificar recomendaciones para el manejo en Atención Primaria de Salud. Métodos: Revisión integrativa de la literatura utilizando términos MeSH en las bases de datos Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs y Scielo para artículos publicados entre 2008 y 2018 que utilizaron niños transgéneros en sus análisis. Resultados: De los 2.488 artículos identificados por la clave de búsqueda, 12 artículos fueron seleccionados. En su mayoría, de centros especializados en atención a los niños transgéneros de cuatro países. El profesional de salud debe realizar anamnesis dirigida a las cuestiones de comportamiento del niño en casa y en la escuela, dinámica familiar, contexto cultural, historia familiar de no conformidad de género, vida social del niño y seguridad infantil. Se debe poner atención a la evaluación psicosocial adecuada para la edad del niño. Cabe al equipo de Atención Primaria a la Salud aclarar las principales dudas de las familias, realizar la sospechosa diagnóstica y encaminar al centro especializado de atención a los niños transgéneros de su estado. Conclusión: Cabe al equipo de Atención Primaria a la Salud proporcionar un ambiente acogedor y sin discriminación para que estas familias sean evaluadas y conducidas de forma adecuada.


Assuntos
Criança , Gênero e Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Disforia de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 356, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, suicides in Greece have drawn national and international interest due to the current economic crisis. According to published reports, suicides in Greece have increased up to 40% and Crete has been highlighted as an area with the sharpest increase. AIM: To investigate the suicide mortality rates in Crete between 1999 and 2013 and their association with the economic crisis. METHODS: Data on suicides were selected from the Department of Forensic Medicine files of the University of Crete. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that (1) Crete, has the highest suicide mortality rate in Greece, however no significant increase was observed between 1999 and 2013, (2) there were opposing trends between men and women, with women showing a decrease whereas men showed an increase in that period, (3) there was a significant increase of suicides in middle-aged men (40-64 yrs) and elderly, although the highest unemployment rates were observed in young men and women, and (4) finally, there was a regional shift of suicides with a significant decrease in Western Crete and a significant increase in Eastern Crete. CONCLUSIONS: Although, Crete has the highest suicide mortality rates in Greece, we did not observe an overall increase during the last 15 years, including the period of economic crisis. Furthermore, there was an increase in middle-aged and elderly men, whereas young men and women showed oppositional trends during the years of austerity. This may be related to the culturally different expectations for the two genders, as well as that younger individuals may find refuge to either strong family ties or by immigrating abroad. Finally, the relative increase of suicides in Eastern Crete may be explained by factors, such as the lack of community mental health services in that area.

19.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175239

RESUMO

Background: Over the past decade gender mainstreaming has gained visibility at global health organisations. The World Bank, one of the largest funders of global health activities, released two World Development Reports showcasing its gender policies, and recently announced a $1 billion initiative for women's entrepreneurship. We summarise the development of the Bank's gender policies and analyse its financing of gender projects in the health sector. This article is intended to provide background for future research on the Bank's gender and global health portfolio. Methods: First, we constructed a timeline of the Bank's gender policy development, through a review of published articles, grey literature, and Bank documents and reports. Second, we performed a health-focused analysis of publicly available Bank gender project databases, to track its financing of health sector projects with a gender 'theme' from 1985-2017. Results: The Bank's gender policy developed through four major phases from 1972-2017: 'women in development' (WID), institutionalisation of WID, gender mainstreaming, and gender equality through 'smart economics'. In the more inclusive Bank project database, projects with a gender theme comprised between 1.3% (1985-1989) and 6.2% (2010-2016) of all Bank commitments.  Most funding targeted middle-income countries and particular health themes, including communicable diseases and health systems. Major gender-related trust funds were absent from both databases. The Bank reports that 98% of its lending is 'gender informed', which indicates that the gender theme used in its publicly available project databases is poorly aligned with its criteria for gender informed projects. Conclusion: The Bank focused most of its health sector gender projects on women's and girls' issues. It is increasingly embracing private sector financing of its gender activities, which may impact its poverty alleviation agenda. Measuring the success of gender mainstreaming in global health will require the Bank to release more information about its gender indicators and projects.

20.
Int J Equity Health ; 17(1): 149, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health inequity has mainly been linked to differences in economic status, with the poor facing greater challenges accessing healthcare than the less poor. To extend financial coverage to the poor and vulnerable, Kenya has therefore implemented several pro-poor health policy reforms. However, other social determinants of health such as gender and disability also influence health status and access to care. This study employed an intersectional approach to explore how gender disability and poverty interact to influence how poor women in Kenya benefit from pro-poor financing policies that target them. METHODS: We applied a qualitative cross-sectional study approach in two purposively selected counties in Kenya. We collected data using in-depth interviews with women with disabilities living in poverty who were beneficiaries of the health insurance subsidy programme and those in the lowest wealth quintiles residing in the health and demographic surveillance system. We analyzed data using a thematic approach drawing from the study's conceptual framework. RESULTS: Women with disabilities living in poverty often opted to forgo seeking free healthcare services because of their roles as the primary household providers and caregivers. Due to limited mobility, they needed someone to accompany them to health facilities, leading to greater transport costs. The absence of someone to accompany them and unaffordability of the high transport costs, for example, made some women forgo seeking antenatal and skilled delivery services despite the existence of a free maternity programme. The layout and equipment at health facilities offering care under pro-poor health financing policies were disability-unfriendly. The latter in addition to negative healthcare worker attitudes towards women with disabilities discouraged them from seeking care. Negative stereotypes against women with disabilities in the society led to their exclusion from public participation forums thereby limiting their awareness about health services. CONCLUSIONS: Intersections of gender, poverty, and disability influenced the experiences of women with disabilities living in poverty with pro-poor health financing policies in Kenya. Addressing the healthcare access barriers they face could entail ensuring availability of disability-friendly health facilities and public transport systems, building cultural competence in health service delivery, and empowering them to engage in public participation.

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