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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: In total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%-14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4-2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03-2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%. CONCLUSION: Although COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e037509, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and the decline in lung function in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is evidence that smoking causes 'steroid resistance' and thus reduces the effect of ICS. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on efficacy of ICS in COPD in terms of lung function and exacerbation rates. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: An electronic database search of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and Cochrane Library (January 2000 to January 2020). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Fully published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), in the English language, evaluating the use of ICS in COPD adults that stratified the participants by smoking status. Trials that included participants with asthma, lung cancer and pneumonia were excluded. The primary outcome measures were changes in lung function and yearly exacerbation rates. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. RESULTS: Seven studies were identified. Four trials (17 892 participants) recorded change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from baseline to up to 30 months after starting treatment. Heavier smokers (>36 pack years) using ICS had a greater decline in FEV1 that ranged from -22 mL to -75 mL in comparison to lighter smokers. Smokers using ICS had mixed results in FEV1 change: -8 mL to +77 mL in comparison to ex-smokers. Four trials (21 270 participants) recorded difference in COPD exacerbation rates at 52 weeks. The rate ratios favoured more exacerbations in ICS users who were current or heavier smokers than those who were ex-smokers or lighter smokers (0.81 to 0.99 vs 0.92 to 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: In COPD, heavier or current smokers do not gain the same benefit from ICS use on lung function and exacerbation rates as lighter or ex-smokers do, however effects may not be clinically important. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019121833.

3.
Public Health Nurs ; 37(3): 453-460, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899558

RESUMO

Greenness such as trees, plants, and shrubs may positively influence mental and physical health, but the relationship between greenness and asthma is poorly understood. Because asthma is the most prevalent child respiratory disease internationally, elucidating the role of greenness may substantially benefit public health. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize findings related to effects of greenness on asthma in children. Following PRISMA guidelines, six databases were searched for international publication of primary research results relevant to the relationship between greenness and child asthma. Of 82 initial results, seven articles remained after removal of duplicates and applying exclusion criteria. Six reported no direct association between greenness and child asthma, while one found increased greenness protective for asthma. None found a negative direct association between greenness and child asthma. Evidence supported benefits of greenness on child asthma through mediation of factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, high traffic volume, and difficult family relationships. Even without a direct association, greenness can be considered a public health asset as it may mediate other factors contributing to asthma in children. Public health nurses can use these findings to educate clients and partners while advocating for policies to protect greenness.

4.
Am J Med ; 133(2): 222-230.e11, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peak lung function and rate of decline predict future airflow obstruction and nonrespiratory comorbid conditions. Associations between lung function trajectories and emphysema have not been explored. METHODS: Using data from the population-based CARDIA Study, we sought to describe the prevalence of visually ascertained emphysema at multiple time points and contextualize its development based upon participant's adult life course measures of lung function. There were 3171 men and women enrolled at a mean age of 25 years, who underwent serial spirometric examinations through a mean age of 55 years. Trajectories for the change in percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined by fitting a mixture model via maximum likelihood. Emphysema was visually identified on computed tomographic scans and its prevalence reported at mean ages of 40, 45, and 50 years. RESULTS: We identified 5 trajectories describing peak and change in FEV1: "Preserved Ideal," "Preserved Good," "Preserved Impaired," "Worsening," and "Persistently Poor." Ever smokers comprised part of all 5 trajectories. The prevalence of emphysema was 1.7% (n = 46; mean age of 40 years), 2.5% (n = 67; mean age of 45 years), and 7.1% (n = 189; mean age of 50 years). Of those with emphysema at a mean age of 50 years, 18.0% were never smokers. Worsening and poor lung health trajectories were associated with increased odds of future emphysema independent of chronic tobacco smoke exposure (odds ratio 5.06; confidence interval, 1.84-13.96; odds ratio 4.85; confidence interval, 1.43-16.44). CONCLUSIONS: Lower peak and accelerated decline in FEV1 are risk factors for future emphysema independent of smoking status.


Assuntos
Enfisema Pulmonar , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria
5.
COPD ; 17(1): 7-14, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854207

RESUMO

Our main objective was to demonstrate that, in smoker patients hospitalised for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation, early initiation of varenicline during 12 weeks, combined with an intensive counselling, is associated with a higher continuous abstainers rate (CAR) at one year as compared to intensive counselling alone. In this multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomised study, 81 smoking COPD patients hospitalised for an acute exacerbation for at least 24 h were allocated to receive either varenicline (n = 42) or placebo (n = 39) for 12 weeks, in association with an intensive counselling in the 2 groups, and followed up for 40 weeks. The primary outcome was CAR at week 52. Secondary outcomes included CAR at week 12 and 26, partial abstinence rate (PAR) at week 12, 26 and 52, nicotinic substitute consumption and adverse events. At week 52, CAR was not different in placebo and varenicline groups (25.6%). At week 12, CAR was significantly higher in the varenicline group (50%) as compared to placebo group (27%) (p = 0.041). Nicotine consumption was significantly higher at week 52 in the placebo group (55.3%) as compared to the varenicline group (24.4%) (p = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PAR at week 12, 26 and 52; the frequency of adverse events was similar between the two groups. Among active smoker COPD patients with exacerbation, 12-week varenicline associated with intensive counselling for smoking cessation increased the rate of continuous abstainers as compared to placebo. However, benefit was not maintained after varenicline discontinuation.Clinical Trials Registration: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: NCT01694732.

6.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 268, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. Here, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role, since cigarette smoking is associated with differential DNA methylation in whole blood. So far, it is unclear whether epigenetics also play a role in subjects with COPD who never smoked. Therefore, we aimed to identify differential DNA methylation associated with lung function in never smokers. METHODS: We determined epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels of 396,243 CpG-sites (Illumina 450 K) in blood of never smokers in four independent cohorts, LifeLines COPD&C (N = 903), LifeLines DEEP (N = 166), Rotterdam Study (RS)-III (N = 150) and RS-BIOS (N = 206). We meta-analyzed the cohort-specific methylation results to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites with FEV1/FVC. Expression Quantitative Trait Methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed in the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS). RESULTS: A total of 36 CpG-sites were associated with FEV1/FVC in never smokers at p-value< 0.0001, but the meta-analysis did not reveal any epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites. Of interest, 35 of these 36 CpG-sites have not been associated with lung function before in studies including subjects irrespective of smoking history. Among the top hits were cg10012512, cg02885771, annotated to the gene LTV1 Ribosome Biogenesis factor (LTV1), and cg25105536, annotated to Kelch Like Family Member 32 (KLHL32). Moreover, a total of 11 eQTMS were identified. CONCLUSIONS: With the identification of 35 CpG-sites that are unique for never smokers, our study shows that DNA methylation is also associated with FEV1/FVC in subjects that never smoked and therefore not merely related to smoking.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Valores de Referência , Fumantes , Fumar/genética
7.
J Asthma ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702415

RESUMO

Objective: The recruitment setting plays a key role in the evaluation of behavioral interventions. We evaluated a behavioral intervention for urban adolescents with asthma in three randomized trials conducted separately in three different settings over the course of 8 years. We hypothesized that characteristics of trial participants recruited from the ED and clinic settings would be significantly different from that of youth participating in the school-based trials. The intervention evaluated was Puff City, a web-based program that uses tailoring to improve asthma management behaviors.Methods: The present analysis includes youth aged 13-19 years who reported a physician diagnosis of asthma and symptoms at trial baseline. In the three trials, all participants were randomized post-baseline to a web-based, tailored intervention (treatment) or generic web-based asthma education (control).Results: Compared to school-based trial participants, ED participants had significantly more acute-care visits for asthma (p < 0.001) and more caregiver depression (p < 0.001). Clinic-based participants were more likely to have computer/ internet access than participants from the school-based trial (p < 0.001). Both ED and clinic participants were more likely to report controller medication (p's < 0.001) and higher teen emotional support (p's < 0.01) when compared to the schools, but were less likely to report Medicaid (p's < 0.014) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Compared to participants in the school-based trials, participants recruited from ED and clinic settings differed significantly in terms of healthcare use, as well as psychosocial and sociodemographic factors. These factors can inform intervention content, and may impact external validity of behavioral interventions for asthma.

8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 186, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence of an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the risk of new onset IBD in patients with COPD and new onset COPD in IBD patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of observational studies exploring the risk of both associations. Two independent reviewers explored the EMBASE, MEDLINE, LILACS and DOAJ databases, and the risk of bias was evaluated using the ROBBINS-I tool. Data from included studies was pooled in a random effect meta-analysis following a DerSimonian-Laird method. The quality of the evidence was ranked using GRADE criteria. RESULTS: Four studies including a pooled population of 1355 new cases were included. We found association between new onset IBD in COPD population. The risk of bias was low in most of them. Only one study reported tobacco exposure as a potential confounding factor. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for a new diagnosis of IBD in COPD patients was 2.02 (CI, 1.56 to 2.63), I2 = 72% (GRADE: low). The subgroup analyses for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis yielded RRs of 2.29 (CI, 1.51 to 3.48; I2 = 62%), and 1.79 (CI, 1.39 to 2.29; I2 = 19%.), respectively. DISCUSSION: According to our findings, the risk of new onset IBD was higher in populations with COPD compared to the general population without this condition. Based on our analysis, we suggest a potential association between IBD and COPD; however, further research exploring the potential effect of confounding variables, especially cigarette smoking, is still needed. REVIEW REGISTER: (PROSPERO: CRD42018096624).


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Humanos
9.
COPD ; 16(3-4): 292-302, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581921

RESUMO

The comorbidity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is obvious from a clinical point of view, especially as smoking is an important risk factor for both. Another factor connecting these two clinical conditions is chronic inflammation, which plays a crucial role in their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to present the prevalence of COPD in patients with PAD, as well as the prevalence of PAD in COPD patients confirmed in all patients by two reliable methods: spirometry and ankle-brachial index (ABI), respectively. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to identify the potentially eligible publications from the previous 10 years. The published characteristics of different PAD and COPD populations were analyzed. A database search identified 894 records. Reliable criteria of both COPD and PAD diagnosis were used only in seven publications. The prevalence of PAD among patients with COPD ranged from 8.5 to 81.4%. The severity of the disease and the exclusion of nonsmokers or symptomatic patients from the analyses were important factors affecting this parameter. The prevalence of COPD in patients with PAD was measured reliably only in one study and assessed as 27.2%. The comorbidity of COPD and PAD is a relatively common occurrence. There are very few publications addressing this issue based on reliable diagnostic criteria, especially in the field of PAD. In the case of COPD and PAD patients, spirometry and ABI measurements are worth considering as noninvasive screening tests for COPD and PAD, respectively.

10.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 190, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have high oxidative stress associated with the severity of the disease. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-directed stress response plays a critical role in the protection of lung cells to oxidative stress by upregulating antioxidant genes in response to tobacco smoke. There is a critical gap in our knowledge about Nrf-2 regulated genes in active smokers and former-smokers with COPD in different cell types from of lungs and surrogate peripheral tissues. METHODS: We compared the expression of Nrf2 and six of its target genes in alveolar macrophages, nasal, and bronchial epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in current and former smokers with COPD. We compared cell-type specific of Nrf2 and its target genes as well as markers of oxidative and inflammatory stress. RESULTS: We enrolled 89 patients; expression all Nrf2 target gene measured were significantly higher in the bronchial epithelium from smokers compared to non-smokers. None were elevated in alveolar macrophages and only one was elevated in each of the other compartments. CONCLUSION: Bronchial epithelium is the most responsive tissue for transcriptional activation of Nrf2 target genes in active smokers compared to former-smokers with COPD that correlated with oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. There were no consistent trends in gene expression in other cell types tested. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT01335971.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Idoso , Brônquios/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/biossíntese , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Ativação Transcricional
11.
Thorax ; 74(8): 730-739, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 'One-off' systematic case-finding for COPD using a respiratory screening questionnaire is more effective and cost-effective than routine care at identifying new cases. However, it is not known whether early diagnosis and treatment is beneficial in the longer term. We estimated the long-term cost-effectiveness of a regular case-finding programme in primary care. METHODS: A Markov decision analytic model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of a 3-yearly systematic case-finding programme targeted to ever smokers aged ≥50 years with the current routine diagnostic process in UK primary care. Patient-level data on case-finding pathways was obtained from a large randomised controlled trial. Information on the natural history of COPD and treatment effects was obtained from a linked COPD cohort, UK primary care database and published literature. The discounted lifetime cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained was calculated from a health service perspective. RESULTS: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of systematic case-finding versus current care was £16 596 per additional QALY gained, with a 78% probability of cost-effectiveness at a £20 000 per QALY willingness-to-pay threshold. The base case result was robust to multiple one-way sensitivity analyses. The main drivers were response rate to the initial screening questionnaire and attendance rate for the confirmatory spirometry test. DISCUSSION: Regular systematic case-finding for COPD using a screening questionnaire in primary care is likely to be cost-effective in the long-term despite uncertainties in treatment effectiveness. Further knowledge of the natural history of case-found patients and the effectiveness of their management will improve confidence to implement such an approach.


Assuntos
Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Idoso , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 137, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Th17 cells are believed to be important proinflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent evidence demonstrates that Th17 cells display substantial developmental plasticity, giving rise to Th17/Th1 cells that secret both IL-17 and IFN-γ and are more pathogenic in inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of circulating Th17/Th1 subpopulation and its association with disease severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 21 never-smokers, 31 smokers with normal lung function and 83 patients with COPD. The frequencies of Th17 cells and the Th17/Th1 subset were measured using flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 and IL-12 were determined by ELISA. The associations of Th17/Th1 cells with lung function and smoking were evaluated. RESULTS: In peripheral blood, significantly increased proportions of Th17/Th1 cells among CD4 cells and Th17 cells were found in COPD patients compared with never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function. The percentages of Th17/Th1 cells showed correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 (FEV1) % predicted value (r = - 0.244, p < 0.05), and higher proportions of Th17/Th1 cells in GOLD stage IV patients compared with stage I patients. The percentages of Th17/Th1 cells were significantly higher in current smokers compared with ex-smoker COPD patients, and positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (r = 0.352, p < 0.01). The plasma concentrations of IL-6, TGF-ß1 and IL-12 were significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed correlations of proportions of IFN-γ-producing Th17/Th1 cells with lung function and smoking, suggesting that increased Th17/Th1 cells may play a role in COPD progression.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/biossíntese , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Interleucina-12/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumar , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue
13.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 144, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk and prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is still obscure. The current study was aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the risk ratio (RR) and prevalence of COPD in RA. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted based on PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from inception to April 30, 2018. The primary outcome of our study was the RR of COPD in RA patients compared with controls, and secondary was the prevalence of COPD in RA patients. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to fixed effect model or random effects model depending on heterogeneity. RESULTS: Six and eight studies reported the RR and prevalence of COPD in RA respectively. Compared with controls, RA patients have significant increased risk of incident COPD with pooled RR 1.82 (95% CI = 1.55 to 2.10, P <  0.001). The pooled prevalence of COPD in RA patients was 6.2% (95% CI = 4.1 to 8.3%). Meta-regression identified that publication year was an independent covariate negatively associated with the RR of COPD, and smoker proportion of RA population was also positively associated with the prevalence of COPD significantly in RA patients. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis has demonstrated the significant increased risk and high prevalence of COPD in RA patients. Patients with RA had better cease tobacco use and rheumatologists should pay attention to the monitoring of COPD for the prevention and control of COPD.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 153, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) imaging-based metrics enable to quantify smoking induced disease alterations and to identify imaging-based clusters for current smokers. We aimed to derive clinically meaningful sub-groups of former smokers using dimensional reduction and clustering methods to develop a new way of COPD phenotyping. METHODS: An imaging-based cluster analysis was performed for 406 former smokers with a comprehensive set of imaging metrics including 75 imaging-based metrics. They consisted of structural and functional variables at 10 segmental and 5 lobar locations. The structural variables included lung shape, branching angle, airway-circularity, airway-wall-thickness, airway diameter; the functional variables included regional ventilation, emphysema percentage, functional small airway disease percentage, Jacobian (volume change), anisotropic deformation index (directional preference in volume change), and tissue fractions at inspiration and expiration. RESULTS: We derived four distinct imaging-based clusters as possible phenotypes with the sizes of 100, 80, 141, and 85, respectively. Cluster 1 subjects were asymptomatic and showed relatively normal airway structure and lung function except airway wall thickening and moderate emphysema. Cluster 2 subjects populated with obese females showed an increase of tissue fraction at inspiration, minimal emphysema, and the lowest progression rate of emphysema. Cluster 3 subjects populated with older males showed small airway narrowing and a decreased tissue fraction at expiration, both indicating air-trapping. Cluster 4 subjects populated with lean males were likely to be severe COPD subjects showing the highest progression rate of emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: QCT imaging-based metrics for former smokers allow for the derivation of statistically stable clusters associated with unique clinical characteristics. This approach helps better categorization of COPD sub-populations; suggesting possible quantitative structural and functional phenotypes.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
15.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 135, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and may impact the efficacy of COPD treatments; however, a large proportion of COPD patients continue to smoke following diagnosis. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis of pooled data from the replicate 12-week, placebo-controlled GEM1 and GEM2 studies assessed the impact of smoking status on the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate 15.6 µg twice daily vs placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Data from 867 patients enrolled in GEM1 and GEM2 were pooled for analysis and grouped by smoking status (57% current smokers, 43% ex-smokers). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 12 h, trough FEV1, forced vital capacity, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, COPD assessment test (CAT) score, transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, daily symptom scores, and rescue medication use were assessed in current smokers and ex-smokers. Incidences of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were also assessed. RESULTS: Treatment with glycopyrrolate resulted in significant improvements in all lung function measures, independent of smoking status. In both current and ex-smokers, changes from baseline in trough FEV1 were less marked in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) than those not receiving ICS. Changes from baseline in SGRQ total score and rescue medication use were significantly greater with glycopyrrolate compared with placebo, regardless of smoking status. Changes in the CAT score, TDI focal score, and daily symptom scores significantly improved versus placebo, but only in current smokers. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with glycopyrrolate relative to placebo were numerically greater in current smokers than ex-smokers. The incidences of AEs and SAEs were similar regardless of smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis of GEM1 and GEM2, glycopyrrolate use led to significant improvements in lung function, independent of baseline smoking status; improvements were less marked among patients receiving background ICS, regardless of baseline smoking status. Improvements in PROs were greater with glycopyrrolate than placebo, and the magnitude of changes was numerically greater among current smokers. The safety profile of glycopyrrolate was comparable between current smokers and ex-smokers.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Glicopirrolato/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fumar Tabaco/tratamento farmacológico , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar Tabaco/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
16.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 128, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elastin breakdown and the resultant loss of lung elastic recoil is a hallmark of pulmonary emphysema in susceptible individuals as a consequence of tobacco smoke exposure. Systemic alterations to the synthesis and degradation of elastin may be important to our understanding of disease phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated the association of skin elasticity with pulmonary emphysema, obstructive lung disease, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and tissue protease activity in tobacco-exposed individuals. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six Caucasian individuals were recruited into a sub-study of the University of Pittsburgh Specialized Center for Clinically Orientated Research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a prospective cohort study of current and former smokers. The skin viscoelastic modulus (VE), a determinant of skin elasticity, was recorded from the volar forearm and facial wrinkling severity was determined using the Daniell scoring system. RESULTS: In a multiple regression analysis, reduced VE was significantly associated with cross-sectional measurement of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC) and emphysema quantified from computed tomography (CT) images, ß = 0.26, p = 0.001 and ß = 0.24, p = 0.001 respectively. In emphysema-susceptible individuals, elasticity-determined skin age was increased (median 4.6 years) compared to the chronological age of subjects without emphysema. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (TNFR1, TNFR2, CRP, PTX3, and SAA) and matrix metalloproteinase activity (MMP1, TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP4) were inversely associated with skin elasticity. CONCLUSIONS: We report that an objective non-invasive determinant of skin elasticity is independently associated with measures of lung function, pulmonary emphysema, and biomarkers of inflammation and tissue proteolysis in tobacco-exposed individuals. Loss of skin elasticity is a novel observation that may link the common pathological processes that drive tissue elastolysis in the extracellular matrix of the skin and lung in emphysema-susceptible individuals.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/sangue , Enfisema Pulmonar/sangue , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Fumantes , Fumar Tabaco/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Método Simples-Cego , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027935, 2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease, usually caused by tobacco smoking, but other important risk factors include exposures to combustion products of biomass fuels and environmental pollution. The introduction of several new (combination) inhaler therapies, increasing uncertainty about the role of inhaled corticosteroids and a rapid proliferation of the literature on management of stable COPD in general, call for novel ways of evidence synthesis in this area. A systematic review and evidence map can provide the basis for shared decision-making tools and help to establish a future research agenda. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will follow an umbrella systematic review design (also called overview of reviews). We plan to conduct a comprehensive literature search of Ovid MEDLINE (including epub ahead of print, in process and other non-indexed citations), Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus from database inception to the present. We will include systematic reviews that assessed the effectiveness of any pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention on one or more patient-important outcomes and/or lung function in patients with stable COPD. For every intervention/outcome pair, one systematic review will be included. An a priori protocol will guide, which systematic reviews will be chosen, how their credibility will be evaluated, and how the quality of the body of evidence will be rated. Data will be synthesised into an evidence map that will present a matrix that depicts each available treatment for stable COPD with a quantitative estimate on symptoms/outcomes from the patient perspective, along with an indication of the size and certainty in the evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval by a research ethics committee is not required since the review will only include published data. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018095079.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052180

RESUMO

Complications due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death in China and the United States (U.S.). This study aimed to investigate the long-term trends in COPD mortality in China and the U.S. using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) and explore the age, period, and cohort effects independently by sex under the age-period-cohort (APC) framework. Taking the age group 40-44 years old, the period 1992-1996, and the birth cohort 1913-1917 as reference groups, we found that the age relative risks (RRs) of COPD mortality increased exponentially in both China and the U.S., the period RRs increased in the U.S. but decreased in China; and the cohort RRs showed an overall downward trend in both China and the U.S. with the year of birth. From 1992 to 2017, the increased RRs of COPD mortality in the U.S. was mainly attributable to the increased prevalence of smoking before 1965, while the decreased RRs of COPD mortality in China was mainly attributable to reduced air pollution as well as improvements in medical technology and more accessible health services. Reducing tobacco consumption may be the most effective and feasible way to prevent COPD in China. However, we also need to pay more attention to COPD in nonsmokers in the future.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Efeito de Coortes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123398

RESUMO

Purpose: Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more symptoms, more exacerbations, lower health status scores, and more comorbidity. However, it is unclear whether management of COPD differs by sex. The aim of the study was to investigate differences by sex in the care of patients with COPD. Patients and methods: The population included 1329 primary and secondary care patients with a doctor´s diagnosis of COPD in central Sweden. Data were obtained from patient questionnaires and included patient characteristics and data on achieved COPD care. Analyses included cross-tabulations, chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression using several measures in COPD management as dependent variables, female sex as independent variable, and with adjustment for age groups, previous exacerbations, COPD Assessment Test, level of dyspnea assessed by the modified Medical Research Council scale, comorbid conditions, self-rated moderate/severe disease, level of education and body mass index. Results: Women were more likely to receive triple therapy (OR 1.86 (95% CI 1.38-2.51)), to have any maintenance treatment (OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.31-2.55)), to be on sick leave (OR 2.16 (95% CI 1.19-3.93)), to have received smoking cessation support (OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.18-2.75)) and to have had pneumococcal vaccination (OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.37-2.43)), all independently of age, severity of disease or other potential confounders. Conclusion: Management of COPD differs by sex, with women being more actively managed than men. It is unclear whether this is due to patient- or care-related factors.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica , Suécia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118602

RESUMO

Objectives: A significant proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are never-smokers. However, the clinical impact of spirometrically diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the prognosis of never-smoking NSCLC has not been evaluated in the context of treatment modalities and other cancer-related factors. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical impact of COPD in non-smoking NSCLC patients, and correlations between COPD and other previously unevaluated clinical variables. Materials and methods: Lung cancer patients (stages I to IV) diagnosed with NSCLC between January 2008 and December 2015 at six university hospitals were enrolled in the study cohort and retrospectively evaluated. Clinical parameters were compared between spirometrically diagnosed COPD and non-COPD groups. Correlations between COPD status and other variables were evaluated. In order to reduce the effect of potential confounders and selection bias, we performed adjustment for differences in baseline parameters by using propensity score matching (PSM). After PSM, clinical variables were evaluated for their effects on overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 345 patients enrolled in the study, 277 were categorized as non-COPD and 68 as COPD. Old age, male gender, and wild-type EGFR were significantly correlated with COPD. By univariate analysis of 218 patients in a propensity score matched cohort, not receiving active anticancer treatment, advanced stage, and COPD were significantly associated with shorter OS. Multivariate analysis showed that not receiving active anticancer treatment, advanced cancer stage, and COPD (P=0.044, HR: 1.526, 95% CI: 1.012-2.300) were significant predictors of shorter OS. Conclusion: In the present study, never-smoker NSCLC patients with COPD had shorter OS times, compared to non-COPD never-smoker NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , não Fumantes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fumantes , Espirometria , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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