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1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(9): 613-618, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909414

RESUMO

The proportion of patients whose asthma is poorly controlled due to their smoking remains high. Electronic cigarette (EC) is a new tool to help people stopping smoking, which substitutes a much less irritating aerosol to very toxic cigarette smoke, but it cannot be considered completely healthy. It represents a possible assistance for asthmatic smokers who wish using it to stop smoking. This article is a systematic review of the literature on the data concerning the relationships between EC use and asthma. There is a positive association between asthma symptoms, their severity and current use of CE in adolescents. The results are more contrasted in adult asthmatic CE users compared to cigarette smoking. CE should not be used by adolescents but can help, in exclusively use, adults with asthma stopping smoking.


Assuntos
Asma , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Fumar
2.
Respir Med ; 171: 106096, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly reaching over 3 million of confirmed cases worldwide. The association of respiratory diseases and smoking, both highly prevalent globally, with COVID-19 severity has not been elucidated. Given the gap in the evidence and the growing prevalence of COVID-19, the objective of this study was to explore the association of underlying respiratory diseases and smoking with severe outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: A systematic search was performed to identify studies reporting prevalence of respiratory diseases and/or smoking in relation with disease severity in patients with confirm COVID-19, published between January 1 to April 15, 2020 in English language. Pooled odds-ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. FINDINGS: Twenty two studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies presented data of 13,184 COVID-19 patients (55% males). Patients with severe outcomes were older and a larger percentage were males compared with the non-severe. Pooled analysis showed that prevalence of respiratory diseases (OR 4.21; 95% CI, 2.9-6.0) and smoking (current smoking OR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.16-3.39 and former smoking OR 3.46; 95% CI, 2.46-4.85) were significantly associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Results suggested that underlying respiratory diseases, specifically COPD, and smoking were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. These findings may support the planning of preventive interventions and could contribute to improvements in the assessment and management of patient risk factors in clinical practice, leading to the mitigation of severe outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection.

3.
Trials ; 21(1): 730, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it contributes to the development of many other serious diseases. Smoking cessation in COPD patients is known to improve survival and reduce the number of hospitalization-requiring acute exacerbations of COPD. However, smoking cessation interventions in these patients have only been successful for approximately 15-20% for consistent smoking abstinence in 12 months. Thus, more effective interventions are needed for this patient group. The aim of this study is to determine whether a high-intensity intervention compared to a low-intensity intervention can increase the proportion of persistent (> 12 months) anamnestic and biochemical smoking cessation in active smokers with COPD. METHODS: This study is a randomized controlled trial. A total of 600 active smokers with COPD will be randomly assigned 1:1 to either a standard treatment (guideline-based municipal smoking cessation program, "low intensity" group) or an intervention ("high-intensity" group) group, which consists of group sessions, telephone consultations, behavior design, hotline, and "buddy-matching" (smoker matched with COPD patient who has ceased smoking). Both groups will receive pharmacological smoking cessation. The primary endpoint is anamnestic and biochemical (cotinine analysis in urine) validated smoking cessation after 12 months. DISCUSSION: The potential benefit of this project is to improve smoking cessation rates and thereby reduce smoking-related exacerbations of COPD. In addition, the project can potentially benefit from increasing the quality of life and longevity of COPD patients and reducing the risk of other smoking-related diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04088942 . Registered on 13 September 2019.

4.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 1741-1750, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764918

RESUMO

Introduction: Tobacco use and other cardiovascular risk factors often accompany chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study derived and validated the Summit Score to predict mortality in people with COPD and cardiovascular risks. Methods: SUMMIT trial subjects (N=16,485) ages 40-80 years with COPD were randomly assigned 50%/50% to derivation (N=8181) and internal validation (N=8304). Three external COPD validations from Intermountain Healthcare included outpatients with cardiovascular risks (N=9251), outpatients without cardiovascular risks (N=8551), and inpatients (N=26,170). Cox regression evaluated 40 predictors of all-cause mortality. SUMMIT treatments including combined fluticasone furoate (FF) 100µg/vilanterol 25µg (VI) were not included in the score. Results: Mortality predictors were FEV1, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, smoking pack-years, prior COPD hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes, anti-thrombotics, anti-arrhythmics, and xanthines. Combined in the Summit Score (derivation: c=0.668), quartile 4 vs 1 had HR=4.43 in SUMMIT validation (p<0.001, 95% CI=3.27, 6.01, c=0.662) and HR=8.15 in Intermountain cardiovascular risk COPD outpatients (p<0.001, 95% CI=5.86, 11.34, c=0.736), and strongly predicted mortality in the other Intermountain COPD populations. Among all SUMMIT subjects with scores 14-19, FF 100µg/VI 25µg vs placebo had HR=0.76 (p=0.0158, 95% CI=0.61, 0.95), but FF 100µg/VI 25µg was not different from placebo for scores <14 or >19. Conclusion: In this post hoc analysis of SUMMIT trial data, the Summit Score was derived and validated in multiple Intermountain COPD populations. The score was used to identify a subpopulation in which mortality risk was lower for FF 100µg/VI 25µg treatment. Trial Registration: The SUMMIT trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as number NCT01313676.

5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure can trigger asthma exacerbations in children. Different studies have linked increased asthma symptoms and even deaths in children with SHS, but the risk has not been quantified uniformly across studies. We aimed to investigate the role of SHS exposure as a risk factor of asthma among children. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from June 1975 to 10 March 2020. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk estimates and confidence intervals of all types of SHS exposure and childhood asthma. RESULTS: Of the 26 970 studies identified, we included 93 eligible studies (42 cross-sectional, 41 cohort, and 10 case-control) in the meta-analysis. There were significantly positive associations between SHS exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-1.28), wheezing (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.23-1.32) and asthma-like syndrome (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.34-1.64). The funnel plots of all three outcomes skewed to the right, indicating that the studies generally favor a positive association of the disease with tobacco exposure. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that younger children tended to suffer more from developing doctor-diagnosed asthma, but older children (adolescents) suffered more from wheezing. There was no evidence of significant publication or small study bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. CONCLUSION: The results show a positive association between prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoking exposure and the occurrence of childhood asthma, asthma-like syndrome, and wheezing. These results lend support to continued efforts to reduce childhood exposure to secondhand smoke.

6.
COPD ; 17(3): 318-325, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506965

RESUMO

The effects of health literacy in developing self-management skills among people suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a topic that has been lightly tread upon. The advent of tobacco smoking and air pollution caused by the industrialisation era has caused a startling increase in the rates of incidence and prevalence of those diagnosed with COPD. Despite advancement in medical treatment, prevention and health care systems COPD poses a great challenge to public health now than ever before. This systematic review examines eight articles that have dealt with the role health literacy plays in developing self-management skills. This study found that there is no relationship between the adequacy of health literacy and the knowledge or learning of a self-management skill. The relationship between heath literacy and developing skills such as correct technique of inhaler use, awareness of an exacerbation, usage of home-based technological support (telehomecare) needs further delving. Remarkably, it also revealed that health literacy sensitive materials improved self-management skills in all the levels of health literacy. More research is required in identifying literacy sensitive methods that would be beneficial to all disregarding of the level health literary. A wider range of self-management skills pertaining to prevention, maintenance and control needs to be explored.

7.
JAMA ; 323(22): 2268-2280, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515814

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet much of COPD risk remains unexplained. Objective: To determine whether dysanapsis, a mismatch of airway tree caliber to lung size, assessed by computed tomography (CT), is associated with incident COPD among older adults and lung function decline in COPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of 2 community-based samples: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study, which involved 2531 participants (6 US sites, 2010-2018) and the Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease (CanCOLD), which involved 1272 participants (9 Canadian sites, 2010-2018), and a case-control study of COPD: the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), which involved 2726 participants (12 US sites, 2011-2016). Exposures: Dysanapsis was quantified on CT as the geometric mean of airway lumen diameters measured at 19 standard anatomic locations divided by the cube root of lung volume (airway to lung ratio). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was COPD defined by postbronchodilator ratio of forced expired volume in the first second to vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) less than 0.70 with respiratory symptoms. Secondary outcome was longitudinal lung function. All analyses were adjusted for demographics and standard COPD risk factors (primary and secondhand tobacco smoke exposures, occupational and environmental pollutants, and asthma). Results: In the MESA Lung sample (mean [SD] age, 69 years [9 years]; 1334 women [52.7%]), 237 of 2531 participants (9.4%) had prevalent COPD, the mean (SD) airway to lung ratio was 0.033 (0.004), and the mean (SD) FEV1 decline was -33 mL/y (31 mL/y). Of 2294 MESA Lung participants without prevalent COPD, 98 (4.3%) had incident COPD at a median of 6.2 years. Compared with participants in the highest quartile of airway to lung ratio, those in the lowest had a significantly higher COPD incidence (9.8 vs 1.2 cases per 1000 person-years; rate ratio [RR], 8.12; 95% CI, 3.81 to 17.27; rate difference, 8.6 cases per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.1 to 9.2; P < .001) but no significant difference in FEV1 decline (-31 vs -33 mL/y; difference, 2 mL/y; 95% CI, -2 to 5; P = .30). Among CanCOLD participants (mean [SD] age, 67 years [10 years]; 564 women [44.3%]), 113 of 752 (15.0%) had incident COPD at a median of 3.1 years and the mean (SD) FEV1 decline was -36 mL/y (75 mL/y). The COPD incidence in the lowest airway to lung quartile was significantly higher than in the highest quartile (80.6 vs 24.2 cases per 1000 person-years; RR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.89 to 5.85; rate difference, 56.4 cases per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 38.0 to 66.8; P<.001), but the FEV1 decline did not differ significantly (-34 vs -36 mL/y; difference, 1 mL/y; 95% CI, -15 to 16; P=.97). Among 1206 SPIROMICS participants (mean [SD] age, 65 years [8 years]; 542 women [44.9%]) with COPD who were followed up for a median 2.1 years, those in the lowest airway to lung ratio quartile had a mean FEV1 decline of -37 mL/y (15 mL/y), which did not differ significantly from the decline in MESA Lung participants (P = .98), whereas those in highest quartile had significantly faster decline than participants in MESA Lung (-55 mL/y [16 mL/y ]; difference, -17 mL/y; 95% CI, -32 to -3; P = .004). Conclusions and Relevance: Among older adults, dysanapsis was significantly associated with COPD, with lower airway tree caliber relative to lung size associated with greater COPD risk. Dysanapsis appears to be a risk factor associated with COPD.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Pulmão/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Capacidade Vital , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
JCI Insight ; 5(13)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497023

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDDysregulation of l-arginine metabolism has been proposed to occur in patients with severe asthma. The effects of l-arginine supplementation on l-arginine metabolite profiles in these patients are unknown. We hypothesized that individuals with severe asthma with low fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) would have fewer exacerbations with the addition of l-arginine to their standard asthma medications compared with placebo and would demonstrate the greatest changes in metabolite profiles.METHODSParticipants were enrolled in a single-center, crossover, double-blind l-arginine intervention trial at UCD. Subjects received placebo or l-arginine, dosed orally at 0.05 mg/kg (ideal body weight) twice daily. The primary end point was moderate asthma exacerbations. Longitudinal plasma metabolite levels were measured using mass spectrometry. A linear mixed-effect model with subject-specific intercepts was used for testing treatment effects.RESULTSA cohort of 50 subjects was included in the final analysis. l-Arginine did not significantly decrease asthma exacerbations in the overall cohort. Higher citrulline levels and a lower arginine availability index (AAI) were associated with higher FeNO (P = 0.005 and P = 2.51 × 10-9, respectively). Higher AAI was associated with lower exacerbation events. The eicosanoid prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) and Nα-acetyl-l-arginine were found to be good predictors for differentiating clinical responders and nonresponders.CONCLUSIONSThere was no statistically significant decrease in asthma exacerbations in the overall cohort with l-arginine intervention. PGH2, Nα-acetyl-l-arginine, and the AAI could serve as predictive biomarkers in future clinical trials that intervene in the arginine metabolome.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01841281.FUNDINGThis study was supported by NIH grants R01HL105573, DK097154, UL1 TR001861, and K08HL114882. Metabolomics analysis was supported in part by a grant from the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program program (TRDRP).

9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: In total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%-14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4-2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03-2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%. CONCLUSION: Although COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: In total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%-14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4-2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03-2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%. CONCLUSION: Although COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathways guide clinicians through evidence-based care of specific conditions. Pathways have been demonstrated to improve inpatient asthma care but mainly in studies at large, tertiary children's hospitals. It remains unclear if these effects are generalizable across diverse hospital settings. Our objective was to improve inpatient asthma care by implementing pathways in a diverse, national sample of hospitals. METHODS: We used a learning collaborative model. Pathway implementation strategies included local champions, external facilitators and/or mentors, educational seminars, quality improvement methods, and audit and feedback. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) (primary), early administration of metered-dose inhalers, screening for secondhand tobacco exposure and referral to cessation resources, and 7-day hospital readmissions or emergency revisits (balancing). Hospitals reviewed a sample of up to 20 charts per month of children ages 2 to 17 years who were admitted with a primary diagnosis of asthma (12 months before and 15 months after implementation). Analyses were done by using multilevel regression models with an interrupted time series approach, adjusting for patient characteristics. RESULTS: Eighty-five hospitals enrolled (40 children's and 45 community); 68 (80%) completed the study (n = 12 013 admissions). Pathways were associated with increases in early administration of metered-dose inhalers (odds ratio: 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.22) and referral to smoking cessation resources (odds ratio: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.27-2.91) but no statistically significant changes in other outcomes, including LOS (rate ratio: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06). Most hospitals (65%) improved in at least 1 outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Pathways did not significantly impact LOS but did improve quality of asthma care for children in a diverse, national group of hospitals.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Hospitalização/tendências , Inaladores Dosimetrados/tendências , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inaladores Dosimetrados/normas , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e037509, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and the decline in lung function in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is evidence that smoking causes 'steroid resistance' and thus reduces the effect of ICS. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on efficacy of ICS in COPD in terms of lung function and exacerbation rates. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: An electronic database search of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and Cochrane Library (January 2000 to January 2020). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Fully published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), in the English language, evaluating the use of ICS in COPD adults that stratified the participants by smoking status. Trials that included participants with asthma, lung cancer and pneumonia were excluded. The primary outcome measures were changes in lung function and yearly exacerbation rates. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. RESULTS: Seven studies were identified. Four trials (17 892 participants) recorded change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from baseline to up to 30 months after starting treatment. Heavier smokers (>36 pack years) using ICS had a greater decline in FEV1 that ranged from -22 mL to -75 mL in comparison to lighter smokers. Smokers using ICS had mixed results in FEV1 change: -8 mL to +77 mL in comparison to ex-smokers. Four trials (21 270 participants) recorded difference in COPD exacerbation rates at 52 weeks. The rate ratios favoured more exacerbations in ICS users who were current or heavier smokers than those who were ex-smokers or lighter smokers (0.81 to 0.99 vs 0.92 to 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: In COPD, heavier or current smokers do not gain the same benefit from ICS use on lung function and exacerbation rates as lighter or ex-smokers do, however effects may not be clinically important. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019121833.

13.
Radiology ; 295(1): 218-226, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013794

RESUMO

Background CT is used to quantify abnormal changes in the lung parenchyma of smokers that might overlap chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but studies on the progression of expiratory air trapping in smokers are scarce. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and CT-quantified emphysema and air trapping in smokers. Materials and Methods Cigarette smokers with and those without COPD participating in the multicenter observational COPDGene study were evaluated. Subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT and spirometry at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Emphysema was quantified by using adjusted lung density (ALD). Air trapping was quantified by using mean lung density at expiratory CT and CT-measured functional residual capacity-to-total lung volume ratio. Linear models were used to regress quantitative CT measurements taken 5 years apart, and models were fit with and without adding FEV1 as a predictor. Analyses were stratified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage (GOLD 0, no COPD; GOLD 1, mild COPD; GOLD 2, moderate COPD; GOLD 3, severe COPD; GOLD 4, very severe COPD). Subjects with preserved FEV1-to-forced vital capacity ratio and reduced FEV1 percentage predicted were categorized as having preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm). Results A total of 4211 subjects (503 with PRISm; 2034 with GOLD 0, 388 with GOLD 1, 816 with GOLD 2, 381 with GOLD 3, 89 with GOLD 4) were evaluated. ALD decreased by 1.7 g/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.5, -0.9) in subjects with GOLD 0 at baseline and by 5.3 g/L (95% CI: -6.2, -4.4) in those with GOLD 1-4 (P < .001 for both). When adjusted for changes in FEV1, corresponding numbers were -2.2 (95% CI: -3.0, -1.3) and -4.6 g/L (95% CI: -5.6, -3.4) (P < .001 for both). Progression in air trapping was identified only in GOLD stage 2-4. Approximately 33%-50% of changes in air trapping in GOLD stages 2-4 were accounted for by changes in FEV1. Conclusion CT measures of emphysema and air trapping increased over 5 years in smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second accounted for less than 10% of emphysema progression and less than 50% of air trapping progression detected at CT. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Ar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Public Health Nurs ; 37(3): 453-460, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899558

RESUMO

Greenness such as trees, plants, and shrubs may positively influence mental and physical health, but the relationship between greenness and asthma is poorly understood. Because asthma is the most prevalent child respiratory disease internationally, elucidating the role of greenness may substantially benefit public health. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize findings related to effects of greenness on asthma in children. Following PRISMA guidelines, six databases were searched for international publication of primary research results relevant to the relationship between greenness and child asthma. Of 82 initial results, seven articles remained after removal of duplicates and applying exclusion criteria. Six reported no direct association between greenness and child asthma, while one found increased greenness protective for asthma. None found a negative direct association between greenness and child asthma. Evidence supported benefits of greenness on child asthma through mediation of factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, high traffic volume, and difficult family relationships. Even without a direct association, greenness can be considered a public health asset as it may mediate other factors contributing to asthma in children. Public health nurses can use these findings to educate clients and partners while advocating for policies to protect greenness.

15.
COPD ; 17(1): 7-14, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854207

RESUMO

Our main objective was to demonstrate that, in smoker patients hospitalised for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation, early initiation of varenicline during 12 weeks, combined with an intensive counselling, is associated with a higher continuous abstainers rate (CAR) at one year as compared to intensive counselling alone. In this multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomised study, 81 smoking COPD patients hospitalised for an acute exacerbation for at least 24 h were allocated to receive either varenicline (n = 42) or placebo (n = 39) for 12 weeks, in association with an intensive counselling in the 2 groups, and followed up for 40 weeks. The primary outcome was CAR at week 52. Secondary outcomes included CAR at week 12 and 26, partial abstinence rate (PAR) at week 12, 26 and 52, nicotinic substitute consumption and adverse events. At week 52, CAR was not different in placebo and varenicline groups (25.6%). At week 12, CAR was significantly higher in the varenicline group (50%) as compared to placebo group (27%) (p = 0.041). Nicotine consumption was significantly higher at week 52 in the placebo group (55.3%) as compared to the varenicline group (24.4%) (p = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PAR at week 12, 26 and 52; the frequency of adverse events was similar between the two groups. Among active smoker COPD patients with exacerbation, 12-week varenicline associated with intensive counselling for smoking cessation increased the rate of continuous abstainers as compared to placebo. However, benefit was not maintained after varenicline discontinuation.Clinical Trials Registration: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: NCT01694732.

16.
J Asthma ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702415

RESUMO

Objective: The recruitment setting plays a key role in the evaluation of behavioral interventions. We evaluated a behavioral intervention for urban adolescents with asthma in three randomized trials conducted separately in three different settings over the course of 8 years. We hypothesized that characteristics of trial participants recruited from the ED and clinic settings would be significantly different from that of youth participating in the school-based trials. The intervention evaluated was Puff City, a web-based program that uses tailoring to improve asthma management behaviors.Methods: The present analysis includes youth aged 13-19 years who reported a physician diagnosis of asthma and symptoms at trial baseline. In the three trials, all participants were randomized post-baseline to a web-based, tailored intervention (treatment) or generic web-based asthma education (control).Results: Compared to school-based trial participants, ED participants had significantly more acute-care visits for asthma (p < 0.001) and more caregiver depression (p < 0.001). Clinic-based participants were more likely to have computer/ internet access than participants from the school-based trial (p < 0.001). Both ED and clinic participants were more likely to report controller medication (p's < 0.001) and higher teen emotional support (p's < 0.01) when compared to the schools, but were less likely to report Medicaid (p's < 0.014) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Compared to participants in the school-based trials, participants recruited from ED and clinic settings differed significantly in terms of healthcare use, as well as psychosocial and sociodemographic factors. These factors can inform intervention content, and may impact external validity of behavioral interventions for asthma.

17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 186, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence of an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the risk of new onset IBD in patients with COPD and new onset COPD in IBD patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of observational studies exploring the risk of both associations. Two independent reviewers explored the EMBASE, MEDLINE, LILACS and DOAJ databases, and the risk of bias was evaluated using the ROBBINS-I tool. Data from included studies was pooled in a random effect meta-analysis following a DerSimonian-Laird method. The quality of the evidence was ranked using GRADE criteria. RESULTS: Four studies including a pooled population of 1355 new cases were included. We found association between new onset IBD in COPD population. The risk of bias was low in most of them. Only one study reported tobacco exposure as a potential confounding factor. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for a new diagnosis of IBD in COPD patients was 2.02 (CI, 1.56 to 2.63), I2 = 72% (GRADE: low). The subgroup analyses for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis yielded RRs of 2.29 (CI, 1.51 to 3.48; I2 = 62%), and 1.79 (CI, 1.39 to 2.29; I2 = 19%.), respectively. DISCUSSION: According to our findings, the risk of new onset IBD was higher in populations with COPD compared to the general population without this condition. Based on our analysis, we suggest a potential association between IBD and COPD; however, further research exploring the potential effect of confounding variables, especially cigarette smoking, is still needed. REVIEW REGISTER: (PROSPERO: CRD42018096624).


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Humanos
18.
COPD ; 16(3-4): 292-302, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581921

RESUMO

The comorbidity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is obvious from a clinical point of view, especially as smoking is an important risk factor for both. Another factor connecting these two clinical conditions is chronic inflammation, which plays a crucial role in their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to present the prevalence of COPD in patients with PAD, as well as the prevalence of PAD in COPD patients confirmed in all patients by two reliable methods: spirometry and ankle-brachial index (ABI), respectively. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to identify the potentially eligible publications from the previous 10 years. The published characteristics of different PAD and COPD populations were analyzed. A database search identified 894 records. Reliable criteria of both COPD and PAD diagnosis were used only in seven publications. The prevalence of PAD among patients with COPD ranged from 8.5 to 81.4%. The severity of the disease and the exclusion of nonsmokers or symptomatic patients from the analyses were important factors affecting this parameter. The prevalence of COPD in patients with PAD was measured reliably only in one study and assessed as 27.2%. The comorbidity of COPD and PAD is a relatively common occurrence. There are very few publications addressing this issue based on reliable diagnostic criteria, especially in the field of PAD. In the case of COPD and PAD patients, spirometry and ABI measurements are worth considering as noninvasive screening tests for COPD and PAD, respectively.

19.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 190, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have high oxidative stress associated with the severity of the disease. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-directed stress response plays a critical role in the protection of lung cells to oxidative stress by upregulating antioxidant genes in response to tobacco smoke. There is a critical gap in our knowledge about Nrf-2 regulated genes in active smokers and former-smokers with COPD in different cell types from of lungs and surrogate peripheral tissues. METHODS: We compared the expression of Nrf2 and six of its target genes in alveolar macrophages, nasal, and bronchial epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in current and former smokers with COPD. We compared cell-type specific of Nrf2 and its target genes as well as markers of oxidative and inflammatory stress. RESULTS: We enrolled 89 patients; expression all Nrf2 target gene measured were significantly higher in the bronchial epithelium from smokers compared to non-smokers. None were elevated in alveolar macrophages and only one was elevated in each of the other compartments. CONCLUSION: Bronchial epithelium is the most responsive tissue for transcriptional activation of Nrf2 target genes in active smokers compared to former-smokers with COPD that correlated with oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. There were no consistent trends in gene expression in other cell types tested. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT01335971.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Idoso , Brônquios/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/biossíntese , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Ativação Transcricional
20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 137, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Th17 cells are believed to be important proinflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent evidence demonstrates that Th17 cells display substantial developmental plasticity, giving rise to Th17/Th1 cells that secret both IL-17 and IFN-γ and are more pathogenic in inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of circulating Th17/Th1 subpopulation and its association with disease severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 21 never-smokers, 31 smokers with normal lung function and 83 patients with COPD. The frequencies of Th17 cells and the Th17/Th1 subset were measured using flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 and IL-12 were determined by ELISA. The associations of Th17/Th1 cells with lung function and smoking were evaluated. RESULTS: In peripheral blood, significantly increased proportions of Th17/Th1 cells among CD4 cells and Th17 cells were found in COPD patients compared with never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function. The percentages of Th17/Th1 cells showed correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 (FEV1) % predicted value (r = - 0.244, p < 0.05), and higher proportions of Th17/Th1 cells in GOLD stage IV patients compared with stage I patients. The percentages of Th17/Th1 cells were significantly higher in current smokers compared with ex-smoker COPD patients, and positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (r = 0.352, p < 0.01). The plasma concentrations of IL-6, TGF-ß1 and IL-12 were significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed correlations of proportions of IFN-γ-producing Th17/Th1 cells with lung function and smoking, suggesting that increased Th17/Th1 cells may play a role in COPD progression.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/biossíntese , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Interleucina-12/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumar , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue
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