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1.
CJEM ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709250

RESUMO

As of January 2019, over half of all doctors working in Canada under the age of 40 were women. Despite equal representation in the profession of medicine, women still experience harassment, discrimination, and pay inequity when compared to their male colleagues. Gender discrimination is present at all levels of medical training and negatively impacts women who want to become emergency physicians. The right to gender equity is part of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The World Health Organization states that "gender inequities are socially generated and, therefore, can be changed." CAEP recognizes that gender equity is important to its members and that it intersects with inequities experienced by other minority groups. This position statement from the committee for Women in Emergency Medicine (EM) is intended to support women and those who identify as women who have chosen EM as their career. Furthermore, it is meant to inform and support policy makers as they consider the unique challenges that women face in their pursuit of excellence in EM.

2.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637640

RESUMO

Women are substantially underrepresented in senior and leadership positions in medicine and experience gendered challenges in their work settings. This systematic review aimed to synthesise research that has evaluated interventions for improving gender equity in medicine. English language electronic searches were conducted across MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Reference list screening was also undertaken. Peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and March 2020 that evaluated interventions to improve gender equity, or the experiences of women, in academic or clinical medicine were reviewed. Dual reviewer data extraction on setting, participants, type of intervention, measurement and outcomes was completed. Methodological rigour and strength of findings were evaluated. In total, 34 studies were included. Interventions were typically focused on equipping the woman (82.4%), that is, delivering professional development activities for women. Fewer focused on changing cultures (20.6%), ensuring equal opportunities (23.5%) or increasing the visibility or valuing of women (23.5%). Outcomes were largely positive (87.3%) but measurement typically relied on subjective, self-report data (69.1%). Few interventions were implemented in clinical settings (17.6%). Weak methodological rigour and a low strength of findings was observed. There has been a focus to-date on interventions which Equip the Woman Interventions addressing systems and culture change require further research consideration. However, institutions cannot wait on high quality research evidence to emerge to take action on gender equity. Data collated suggest a number of recommendations pertaining to research on, and the implementation of, interventions to improve gender equity in academic and clinical settings.

3.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(1): 1-13, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439566

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While much of the literature on homelessness is centred on the experience of men, women make up over one-quarter of Canada's homeless population. Research has shown that women experiencing homelessness are often hidden (i.e. provisionally housed) and have different pathways into homelessness and different needs as compared to men. The objective of this research is to identify evidence-based interventions and best practices to better support women experiencing or at risk of homelessness. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review with a gender and equity analysis. This involved searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and other databases for systematic reviews and randomized trials, supplementing our search through reference scanning and grey literature, followed by a qualitative synthesis of the evidence that examined gender and equity considerations. RESULTS: Of the 4102 articles identified on homelessness interventions, only 4 systematic reviews and 9 randomized trials were exclusively conducted on women or published disaggregated data enabling a gender analysis. Interventions with the strongest evidence included post-shelter advocacy counselling for women experiencing homelessness due to intimate partner violence, as well as case management and permanent housing subsidies (e.g. tenant-based rental assistance vouchers), which were shown to reduce homelessness, food insecurity, exposure to violence and psychosocial distress, as well as promote school stability and child well-being. CONCLUSION: Much of the evidence on interventions to better support women experiencing homelessness focusses on those accessing domestic violence or family shelters. Since many more women are experiencing or at risk of hidden homelessness, population-based strategies are also needed to reduce gender inequity and exposure to violence, which are among the main structural drivers of homelessness among women.


Assuntos
Equidade de Gênero , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040355, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mentoring is frequently suggested as an intervention to address gender inequalities in the workplace. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review evidence published since a definitive review in 2006 on the effectiveness of mentoring interventions aimed at achieving gender equality in academic medicine. DESIGN: Systematic Review, using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication as a template for data extraction and synthesis. SAMPLE: Studies were included if they described a specific mentoring intervention in a medical school or analogous academic healthcare organisation and included results from an evaluation of the intervention. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Mentoring was defined as (1) a formally organised intervention entailing a supportive relationship between a mentor, defined as a more senior/experienced person and a mentee defined as a more junior/inexperienced person; (2) mentoring intervention involved academic career support (3) the mentoring relationship was outside line management or supervision of performance and was defined by contact over an extended period of time. OUTCOMES: The impact of mentoring was usually reported at the level of individual participants, for example, satisfaction and well-being or self-reported career progression. We sought evidence of impact on gender equality via reports of organisation-level effectiveness, of promotion or retention, pay and academic performance of female staff. RESULTS: We identified 32 publications: 8 review articles, 20 primary observational studies and 4 randomised controlled trials. A further 19 discussed mentoring in relation to gender but did not meet our eligibility criteria. The terminology used, and the structures and processes reported as constituting mentoring, varied greatly. We identified that mentoring is popular with many who receive it; however, we found no robust evidence of effectiveness in reducing gender inequalities. Primary research used weak evaluation designs. CONCLUSIONS: Mentoring is a complex intervention. Future evaluations should adopt standardised approaches used in applied health research to the design and evaluation of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

6.
JBI Evid Synth ; 18(10): 2181-2193, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe the global evidence of gender inequity among individuals with appointments at academic institutions that conduct health research, and examine how gender intersects with other social identities to influence outcomes. INTRODUCTION: The gender demographics of universities have shifted, yet the characteristics of those who lead academic health research institutions have not reflected this change. Synthesized evidence will guide decision-making and policy development to support the progress of gender and other under-represented social identities in academia. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider any quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods primary research that reports outcome data related to gender equity and other social identities among individuals affiliated with academic or research institutions that conduct health research, originating from any country. METHODS: The JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis and the Cochrane Collaboration's guidance on living reviews will inform the review methods. Information sources will include electronic databases, unpublished literature sources, reference scanning of relevant systematic reviews, and sources provided by experts on the research team. Searches will be run regularly to monitor the development of new literature and determine when the review will be updated. Study selection and data extraction will be conducted by two reviewers working independently, and all discrepancies will be resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Data synthesis will summarize information using descriptive frequencies and simple thematic analysis. Results will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension to scoping reviews. REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/8wk7e/.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e037090, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While the number of women entering medical school now equals or surpasses the number of men, gender equity in medicine has not been achieved. Women continue to be under-represented in leadership roles (eg, deans, medical chairs) and senior faculty positions. In addition, women do not enter medical specialties as often as men, which can have important implications for work environment, reimbursement and the delivery of patient care. Compared with other medical specialties (eg, anaesthesiology, dermatology, etc), critical care medicine is a medical specialty with some of the lowest representation of women. While strategies to improve gender equity in critical care medicine exist in the published literature, efforts to comprehensively synthesise, prioritise and implement solutions have been limited.The objective of this programme of work is to establish priorities for the development and implementation of key strategies to improve the outcomes, well-being and experiences of women in critical care in Canada. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Three phases encompass this programme of work. In phase I, we will catalogue published strategies focused on improving gender inequity across medical specialties through a scoping review. In phase II, we will conduct a modified Delphi consensus process with decision-makers, physicians and researchers to identify key strategies (identified in phase I and proposed by participants in phase II) for improving gender inequity in the specialty of critical care medicine. Finally, in phase III, we will conduct a 1-day stakeholder meeting that engages participants from phase II to build capacity for the development and implementation of top ranked strategies. Data analyses from this programme of work will be both quantitative and qualitative. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The proposed programme of work is a foundational step towards establishing targeted strategies to improve gender inequity in the medical specialty of critical care medicine. Strategies will be prioritised by stakeholders, mapped to preidentified drivers of gender equity in the specialty and be scalable to institutional needs. A final report of our results including the list of top prioritised strategies and implementation objectives will be disseminated to panel participants, critical care leadership teams and major critical care societies who are partners in this work, around the country to facilitate uptake at the local level.The University of Calgary Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board has approved this study (REB16-0890).

8.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(6): 761-765, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473724

RESUMO

Adolescent and young adult health-care providers often care for transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth-youth whose gender identity is incongruent with the gender assigned to them at birth. This patient population faces health challenges distinct from their cisgender peers (i.e., youth whose gender identity aligns with their assigned gender at birth), which include the health impacts from gender dysphoria and from societal stigma and discrimination. SAHM encourages adolescent and young adult health-care providers to receive training in providing culturally effective, evidence-based care for TGD youth; calls for more research on gender-affirming health care; and advocates for policies that protect the rights of TGD youth and minimize barriers to attaining healthcare. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine promotes the call for gender affirmation as a mainstay of treatment and is opposed to the notion that diversity in gender is pathological.

9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(3): e002173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337083

RESUMO

Introduction: Undernutrition rates remain high in rural, low-income settings, where large, gender-based inequities persist. We hypothesised that increasing gender equity in agriculture could improve nutrition. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to assess the associations between gender-based inequities (in income, land, livestock, and workloads) and nutrition, diets and food security outcomes in agricultural contexts of low-income and middle-income countries. Between 9 March and 7 August 2018, we searched 18 databases and 14 journals, and contacted 27 experts. We included quantitative and qualitative literature from agricultural contexts in low-income and middle-income countries, with no date restriction. Outcomes were women's and children's anthropometric status, dietary quality and household food security. We conducted meta-analyses using random-effects models. Results: We identified 19 820 records, of which 34 studies (42 809 households) met the inclusion criteria. Most (22/25) quantitative studies had a high risk of bias, and qualitative evidence was of mixed quality. Income, land and livestock equity had heterogeneous associations with household food security and child anthropometric outcomes. Meta-analyses showed women's share of household income earned (0.32, 95% CI -4.22 to 4.86; six results) and women's share of land owned (2.72, 95% CI -0.52 to 5.96; three results) did not increase the percentage of household budget spent on food. Higher-quality studies showed more consistently positive associations between income equity and food security. Evidence is limited on other exposure-outcome pairings. Conclusions: We find heterogeneous associations between gender equity and household-level food security. High-quality research is needed to establish the impact of gender equity on nutrition outcomes across contexts. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018093987.

10.
Int J Public Health ; 65(3): 313-322, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Over the past decade, increasing attention has been paid to community engagement in health (CEH) across Europe. This study aimed to identify and review CEH interventions to promote health and reduce inequalities within the Spanish context and the key facilitators for these community processes. METHODS: A systematic search in six databases, followed by a forward citation search, was conducted to identify implementation literature on CEH in Spain. Articles were included when engagement occurred in at least two stages of the interventions and was not limited to information or consultation of stakeholders. RESULTS: A total of 2023 results were identified; 50 articles were reviewed full text. Five articles were finally selected for inclusion. Data were extracted on various factors including details of the interventions, results achieved, stakeholders involved and their relationships. A narrative synthesis was performed to present results and support the discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Three main points are discussed: the role of professionals and citizens in CEH interventions, providing training to enable a reorientation towards a CEH practice and the relevance of contexts as enablers for community engagement processes to thrive.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
11.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 26, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender inequality within academic medicine and dentistry is a well-recognised issue, but one which is not completely understood in terms of its causes, or interventions to facilitate equality. This systematic review aims to identify, critically appraise, and synthesise the literature on facilitators and barriers to progression through a clinical academic career across medicine and dentistry. It will also explore interventions developed to increase recruitment and retention to clinical academic careers, with a particular focus on gender inequality. METHODS: The search will cover five databases (MEDLINE (including MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and MEDLINE Daily), Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, and Education Resource Information Center (ERIC)), reference lists, and forward citation searching. We will include studies of doctors, dentists, and/or those with a supervisory role over their careers, with or without an academic career. Outcomes will be study defined, but relate to success rates of joining or continuing within a clinical academic career, including but not limited to success in gaining funding support, proportion of time spent in academic work, and numbers of awards/higher education qualifications, as well as experiences of professionals within the clinical academic pathway. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised controlled trials, the Newcastle-Ottawa tool for non-randomised studies, and the QARI tool for qualitative studies. Detailed plans for screening, data extraction, and analysis are provided within this protocol. DISCUSSION: This systematic review is situated within a larger project evaluating gender inequalities in clinical academic careers. This review will identify and synthetize barriers, facilitators, and interventions addressing gender inequalities in clinical academia. Our findings will increase awareness of inequalities in clinical academic careers through informing clinical academics, regulators and funders of the issues involved, and potential interventions to counteract these. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/mfy7a.

12.
Health Promot Int ; 35(1): 27-41, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916577

RESUMO

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e225-e236, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and the shifting global burden of disease, this systematic review analyses the evidence from rigorously evaluated programmes that seek to transform the gendered social norms undermining the health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and young adults. The aim of this study was threefold: to describe the landscape of gender-transformative programmes that attempt to influence health-related outcomes; to identify mechanisms through which successful programmes work; and to highlight where gaps might exist in implementation and evaluation. METHODS: We systematically reviewed rigorous evaluations published between Jan 1, 2000, and Nov 1, 2018 of programmes that sought to decrease gender inequalities and transform restrictive gender norms to improve the health and wellbeing of 0-24 year olds. We included rigorously evaluated health programmes that met the Interagency Gender Working Group definition of gender-transformative programming, regardless of where in the world they were implemented and what area of health they focused on. FINDINGS: Among 22 993 articles identified by our search, 61 evaluations of 59 programmes met review criteria. Programmes were concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (25 [42%]), south Asia (13 [22%]), and North America (13 [22%]) and mainly measured health indicators related to reproductive health (29 [48%]), violence (26 [43%]), or HIV (18 [30%]). Programmes most frequently focused on improving the individual power of the beneficiaries, rather than working on broader systems of inequality. 45 (74%) of the evaluations measured significant improvements in health-related and gender-related indicators; however, only ten (16%) showed evidence of, or potential for, broader norm change. These ten programmes worked with sectors beyond health, included multiple stakeholders, implemented diversified strategies, and fostered critical awareness and participation among affected community members. INTERPRETATION: This review can accelerate efforts to improve global health by leading to more strategic investment in programmes that promote gender equality and target restrictive gender norms among young people. Such programmes can lead to a lifetime of improved health and wellbeing by challenging not only attitudes and behaviours related to gender at an early age, but also the gendered systems that surround them. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Saúde Global/educação , Saúde Global/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 46(4): 244-253, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current global maternal and child health policies rarely value gender equality or women's rights and are restricted to policies addressing clinical interventions and family planning. Gender equality influences the knowledge, autonomy and utilisation of contraception and healthcare, thereby affecting maternal and child health. This systematic review aims to analyse the concurrent effect of gender equality and contraception on maternal and under-5 child mortality. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate the current evidence. Studies were eligible if three themes-namely, indicators of gender equality (such as female education, labour force participation, gender-based violence), contraception, and maternal or child mortality-were present together in a single article analysing the same sample at the same time. RESULTS: Even though extensive literature on this topic exists, only three studies managed to fit the selection criteria. Findings of two studies indicated an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and infant mortality, and also reported that women's contraceptive use increased the risk of IPV. The third study found that the mother's secondary education attainment significantly reduced child mortality, while the mother's working status increased the odds of child mortality. The researchers of all included studies specified that contraceptive use significantly reduced the risk of child mortality. CONCLUSION: Improvement in gender equality and contraception concurrently affect the reduction in child mortality. These findings provide strong support to address the research gaps and to include a gender equality approach towards maternal and child health policies.

15.
J Cancer Educ ; 35(1): 44-53, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377952

RESUMO

Reducing health disparities for sexual and gender minority (SGM) people is a priority of the National Institutes of Health. SGM populations face barriers in cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship care. These barriers are due to deficits in researcher and provider training and education, as well as limited National Cancer Institute funding opportunities directed at the many different SGM populations. SGM status intersects with race and ethnicity, education, geography, and poverty to exacerbate disparities further. SGM cancer research will inform SGM patient cancer care guidelines and promote best practices in care among cancer providers. Cancer professionals may benefit from tailored training to enhance their research readiness for SGM cancer care. Research readiness can promote conduct of high-impact SGM cancer research and expand the limited knowledge of SGM cancer care disparities. Here, we propose a coordinated national plan for the training and education of health science researchers and oncology providers as a key strategy to reduce SGM cancer health disparities experienced along the cancer care continuum. We describe unrecognized clinical cancer care needs of SGM patients and unmet opportunities for research partnership and offer strategies for developing flexible educational training programs, courses, and workshops to prepare researchers and healthcare providers to promote health equity and quality cancer care for members of the SGM community.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Humanos , Oncologia , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The survival rates from breast cancer in Africa are poor and yet the incidence rates are on the rise. In this study, we hypothesized that, in Africa, a continent with great disparities in socio-economic status, race, tumor biology, and cultural characteristics, the survival rates from breast cancer vary greatly based on region, tumor biology (hormone receptor), gender, and race. We aimed to conduct the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on region, gender, tumor-biology and race-specific 5-year breast cancer survival rates in Africa and compared them to 20-year survival trends in the United States. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify studies on breast cancer survival in African published before October 17, 2018. Pooled 5-year survival rates of breast cancer were estimated by random-effects models. We explored sources of heterogeneity through subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression. Results were reported as absolute difference (AD) in percentages. We compared the survival rates of breast cancer in Africa and the United States. FINDINGS: There were 54 studies included, consisting of 18,970 breast cancer cases. There was substantial heterogeneity in the survival rates (mean 52.9%, range 7-91%, I2 = 99.1%; p for heterogeneity <0.0001). Meta-regression analyses suggested that age and gender-adjusted 5-year survival rates were lower in sub-Saharan Africa compared to north Africa (AD: -25.4%; 95% CI: -34.9 - -15.82%), and in predominantly black populations compared to predominantly non-black populations (AD: -25.9%; 95% CI: 35.40 - -16.43%). Survival rates were 10 percentage points higher in the female population compared to male, but the difference was not significant. Progesterone and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer subtypes were positively associated with survival (r = 0.39, p = 0.08 and r = 0.24, p = 0.29 respectively), but triple-negative breast cancer was negatively associated with survival. Survival rates are increasing over time more in non-black Africans (55% in 2000 versus 65% in 2018) compared to black Africans (33% in 2000 versus 40% in 2018); but, the survival rates for Africans are still significantly lower when compared to black (76% in 2015) and white (90% in 2015) populations in the United States. CONCLUSION: Regional, sub-regional, gender, and racial disparities exist, influencing the survival rates of breast cancer in Africa. Therefore, region and race-specific public health interventions coupled with prospective genetic studies are urgently needed to improve breast cancer survival in this region.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Geografia , Caracteres Sexuais , África/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(12): 2447-2454, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573074

RESUMO

Supporting gender equity for women working in geriatrics is important to the growth of geriatrics across disciplines and is critical in achieving our vision for a future in which we are all able to contribute to our communities and maintain our health, safety, and independence as we age. Discrimination can have a negative impact on public health, particularly with regard to those who care for the health of older Americans and other vulnerable older people. Women working in the field of geriatrics have experienced implicit and explicit discriminatory practices that mirror available data on the entire workforce. In this position article, we outline strategic objectives and accompanying practical recommendations for how geriatrics, as a field, can work together to achieve a future in which the rights of women are guaranteed and women in geriatrics have the opportunity to achieve their full potential. This article represents the official positions of the American Geriatrics Society. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2447-2454, 2019.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Liderança , Médicas , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/psicologia , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031099, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641001

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is the leading cause of adult disability and common among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults. The current study builds on findings showing the effectiveness of depression quality improvement (QI) and delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) skills provided by community health workers in reducing depression. Depression QI approaches across healthcare and social/community services in safety-net settings have shown improvements in mental wellness, mental health quality of life and depression over 12 months. Further, a randomised study showed improved depression among low-income racial/ethnic minorities enrolled in a CBT-informed resiliency class (Building Resilience and Increasing Community Hope (B-RICH)). The current protocol describes a comparativeness effectiveness study to evaluate whether predominantly low-income, SGM racial/ethnic minority adults randomised to a CBT-informed resiliency class have improvements in depressive symptoms over and above community-engaged QI resources and training only. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study approached three clusters of four to five programs serving predominantly SGM and racial/ethnic minority communities in the USA: two clusters in Los Angeles, California, and one in New Orleans, Louisiana. Clusters are comprised of one primary care, one mental health and two to three community agencies (eg, faith-based, social services/support, advocacy). All programs received depression QI training. The current study employed a community-partnered participatory research model to adapt the CBT-informed resiliency class, B-RICH+, to SGM communities. Study participants were screened and recruited in person from participating programs, and will complete baseline, 6- and 12-month survey follow-ups. Participants were depressed adults (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; ≥18 years of age) who provided contact information. Enrolled participants were individually randomised to B-RICH+ or depression QI alone. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are mental health quality of life, mental wellness and physical health quality of life. Data collection for this study is ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current study was approved by the UCLA Institutional Review Board. Study findings will be disseminated through scientific publications and community conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02986126.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Depressão/economia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001634, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565410

RESUMO

Objectives: Working with men/boys, in addition to women/girls, through gender-transformative programming that challenges gender inequalities is recognised as important for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) for all. The aim of this paper was to generate an interactive evidence and gap map (EGM) of the total review evidence on interventions engaging men/boys across the full range of WHO SRHR outcomes and report a systematic review of the quantity, quality and effect of gender-transformative interventions with men/boys to improve SRHR for all. Methods: For this EGM and systematic review, academic and non-academic databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index-expanded, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, Embase, Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched using terms related to SRHR, males/masculinities, systematic reviews and trials (January 2007-July 2018) with no language restrictions for review articles of SRHR interventions engaging men/boys. Data were extracted from included reviews, and AMSTAR2 was used to assess quality. Outcomes were based on WHO reproductive health strategy. Results: From the 3658 non-duplicate records screened, the total systematic reviews of interventions engaging men/boys in SRHR was mapped through an EGM (n=462 reviews) showing that such interventions were relatively evenly spread across low-income (24.5%), middle-income (37.8%) and high-income countries (37.8%). The proportion of reviews that included gender-transformative interventions engaging men/boys was low (8.4%, 39/462), the majority was in relation to violence against women/girls (n=18/39, 46.2%) and conducted in lower and middle-income countries (n=25/39, 64%). Reviews of gender-transformative interventions were generally low/critically low quality (n=34/39, 97.1%), and findings inconclusive (n=23/39, 59%), but 38.5% (n=15/39) found positive results. Conclusion: Research and programming must be strengthened in engagement of men/boys; it should be intentional in promoting a gender-transformative approach, explicit in the intervention logic models, with more robust experimental designs and measures, and supported with qualitative evaluations.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e024674, 2019 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The initiation and translation of sex-sensitive and gender-sensitive research programmes into clinically useful considerations for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been difficult. Clinical frameworks are currently not specific according to sex and gender, despite evidence that these constructs influence the incidence, course and outcome of patients with TBI. The present protocol outlines a strategy for a research programme, supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Gender and Health, which explores sex and gender topics in the context of TBI, with the goal of building an infrastructure to facilitate the implementation of sex/gender-sensitive research findings into clinical considerations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive multistep research programme is proposed to support three research objectives: (1) documentation of important concepts and ideas for education on topics of sex and gender in the TBI context using a knowledge-user feedback framework, current scientific evidence and the research team's expertise; (2) development of educational materials for patients with TBI, significant others and clinicians providing care that account for sex/gender and (3) testing the application of these educational materials for feasibility and effectiveness. This programme supports the CIHR Institute's mission by facilitating partnership with knowledge users across clinical, research, academic and community sectors, through a range of platforms and activities. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Research Ethics Board of the University Health Network has approved the programme. It is anticipated that this work will add significant value to the advancement of the field of sex, gender and health by serving as a model to foster the integration of these constructs across the spectrum of disorders. This will transform clinical practices and ensure that generated knowledge is translated into improved training programmes, policies and health services that are responsive to the diverse needs of men and women with TBI. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018098697.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Fatores Sexuais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Canadá , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
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