Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29.404
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Resumo A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 499-507, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased agricultural production has been increased use of pesticides worldwide, which poses a threat to both human and environmental health. Recent studies suggest that several non-target organisms, from bees to mammals, show a wide variety of toxic effects of pesticides exposure, including impaired behavior, development and reproduction. Among mammals, bats are usually a neglected taxon among ecotoxicological studies, although they play important ecological and economical roles in forest ecosystems and agriculture through to seed dispersal and insect population control. Considering their wide variety of food habits, bats are exposed to environmental pollutants through food or water contamination, or through direct skin contact in their roosting areas. In order to better understand the risk posed by pesticides to bats populations, we compiled studies that investigated the main toxicological effects of pesticides in bats, aiming at contributing to discussion about the environmental risks associated with the use of pesticides.


Resumo O aumento da produção agrícola tem levado ao aumento do uso de pesticidas em todo o mundo, o que representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana e ambiental. Estudos recentes sugerem que vários organismos não-alvo, de abelhas a mamíferos, apresentam uma grande variedade de efeitos tóxicos após a exposição aos pesticidas a pesticidas, incluindo alterações de comportamento, no desenvolvimento e na reprodução. Entre os mamíferos, os morcegos geralmente são negligenciados entre os estudos ecotoxicológicos, embora desempenhem importantes papéis ecológicos e econômicos nos ecossistemas florestais e na agricultura por meio do controle de dispersão de sementes e de populações de insetos. Considerando sua ampla variedade de hábitos alimentares, eles estão expostos a poluentes ambientais através da contaminação de alimentos ou água, ou através do contato direto com a pele em suas áreas de descanso. Para entender melhor o risco que os agrotóxicos representam para as populações de morcegos, compilamos estudos que investigaram os principais efeitos toxicológicos de agrotóxicos em morcegos, visando à discussão sobre os riscos ambientais associados ao uso de agrotóxicos.

4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Disruptors , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Brazil , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Subject(s)
Allium , Onions , Chile , Chromosome Aberrations , DNA Damage , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Mitotic Index , Plant Roots , Rivers
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 245, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821384

ABSTRACT

Studies to assess variability factors of heavy metals in soils are essential to understand their behavior in the environment and for the assessment of contaminated areas. In this context, this research aimed to study the factors that influence the variability of heavy metal levels and their bioavailability in pasture areas in the Alturas de Nazareno region, Mayabeque, Cuba, as well as the transfer to plants. Forty-five points were distributed in a natural pasture and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) as a function of relief and soil type. Pseudo-total heavy metal contents were determined according to method 3051A of USEPA, geochemical fractionation according to the Community Bureau of Reference method, and plant digestion according to method 3052 of USEPA. Soil samples were separated into two groups, according to cluster analysis. The type of soil associated with the pH and Ca attributes were the factors that most influenced the variability of the total and bioavailable levels of metals in natural pasture soils in the region of Alturas de Nazareno. Group 1 showed the lowest heavy metal contents and the highest pH and calcium values, which were predominantly associated with carbonate soils. Group 2 had the highest contents of heavy metals and Fe, corresponding mainly to the soil Ferralítico Rojo. The concentration of metals in plants was directly related to their bioavailable content in the soil, where G2 represents the group with the highest risk of transferring metals to the food chain.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Cuba , Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 247, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822279

ABSTRACT

The study presents the characterization of the water quality of the Corumbá IV reservoir in the State of Goiás, in the Brazilian Cerrado biome, based on data from the operation period between 2007 and 2017. Few are known about the temporal and spatial variations in the water quality of the reservoir. Up to now, the water quality has been analyzed only from the point of view of compliance with the limits required by Brazilian environmental legislation. Therefore, the integrated analysis of water quality parameters and water body dynamics may bring important information to support decision-making in reservoir management. An exploratory analysis of the limnological data series provided by the company in charge of the hydroelectric plant was then carried out. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to analyze the data period from 2007 to 2017. The results identify four distinct limnological phases representing the transition of the environment. The first phase (2007 to 2009) characterized by the decomposition of the flooded vegetal organic matter and subsequent phases, after 8 years (2010 to 2017), have featured the transition process from the lotic condition to the consolidation of the lentic environment. The spatial analysis of the results demonstrates that tributaries influence the water quality of the reservoir differently, probably due to the different impacts suffered in the sub-basins (e.g., sewage discharges; runoff). Although it is possible to evidence the impact of anthropic activities on water quality, the reservoir still presents characteristics of an environment with low trophic status.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Water Quality , Brazil , Ecosystem , Rivers , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 627, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the interactive effects of Brazilian public interventions, environmental health programs (access to water, sanitation and solid waste collection) and a Conditional Cash Transfer Program (PBF), on the mortality reduction due to diarrhea and malnutrition among children under 5 years old. METHODS: The study design is ecological, with longitudinal analysis in a balanced panel. The period covered is 2006 to 2016, including 3467 municipalities from all regions of the country, which resulted in 38,137 observations. The generalized linear models were adjusted considering the Negative Binomial (NB) distribution for the number of deaths due to malnutrition and diarrhea, with fixed effects. NB models with and without zero-inflation were assessed. Subsequent interaction models were applied to assess the combined effects of the two public policies. RESULTS: In relation to the decline of mortality rates due to diarrhea in the municipalities, positive effect modification were observed in the presence of: high coverage of the target population by the PBF and access to water, 0.54 (0.28-1.04) / 0.55 (0.29-1.04); high coverage by the total population by the PBF and access to water, 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and high coverage by the total population by the PBF and access to sanitation, 0.98 (0.97-1.00). Decline on diarrhea mortality was also observed in the joint presence of high coverage of solid waste collection and access to water, categories 1 (> 60% ≤85%): 0.98 (0.96-1.00), 0.98 (0.97-1, 00) and 2 (> 85% ≤ 100%): 0.97 (0.95-0.98), 0.97 (0.95-0.99). Negative effect modification were observed for mortality due to malnutrition in the presence of simultaneous high coverage of the total population by the PBF and access to sanitation categories 1 (≥ 20 < 50%): 1.0061 (0.9991-1.0132) and 2 (≥ 50 < 100%): 1.0073 (1.0002-1.0145) and high coverage of the total population by the PBF and solid waste collection, 1.0004 (1.0002-1.0005), resulting in malnutrition mortality rates increase. CONCLUSION: Implementation of environmental health services and the coverage expansion by the PBF may enhance the prevention of early deaths in children under 5 years old due to diarrhea, a poverty related disease.

9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797721

ABSTRACT

Shallow urban polluted reservoirs at tropical regions can be hotspots for CO2 and CH4 emissions. In this study, we investigated the relationships between eutrophication and GHG emissions in a highly urbanized tropical reservoir in São Paulo Metropolitan Area (Brazil). CO2 and CH4 fluxes and limnological variables (water and sediment) were collected at three sampling stations classified as hypereutrophic and eutrophic. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the principal component analysis (PCA) determined the most significant parameters to CO2 and CH4 fluxes. ANOVA showed significant differences of CO2 and CH4 fluxes between sampling stations with different trophic state. The hypereutrophic station showed higher mean fluxes for both CO2 and CH4 (5.43 ± 1.04 and 0.325 ± 0.167 g m-2 d-1, respectively) than the eutrophic stations (3.36 ± 0.54 and 0.060 ± 0.005 g m-2 d-1). The PCA showed a strong relationship between nutrients in the water column (surface and bottom) and GHG fluxes. We concluded that GHG fluxes were higher whenever the trophic state increases as observed previously in temperate and tropical reservoirs. High concentrations of nutrients in the water column in the studied area support the high production of autotrophic biomass that, when sedimented, ends up serving as organic matter for CH4 producers. These outcomes reinforce the necessity of water quality improvement and eutrophication mitigation in highly urbanized reservoirs in tropical regions.

10.
San Salvador; MINSAL; mar. 08, 2021. 11 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1150645

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 08/2021. Alertas internacionales. Situación epidemiológica de dengue. Situación epidemiológica de zika y chikungunya. Infección respiratoria aguda. Neumonías. Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS. Vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. Vigilancia centinela de rotavirus. Enfermedad diarreica aguda. Fiebre tifoidea


Summary of notification events up to SE 08/2021. International alerts. Epidemiological situation of dengue. Epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya. Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia Global situation 2019-nCov (WHO. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus. Acute diarrheal disease. Typhoid fever


Subject(s)
Health Surveillance , Epidemiology , Electronic Publications
11.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 139(1): 72-76, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656128

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a family of viruses that cause respiratory infections. From cases first recorded in China at the end of 2019, a new type of virus in this family, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was discovered. The disease caused by this virus, COVID-19, was brought into Brazil by people in social classes with greater purchasing power, but groups with larger demographic dimensions have tended to become more affected over time. Poor sanitation can generate risky situations and behavior among people who live in spaces with characteristics that limit their quality of life. Installation of piped water in homes and basic education for the population are fundamental measures for disease control, including in relation to COVID-19. In this updating article, the COVID-19 pandemic was analyzed in the context of iniquities in Brazil (comparing these with the situation in other countries). A bibliographic search of texts relating to basic sanitation, socioeconomic development and transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil and worldwide was conducted.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sanitation , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 157, 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660072

ABSTRACT

The protection of wetlands is essential for sustainable development. The particular hydrology of wetlands creates conditions for the formation of hydric soils. Hydric soils are formed in oxide-reducing environments and perform important removal and re-oxidation of Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides. They are also characterized by the formation of a superficial horizon enriched by the accumulation of organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and toxic (Al, Cd, Pb) elements in the soil solution in a wetland, surrounded by an intense agricultural activity area. The concentrations of the elements were evaluated according to the level of hydromorphy (border to the center) and the depth of the soil. The physical fractionation of these elements was also assessed (total and < 30 kDa), and the results were compared with the chemical speciation of these elements. Despite the high total concentrations of Al and Fe, the concentration of these elements was very low in the < 30 kDa fraction, which suggests that these elements are complexed with organic matter, in the form of hydroxides. Evidence of removal of Fe and Mn from the surface horizon was observed at the center of the wetland, where the highest level of hydromorphy is found. The results showed that the concentration of metals in the fraction < 30 kDa is insignificant, suggesting that the mechanisms of precipitation and/or adsorption to soil colloids play an important role in the regulation of this ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Brazil , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Wetlands
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 172, 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687583

ABSTRACT

The environmental vulnerability of a landscape is directly associated with any physical, geomorphological, and spatial factors which directly interfere with the ecological functionality of natural areas. Therefore, the composition, diversity, and structure of fragmented forest areas are essential to identify the patterns in the landscape and propose the most appropriate management measures for its conservation. The present study set out to analyse the applicability of landscape metrics for assessing the environmental fragility of forest remnants of different geographical conditions and phyto-physiognomies. This would contribute to landscape assessment and the diagnosis of remnants, and support decision making for strategic and effective environmental planning. The study areas selected were two river basins, the Atibaia river basin in Brazil, and the Cértima river basin in Portugal. The maps used as a basis for the selection of the forest remnants analysed were made available by public managers and date from 2015 for both basins. The analyses were performed with GIS software, and two groups of landscape metrics were considered: the first applied to the general landscape of the basin and the second applied to each remaining forest patch as a landscape unit. At the remaining forest level, the metrics analysed were the area, central area index, circularity index, shape index, distance from the nearest neighbour, proximity of the remnant to the road network, and proximity to the watercourse. The results showed that there are many remnants in both basins with predominantly small size and located close to each other. However, their fragilities vary in each basin, indicating that the applied metrics are effective tool for the preliminary diagnosis of natural vegetation remnants in areas with different geospatial and phyto-physiognomic conditions. Therefore, the results obtained are of great importance as a basis for formulating landscape development policies, by integrating appropriate land management strategies.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Rivers , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Forests , Portugal
14.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112314, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740747

ABSTRACT

Globally, community-based initiatives are effective in protecting ecosystems and the species within them. In this paper, we analyze the emergence and large-scale expansion of a community-based environmental protection system (the Voluntary Environmental Agents Program - VEA Program) in the Brazilian Amazon and identify factors that have determined its success since its inception, 25 years ago. Collective actions to protect the environment in the region have been undertaken by local people for at least 40 years, before their legal regulation in 2001 by the federal government of Brazil, and by the Amazonas state in 2007. The system is based on territorial surveillance and monitoring, and on guidelines for the better use of the territory and its natural resources. Between 1995 and 2020, the VEA Program expanded into the two protected areas where it was first implemented reaching approximately 9 thousand km2 of area protected by the system. The number of people participating also grew in this period by around 2050%, as did the participation of women, which grew by 5600%. The system was replicated in 37 protected areas in central Amazonia, and currently covers almost 200 thousand km2 of Amazon rainforest. From our analyses we unveil four main factors that may have allowed the VEA Program to expand and flourish: (a) the communities' previous demand for an effective control system, (b) its legal formalization and regulation, (c) the support from external institutions, and (d) the consolidation of community-based management programs to fund actions. These factors shall be further investigated as to confirm their critical role in the success of the VEA Program. We demonstrate that this community-based environmental protection system has established itself as a legitimate form of social control, and as a mechanism of socio-environmental governance in the areas in which it operates. By allowing more effective protection of territories, it generates consensus amongst users for the adequate management of natural resources, especially in contexts where government's actions are absent or inefficient. We claim that this system can be replicated in various parts of the world.

15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 177, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751244

ABSTRACT

Floods are one of the most common natural phenomena and represent a serious hazard when they affect human activities. Structural measures are commonly used to mitigate them; however, these do not always give good results, mainly in plain areas with scarce slope. In this sense, the generation of a flood hazard map contributes to adequate hazard management and disaster prevention. The aim of this work is to evaluate the flood hazard areas in hydrological plain basins with scarce slope, taking as a case study the Samborombón river basin located in the Pampean Plain, Argentina. For this, a flood hazard map was made based on the analytical hierarchy process and using a GIS, taking into account physical aspects of the terrain, observations, and field measurements. Likewise, the map was validated using satellite images and the inhabitants in danger in the basin were quantified. The results show that the flood hazard areas correspond mainly to the floodplain of rivers and tributaries, while the main and secondary divide zones have low flood hazard sectors. On the other hand, numerous urban settlements were identified within flood hazard areas, these being urban settlements in the vicinity of old urban centers and new gated communities with high value homes, quantifying 1961 inhabitants at flood hazard and showing poor territorial planning. The methodology proposed gives to the management agencies the possibility of generating land use maps, as well as designing mitigation and contingency plans after a large rainfall event.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Floods , Argentina , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Rivers
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 203, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751261

ABSTRACT

On November 5, 2015, the Fundão dam collapsed and released > 60 million m3 of iron-rich mining sediments into the Doce river basin, covering >1000 ha of floodplain soils across ~80 km from the rupture. The characterization of alluvial mud covering and/or mixed with native soil is a priority for successful environmental rehabilitation. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry was used to (1) assess the elemental composition of native soils and alluvial mud across impacted riparian areas; and 2) predict fertility properties of the mud and soils that are crucial for environmental rehabilitation and vegetation establishment (e.g., pH, available macro and micronutrients, cation exchange capacity, organic matter). Native soils and alluvial mud were sampled across impacted areas and analyzed via pXRF and conventional laboratory methods. Random forest (RF) regression was used to predict fertility properties using pXRF data for pooled soil and alluvial mud samples. Mud and native surrounding soils were clearly differentiated based on chemical properties determined via pXRF (mainly SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, and MnO). The pXRF data and RF models successfully predicted pH for pooled samples (R2 = 0.80). Moderate predictions were obtained for soil organic matter (R2 = 0.53) and cation exchange capacity (R2 = 0.54). Considering the extent of impacted area and efforts required for successful environmental rehabilitation, the pXRF spectrometer showed great potential for screening impacted areas. It can assess total elemental composition, differentiate alluvial mud from native soils, and reasonably predict related fertility properties in pooled heterogeneous substrates (native soil + mud + river sediments).


Subject(s)
Disasters , Soil Pollutants , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Iron , Silicon Dioxide , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 221, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763714

ABSTRACT

Intensive land use favors eutrophication processes and algae bloom proliferation in freshwaters, which is considered to be one of the main environmental issues worldwide. In general, and particularly in South America, inland water monitoring only covers the main water bodies due to the high costs and efforts involved. In order to improve the coverage of spatial and temporal of algae bloom monitoring, remote sensing serves as an alternative tool. Thereby, the analysis of significant spatial clusters of high values (hotspots) and low values (coldspots) of chlorophyll-a has been applied in coastal studies; however, at present, there are no studies in freshwaters. In this study, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot analysis was applied to detect spatial distribution patterns of algae bloom dynamics in small- and medium-sized freshwater bodies. Four in situ samplings were carried out in five suburban lakes of Uruguay, in agreement with the satellite capture. Total and cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a concentration, and suspended solids were evaluated. Linear models were developed by combining pre-established indexes with additional Sentinel-2 spectral bands and in situ data. The relationship between red and red edge regions allowed mapping the chlorophyll-a in the study lakes with an adjustment of R2 = 0.83. Hotspot analysis was performed with the selected linear model, and significant chlorophyll-a variability within each lake was successfully detected. The novel application of hotspots analyses presented in this work represents a contribution to advance knowledge in the remote detection of algae bloom dynamics and improve monitoring capabilities of inland water bodies.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Eutrophication , Lakes , South America , Uruguay , Water
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 210, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755811

ABSTRACT

This is one of the first studies carried out over three climatic seasons on the determination of ibuprofen and diclofenac, in the main rivers of Colombia and striped catfish Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum. Determination of water concentrations was carried out using SPE extraction, while for the analysis of the muscular tissue, the extraction was carried out by QuEChERS. For both matrices, quantification was done by UHPLC-MS/MS. No levels of ibuprofen or diclofenac concentrations were found in the muscle tissue of Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, in any season or sampling site, during the 2 years of sampling. In some sampling sites, concentrations of up to 75 µg/L of diclofenac were detected, corresponding to the sampling carried out in the dry season, being the highest reported so far in surface waters, possibly generated by large concentrations of population or agricultural activities. On the other hand, for ibuprofen, no concentrations above the limit of quantification (0.50 µg/L) were found in the waters of the Cauca and Magdalena rivers, for any season and sampling site.


Subject(s)
Catfishes , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Colombia , Diclofenac , Environmental Monitoring , Ibuprofen , Rivers , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease pandemic has disproportionately affected poor and racial/ethnic minority individuals and communities, especially Indigenous Peoples. The object of this study is to understand the spatially varying associations between socioeconomic disadvantages and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in New Mexico at the ZIP code level. METHODS: We constructed ZIP code-level data (n=372) using the 2014-2018 American Community Survey and COVID-19 data from the New Mexico Department of Health (as of 24 May 2020). The log-linear Poisson and geographically weighted Poisson regression are applied to model the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases (total population as the offset) in a ZIP code. RESULTS: The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in a ZIP code is positively associated with socioeconomic disadvantages-specifically, the high levels of concentrated disadvantage and income inequality. It is also positively associated with the percentage of American Indian and Alaskan Native populations, net of other potential confounders at the ZIP code level. Importantly, these associations are spatially varying in that some ZIP codes suffer more from concentrated disadvantage than others. CONCLUSIONS: Additional attention for COVID-19 mitigation effort should focus on areas with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, income inequality, and higher percentage of American Indian and Alaska Native populations as these areas have higher incidence of COVID-19. The findings also highlight the importance of plumbing in all households for access to clean and safe water, and the dissemination of educational materials aimed at COVID-19 prevention in non-English language including Indigenous languages.

20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681949

ABSTRACT

The analysis of landscape pattern change is an effective way to understand urbanization. Research area is the core area of urbanization, which is between Zhengzhou city and Kaifeng city in China. Geographic information system (GIS) and landscape metrics method are used to quantify the gradient landscape pattern changes in the study area. The results show an obvious gradient change of landscape pattern from 2005 to 2015. The landscape pattern in the eastern and western of the study area experienced larger changes than the middle area. The western end mainly changed in terms of the patch number, patch shape and anthropogenic influence, but the patch types in the east changed more rapidly than those in the west. Landscape pattern change is influenced by policy and location, and human influence is the main driving force. Unlike previous study areas, in which urbanization expanded from the center of a city to its surroundings, our study area spread from two ends (Zhengzhou and Kaifeng cities) to the center of the study area. This study could be used as a typical case for the gradient analysis of landscape pattern changes during urbanization.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Urbanization , China , Cities , Conservation of Natural Resources , Geographic Information Systems , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...