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1.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 14: 100324, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912285

RESUMEN

Background: There are widespread concerns that the COVID-19 pandemic may increase suicides. Few studies have analysed effects beyond the pandemic's early months or examined changes in known suicide risk factors. Methods: Using time series models fit with Poisson regression, we analysed monthly police-reported suicides in Ecuador from January 2015 to June 2021. Treating March 2020 as the start of the pandemic, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) comparing the observed to the expected number of suicides for the total population and by age and sex groups. We investigated changes in risk factors, precipitants, geographic distribution, and suicide methods. Findings: There was no evidence that suicide rates were higher than expected during the pandemic (RR 0·97 [95% CI 0·92-1·02]). There was some evidence of fewer than expected male suicides (RR 0·95 [95% CI 0·90-1·00]). The proportion of suicides occurring in urban and coastal areas increased but decreased amongst indigenous and other minorities. The proportions of suicides with evidence of alcohol consumption, disability, and amongst married and cohabiting individuals decreased, whereas suicides where mental health problems were considered contributory increased. There were relative increases in the proportion of suicides by hanging but decreases in self-poisoning and other suicide methods. Interpretation: The pandemic did not appear to adversely impact overall suicide numbers nationwide during the first 16 months of the pandemic. Reduced alcohol consumption may have contributed to the decline in male suicides. Funding: None.

3.
New Microbes New Infect ; 48: 101001, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818397

RESUMEN

Background: COVID-19 infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause mild symptoms to severe illness and death. Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory viruses have been described. However, two SARS-CoV-2 lineage co-infection have been rarely reported. Methodology: A genotyping analysis and two different types of whole genome sequencing were performed (Illumina MiniSeq and ONT MinION). When examining the phylogenetic analysis in NextClade and Pangolin webservers, and considering the genotyping findings, conflicting results were obtained. Results: The raw data of the sequencing was analyzed, and nucleotide variants were identified between different reads of the virus genome. B.1 and P.1 lineages were identified within the same sample. Conclusions: We concluded that this is a co-infection case with two SARS-CoV-2 lineages, the first one reported in Ecuador.

4.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936498, 2022 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Multi-resistant microorganisms are a public health problem. Their incidence has risen due to COVID-19, indiscriminate antibiotics use, corticosteroid treatments, and higher admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. These are risk factors for bacterial over-infection. The present case study that is relevant because of the multiple isolated strains with a resistance pattern: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) and New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) in a patient without comorbidities. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old Ecuadorian man with no past medical history arrived at the Emergency Department (ED) with dyspnea, nasopharyngeal swab with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV2, and a chest computed tomography (CT) scan showing bilateral ground-glass pulmonary infiltrates with 40% involvement. On day 10 in the ICU, the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC strain was reported in an axillary swab culture. Consequently, the antibiotic was rotated to vancomycin 1 g intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h and meropenem 1 g i.v. every 8 h. On day 15 in the ICU, a tracheal secretion culture was reported with the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and a blood culture with Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM. CONCLUSIONS The COVID-19 pandemic is a perfect scenario for superinfection with multi-resistant pathogens such as carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), due to the increase in patients admitted to ICUs requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, the use of corticosteroids, and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic management based on guidelines. The emergence of combined multidrug-resistant strains is a challenge for laboratory detection and the selection of antimicrobial treatment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Klebsiella , Neumonía , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Ecuador , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Infecciones por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Klebsiella/tratamiento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805606

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 has spread throughout the world, including remote areas such as those located at high altitudes. There is a debate about the role of hypobaric hypoxia on viral transmission and COVID-19 incidence. A descriptive cross-sectional analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral load among patients living at low (230 m) and high altitude (3800 m) in Ecuador was completed. Within these two communities, the total number of infected people at the time of the study was 108 cases (40.3%). The COVID-19 incidence proportion at low altitude was 64% while at high altitude was 30.3%. The mean viral load from those patients who tested positive was 3,499,184 copies/mL (SD = 23,931,479 copies/mL). At low altitude (Limoncocha), the average viral load was 140,223.8 copies/mL (SD = 990,840.9 copies/mL), while for the high altitude group (Oyacachi), the mean viral load was 6,394,789 copies/mL (SD = 32,493,469 copies/mL). We found no statistically significant differences when both results were compared (p = 0.056). We found no significant differences across people living at low or high altitude; however, men and younger populations had higher viral load than women older populations, respectively.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Altitud , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Carga Viral
6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885856

RESUMEN

Work environments can interfere with the mental health of workers as generators or reducers of psychological distress. Work engagement is a concept related to quality of life and efficiency at work. The aim of this study was to find the relationship between work environment factors and work engagement among the Ecuadorian general population during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic to assess their levels of psychological distress. For this purpose, a cross-sectional, descriptive study using a set of questionnaires was performed. Sociodemographic and work environment data, work engagement (UWES-9 scale) scores, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores were collected. The variables that predicted 70.2% of psychological distress during the first phase of the pandemic were being female, with a low level of vigour (work engagement dimension), being stressed at work, and low job satisfaction. The sample showed an intermediate level of engagement in both the global assessment and the three dimensions, being higher in those without psychological distress. With effective actions on work environment factors, mental health effects may be efficiently prevented, and work engagement may be benefited. Companies can reduce workers' psychological distress by providing safe and effective means to prevent the risk of contagion; reducing the levels of work conflict, work stress, or workload; and supporting their employees with psychological measures in order to maintain ideal working conditions.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891211

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on health systems worldwide. Mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has reduced morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite their safety profiles, vaccines, as with any other medical product, can cause adverse events. Yet, in countries with poor epidemiological surveillance and monitoring systems, reporting vaccine-related adverse events is a challenge. The objective of this study was to describe self-reported vaccine adverse events after receiving one of the available COVID-19 vaccine schemes in Ecuador. A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reported, 32-item questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from 1 April to 15 July 2021. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 6654 participants were included in this study. Furthermore, 38.2% of the participants reported having at least one comorbidity. Patients received AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Sinovac vaccines, and these were distributed 38.4%, 31.1%, and 30.5%, respectively. Overall, pain or swelling at the injection site 17.2% (n = 4500) and headache 13.3% (n = 3502) were the most reported adverse events. Women addressed events supposedly attributable to vaccination or immunization [ESAVIs] (66.7%), more often than men (33.2%). After receiving the first dose of any available COVID-19 vaccine, a total of 19,501 self-reported ESAVIs were informed (87.0% were mild, 11.5% moderate, and 1.5% severe). In terms of the vaccine type and brand, the most reactogenic vaccine was AstraZeneca with 57.8%, followed by Pfizer (24.9%) and Sinovac (17.3%). After the second dose, 6776 self-reported ESAVIs were reported (87.1% mild, 10.9% moderate, and 2.1% severe). AstraZeneca vaccine users reported a higher proportion of ESAVIs (72.2%) in comparison to Pfizer/BioNTech (15.9%) and Sinovac Vaccine (11.9%). Swelling at the injection site, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue were the most common ESAVIs for the first as well as second doses. In conclusion, most ESAVIs were mild. AstraZeneca users were more likely to report adverse events. Participants without a history of COVID-19 infection, as well as those who received the first dose, were more prone to report ESAVIs.

8.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746651

RESUMEN

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is the latest pandemic lineage causing COVID-19. Despite having a vaccination rate ≥85%, Ecuador recorded a high incidence of Omicron from December 2021 to March 2022. Since Omicron emerged, it has evolved into multiple sub-lineages with distinct prevalence in different regions. In this work, we use all Omicron sequences from Ecuador available at GISAID until March 2022 and the software Nextclade and Pangolin to identify which lineages circulate in this country. We detected 12 different sub-lineages (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.1.1.1, BA.1.1.14, BA.1.1.2, BA.1.14, BA.1.15, BA.1.16, BA.1.17, BA.1.6, BA.2, BA.2.3), which have been reported in Africa, America, Europe, and Asia, suggesting multiple introduction events. Sub-lineages BA.1 and BA.1.1 were the most prevalent. Genomic surveillance must continue to evaluate the dynamics of current sub-lineages, the early introduction of new ones and vaccine efficacy against evolving SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746465

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global disruption of several services, including routine immunizations. This effect has been described in several countries, but there are few detailed studies in Latin America and no reports in Ecuador. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the reduction in routine immunizations for infants during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador. 2018, 2019, and 2020 data were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Ecuador. The number of doses and the extent of immunization coverage was descriptively compared for four vaccines: rotavirus (ROTA), poliovirus (PV), pneumococcal (PCV), and pentavalent (PENTA) vaccines. There was no significant difference in doses applied during the 2018 and 2019 years. However, a significant (p < 0.05) drop of 137,000 delivered doses was observed in 2020 compared to the pre-pandemic years. Reductions in the percentage of coverage were more pronounced for the PENTA vaccine (17.7%), followed by PV (16.4%), ROTA (12%), and PCV vaccines (10.7%). Spatial analysis shows a severe impact on vaccination coverage on provinces from the Coast and Highland regions of the country. The pandemic has significantly impacted the immunization programs for infants across Ecuador. This retrospective analysis shows an urgent need to protect vulnerable zones and populations during public health emergencies.

10.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e056295, 2022 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710244

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a growing health problem in children in marginalised urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries. Asthma attacks are an important cause of emergency care attendance and long-term morbidity. We designed a prospective study, the Asthma Attacks study, to identify factors associated with recurrence of asthma attacks (or exacerbations) among children and adolescents attending emergency care in three Ecuadorian cities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective cohort study designed to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of asthma attacks in 450 children and adolescents aged 5-17 years attending emergency care in public hospitals in three Ecuadorian cities (Quito, Cuenca and Portoviejo). The primary outcome will be rate of asthma attack recurrence during up to 12 months of follow-up. Data are being collected at baseline and during follow-up by questionnaire: sociodemographic data, asthma history and management (baseline only); recurrence of asthma symptoms and attacks (monthly); economic costs of asthma to family; Asthma Control Test; Pediatric Asthma Quality of life Questionnaire; and Newcastle Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire (baseline only). In addition, the following are being measured at baseline and during follow-up: lung function and reversibility by spirometry before and after salbutamol; fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO); and presence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in blood. Recruitment started in 2019 but because of severe disruption to emergency services caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, eligibility criteria were modified to include asthmatic children with uncontrolled symptoms and registered with collaborating hospitals. Data will be analysed using logistic regression and survival analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Hospital General Docente de Calderon (CEISH-HGDC 2019-001) and Ecuadorian Ministry of Public Health (MSP-CGDES-2021-0041-O N° 096-2021). The study results will be disseminated through presentations at conferences and to key stakeholder groups including policy-makers, postgraduate theses, peer-review publications and a study website. Participants gave informed consent to participate in the study before taking part.


Asunto(s)
Asma , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Ciudades/epidemiología , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 2-7, jun, 2022. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1379244

RESUMEN

El SARS COV 2, tomó por sorpresa al mundo, con impacto en el sector salud, generándose una gran crisis sanitaria, golpeados por escasez de insumos, de equipos, de personal y capacidad instalada insuficiente para la atención de la contigencia. Ademas, la infodemia, el pánico y el miedo con sus respectivas consecuencias, se empodero de la sociedad civil, situación que no es ajena a sector salud, por ello, este relato de experiencia tuvo objetivo describir la gestión del servicio de medicina crítica de un hospital de Guayaquil- Ecuador durante la pandemia por el Coronavirus. En los centros asitenciales, el personal se enfrenta all desafío sanitario, principalmente en la gestión del servicio de medicina crítica. Al ser nombrado hospital centinela, con una capacidad instadala redujo de 494 a 200 camas, y se creó además el área de hospitalización de infectología; La interrelación de profesionales de la enfermería, médicos infectólogos, médicos neumólogos, servicios de terapia física y rehabilitación, servicios de nutrición, y los terapistas respiratorios, fue fundamental para afrontar la crisis, para vela por el bienestar del paciente, no solo en la parte física, sino psicología y de humanización. No obtante, el miedo a lo desconocido inherente a la especie humana, se transforma en pánico ante esta enfermedad provocando emociones, sentimientos, vivencias exacerbadas, y la inseguridad y desconfianza en que el sistema sanitario(AU)


SARS COV 2 took the world by surprise, with an impact on the health sector, generating a major health crisis, hit by a shortage of supplies, equipment, personnel and insufficient installed capacity for contingency care. In addition, the infodemic, panic and fear with their respective consequences, empowered civil society, a situation that is not unrelated to the health sector, therefore, this experience report aimed to describe the management of the critical medicine service of a Guayaquil-Ecuador hospital during the Coronavirus pandemic. In care centers, the staff faces the health challenge, mainly in the management of the critical medicine service. Being named a sentinel hospital, with an installed capacity it was reduced from 494 to 200 beds, and the infectious disease hospitalization area was also created; The interrelation of nursing professionals, infectious disease doctors, pulmonologists, physical therapy and rehabilitation services, nutrition services, and respiratory therapists, was essential to face the crisis, to ensure the well-being of the patient, not only in the physics, but psychology and humanization. However, the fear of the unknown inherent in the human species is transformed into panic in the face of this disease, causing emotions, feelings, exacerbated experiences, and insecurity and distrust in the health system(Au)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Hospitales , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/organización & administración , Ecuador/epidemiología
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4246-4252, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585654

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Diagnostic methods for the detection of the virus and seroconversion of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in plasma have been developed specifically, but some of them require a BSL3 facility. In this study, we used the SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test Kit to determine the presence or absence of NAbs anti-receptor binding domain of the viral spike (S) glycoprotein in a BSL2 facility. The sample population was chosen in Quito, Ecuador, with a total of 88 COVID-19 positive convalescent patients. We determined that 97.7% of the analyzed convalescent sera maintained the presence of NAbs with neutralizing activity, and this activity remained until 10 months after the infection in some cases. In addition, the relationship between the presence of NAbs and immunoglobulin G was significant compared to immunoglobulin M, which tended to be absent over time.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Ecuador , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8496, 2022 05 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589975

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the frequency and intensity of acute stress among health professionals caring for COVID-19 patients in four Latin American Spanish-speaking countries during the outbreak. A cross-sectional study involved a non-probability sample of healthcare professionals in four Latin American countries. Participants from each country were invited using a platform and mobile application designed for this study. Hospital and primary care workers from different services caring for COVID-19 patients were included. The EASE Scale (SARS-CoV-2 Emotional Overload Scale, in Spanish named Escala Auto-aplicada de Sobrecarga Emocional) was a previously validated measure of acute stress. EASE scores were described overall by age, sex, work area, and experience of being ill with COVID-19. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, the EASE scores were compared according to the most critical moments of the pandemic. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to investigate associations between these factors and the outcome 'acute stress'. Finally, the Kruskal-Wallis was used to compare EASE scores and the experience of being ill. A total of 1372 professionals responded to all the items in the EASE scale: 375 (27.3%) Argentines, 365 (26.6%) Colombians, 345 (25.1%) Chileans, 209 (15.2%) Ecuadorians, and 78 (5.7%) from other countries. 27% of providers suffered middle-higher acute stress due to the outbreak. Worse results were observed in moments of peak incidence of cases (14.3 ± 5.3 vs. 6.9 ± 1.7, p < 0.05). Higher scores were found in professionals in COVID-19 critical care (13 ± 1.2) than those in non-COVID-19 areas (10.7 ± 1.9) (p = 0.03). Distress was higher among professionals who were COVID-19 patients (11.7 ± 1) or had doubts about their potential infection (12 ± 1.2) compared to those not infected (9.5 ± 0.7) (p = 0.001). Around one-third of the professionals experienced acute stress, increasing in intensity as the incidence of COVID-19 increased and as they became infected or in doubt whether they were infected. EASE scale could be a valuable asset for monitoring acute stress levels among health professionals in Latin America.ClinicalTrials: NCT04486404.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Personal de Salud , Estrés Laboral , Argentina/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Chile , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457687

RESUMEN

Expectations about a destination influence the tourist experience during the travel process stages. In the post-COVID-19 normalcy, people are adjusting their priorities and social values. Therefore, it becomes crucial to identify tourists' expectations before traveling. The objectives of this research were: (a) identify the preferences of tourists; (b) establish the attitudes of tourists; and (c) determine the expectations of tourists for post-COVID-19 destination selection. The study analyzed a sample of 491 people during pandemic lockdowns in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Statistical techniques such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used in data analysis. The results show that after the pandemic, tourists prefer urban tourism, followed by cultural tourism and traveling with relatives. It also shows a more responsible and supportive attitude when traveling. Likewise, the results support the dimensional structure that explains a set of post-pandemic tourist expectations. Five factors were identified: Smart Care, pricing strategy, safety, comfort, and social distancing. Finally, the theoretical and managerial implications of the results that will guide for tourism destination managers were discussed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Actitud , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Motivación , Viaje
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844947, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392477

RESUMEN

Background: This study tests a framework that examines the role of several mental health factors (mood, wellbeing, health consciousness, and hoarding) on individuals' overconsumption behavior under the novel coronavirus context. This examination is relevant to public health literature because it increases our knowledge on how the context of COVID-19 pandemic affects people's mental health and provides answers to why individuals engage in overconsumption behavior. Additionally, this research also follows a cross-cultural perspective aiming to understand how individuals from different cultural orientations cope with the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compares samples from two countries: Ecuador (n = 334) and USA (n = 321). Data was collected via an online survey. The timing of data collection was set during the mandatory lockdowns and social distance measures taken by both countries to fight against the COVID-19 virus breakout. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the theorized framework. Multi-group analysis was used to explore cultural orientation differences among the relationships included in the model. Results: The results indicate that individuals' mood state has a positive relationship with health consciousness, as people try to regulate their health concerns by maintaining positive perceptions of their subjective wellbeing. Further, the increased concern individuals express in their health is responsible for them to engage in overconsumption behavior. Cultural orientation (individualism vs. collectivism) moderates the relationship between mood and health consciousness. No moderation effect was found for the relationship between health consciousness and overconsumption. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated negative effects in individuals' mental health. Findings from this study suggest that maintaining a positive mood is important for individuals at the time of mandatory lockdowns, and this effort is related to a greater concern and awareness of their health. Further, health consciousness is responsible to stimulate overconsumption behavior. This chain of effects can be explained by individuals' interest in their wellbeing. Culture plays a role in these effects. People from individualistic countries (USA) compared to people from collectivistic countries (Ecuador) demonstrate greater motivation in maintaining their positive mood by showing greater health consciousness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Comparación Transcultural , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Psychol ; 156(5): 381-394, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482962

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the emotional health of adolescents, especially those with low resilience and life satisfaction. The aim is to analyze the predictors of anxiety, depression, and stress among adolescents in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic.Participants were 586 adolescents from Ecuador aged between 12-18 years (M = 15.30; SD = 1.28). Satisfaction, resilience, anxiety, depression, stress and worries about COVID-19 were assessed. Structural equation models (SEM) and models based on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) were performed. The results indicate that worries are associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. However, higher physical health worries are associated with lower emotional distress. SEM models indicate that life satisfaction is negatively associated with emotional distress. In QCA models, emotional distress is explained by high worries, low resilience, and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction plays a mediating role in emotional distress.In conclusion, adolescents are one of the groups particularly vulnerable to this situation of restriction created by COVID-19. It is necessary to detect signs of risk and protection in emotional adjustment, especially life satisfaction, that appears like principal damper variable.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604626, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392539

RESUMEN

Objective: The global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged health systems. Healthcare professionals had to face harsh conditions that have caused psycho-emotional consequences. Ecuador has been one of the countries hit hardest by the pandemic in Latin America. The objective of this study was to analyse the levels of psychological distress among healthcare workers in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a convenience sample of 1,056 healthcare professionals, assessing their psychological distress, physical symptoms of COVID-19, state of health, the preventive measures adopted, and the history of contact with people infected with the SARS-CoV2 virus. Results: showed that 66.0% of the participants manifested psychological distress, with significantly higher levels in women with symptoms of COVID-19 and previous contact with infected people or objects (p < 0.001). However, adherence to preventive measures and perception of health were associated with less psychological distress (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The importance of monitoring the mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed, having identified factors associated with the development of psychological distress among professionals in Ecuador.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Distrés Psicológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Pandemias , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010082, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dozens of commercial RT-qPCR kits for SARS-CoV-2 detection are available with or without Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by FDA or other regulatory agencies. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical performance of two SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR kits designed and produced in South America, "COVID-19 RT-PCR Real TM FAST (CY5)" (ATGen, Uruguay) and "ECUGEN SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR" (UDLA-STARNEWCORP, Ecuador), for RT-qPCR SARS-CoV2 detection using "TaqMan 2019-nCoV Assay Kit v1" (Thermofisher, USA) as a gold standard technique. RESULTS: We report a great clinical performance and analytical sensitivity for the two South American kits with sensitivity values of 96.4 and 100%, specificity of 100% and limit of detection in the range of 10 copies/uL of RNA extraction. CONCLUSIONS: "COVID-19 RT-PCR Real TM FAST (CY5)" and "ECUGEN SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR" kits are reliable SARS-CoV-2 tests made in South America that have been extensively used in Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Ecuador. These locally produced SARS-CoV-2 tests have contributed to overcome supply shortages and reduce diagnosis cost, while maintaining the high quality standards of FDA EUA commercially available kits. This approach could be extended for other diagnostic products to improve infectious diseases surveillance at middle and low income countries beyond COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Carbocianinas , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Uruguay
20.
Gac Sanit ; 2022 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339310

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between mobility restriction and mental health outcomes among Ecuadorian young adults. METHOD: The present is a cross-sectional study that included a non-probabilistic sample of mostly highly educated young adults. Socio-demographic and mental health data were collected through an online survey, between May and June 2020, when confinement was mandatory in Ecuador. Data on mobility was extracted from Google Community Mobility Reports. Four aspects of the participants' mental health were evaluated: eating behavior (emotional eating), depression, sleep quality and sense of coherence as a proxy of resilience, using previously validated instruments. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models in R. RESULTS: Sample included 8426 young adults, with a mean age of 22.85 (standard deviation: 4.43), most of whom were women (n=5943, 70.53%). During mandatory confinement, in Ecuador mobility in general was reduced by nearly 50% in comparison to January/February, 2020. Less healthy eating behavior, depression, worse sleep quality and lower sense of coherence were associated with higher mobility restriction to workplaces and groceries/pharmacies. Women and youngsters more often showed depression, less healthy eating behavior, worse quality of sleep and lower sense of coherence in comparison with men and older respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Mobility restrictions during COVID-19 pandemic were associated with worse self-reported mental health in a sample of young highly-educated Ecuadorian adults. Women and youngsters were the most affected. Our findings highlight the need of implementing health promotion measures directed to ameliorate the effects of confinement on mental health, focusing on women and youngsters.

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