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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49570, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094832

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir as experiências e contradições no controle da pandemia de Covid-19 sob a perspectiva da epidemiologia e das políticas públicas brasileiras. Conteúdo: o debate apresentado divide-se em duas seções: a primeira traça a reflexão dos parâmetros epidemiológicos sobre a curva epidêmica do SARS-CoV-2, bem como as experiências internacionais para o controle deste fenômeno. A segunda, ancorada nas políticas públicas brasileiras, apresenta uma análise comparada das experiências nacionais e internacionais, discutindo os potenciais reflexos sobre a pandemia, considerando algumas especificidades sociais. Conclusão: frente à impossibilidade de redução de pessoas susceptíveis por meio de estratégias vacinais, a redução da velocidade da curva epidêmica precisa ocorrer por meio de ações de isolamento físico social. Ademais, a construção de políticas públicas que visem a proteção ao trabalhador e a ampliação do investimento no setor saúde são medidas urgentes.


Objective: to discuss experiences and contradictions in the control of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of epidemiology and Brazilian public policies. Content: the discussion presented is divided into two sections: the first one present epidemiological parameters on the epidemic curve of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the international experiences for the control of this phenomenon. The second, anchored in the Brazilian public policies, presents a comparative analysis of national and international experiences, discussing the potential impacts on the pandemic, considering some specific social issues. Conclusion: in the face of impossibility of reducing susceptible people through vaccination strategies, the reduction of the speed of the epidemic curve needs to occur through actions of social distance. In addition, the construction of public policies aimed at protecting workers and expanding investment in the health sector are urgent measures.


Objetivo: discutir las experiencias y contradicciones en el control de la pandemia Covid-19 desde la perspectiva de la epidemiología brasileña y las políticas públicas. Contenido: el debate presentado se divide en dos secciones. El primero traza la reflexión de los parámetros epidemiológicos en la curva epidémica del SARS-CoV-2, así como las experiencias internacionales para el control de este fenómeno. El segunda seccione, anclada en las políticas públicas brasileñas, presenta un análisis comparativo de las experiencias nacionales e internacionales, discutiendo los posibles impactos en la pandemia, considerando algunas especificidades sociales brasileñas. Conclusión: dada la imposibilidad de reducir a las personas susceptibles a través de estrategias de vacunación, la reducción de la velocidad de la curva epidémica debe ocurrir a través de acciones de aislamiento social y físico. Además, la construcción de políticas públicas destinadas a proteger a los trabajadores y ampliar la inversión en el sector de la salud son medidas urgentes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Pandemias , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus
2.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(1): 20-37, jan.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1095989

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar o perfil epidemiológico das doenças respiratórias e os indicadores socioeconômicos e de assistência em saúde da região Norte do Brasil durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Método: estudo epidemiológico, de caráter descritivo e quantitativo, em relação ao período de janeiro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2020. Os dados foram coletados no DATASUS e no boletim epidemiológico sobre a COVID-19 do Ministério da Saúde. Os resultados foram dispostos em números absolutos, frequência relativa e medidas de tendência central. Resultados: no período houve 1.163.303 internações, consumindo 891.494.215,40 reais. Pará e Amazonas somam 66% desses gastos. Os meses de abril, maio e junho apresentaram médias maiores de hospitalizações durante todos os anos. A faixa etária mais onerosa foi entre 60 e 69 anos. A região Norte é menos provida de médicos, leitos de UTI e respiradores. Amazonas, Amapá e Roraima têm os maiores coeficientes de incidência de COVID-19 por 1.000.000 de habitantes. Conclusão: a pandemia aumenta a vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e assistencial do sistema de saúde do Norte brasileiro, com sobrecarga e número de óbitos crescente. Portanto, há necessidade urgente de realocar recursos e reorganizar a rede de atenção à saúde.


Objective: to analyze the epidemiological profile of respiratory diseases and the socioeconomic and health care indicators of northern Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: epidemiological study, of a descriptive and quantitative character, in relation to the period from January 2010 to February 2020. Data were collected in DATASUS and in the epidemiological bulletin on COVID-19 of the Ministry of Health. The results were displayed in absolute numbers, relative frequency and measures of central tendency. Results: in the period there were 1,163,303 hospitalizations, consuming 891,494,215.40 reais. Pará and Amazonas account for 66% of these expenses. The months of April, May and June showed higher averages of hospitalizations during all years. The most expensive age group was between 60 and 69 years. The northern region is less equipped with doctors, ICU beds and respirators. Amazonas, Amapá and Roraima have the highest incidence coefficients of COVID-19 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. Conclusion: the pandemic increases the socioeconomic and assistance vulnerability of the health system in northern Brazil, with an overload and an increasing number of deaths. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reallocate resources and reorganize the health care network.


Objetivo: analizar el perfil epidemiológi co de las enfermedades respiratorias y los indicadores socioeconómicos y de salud del Norte de Brasil durante la pandemia COVID- 19. Método: estudio epidemiológico, de carácter descriptivo y cuantitativo, en relación con el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 y febrero de 2020. Los datos se recopilaron en DATASUS y en el boletín epidemiológico sobre COVID-19 del Ministerio de Salud. Los resultados se mostraron en números absolutos. frecuencia relativa y medidas de tendencia central. Resultados: en el período hubo 1.163.303 hospitalizaciones, que consumieron 891.494.215,40 reales. Pará y Amazonas representan el 66% de estos gastos. Los meses de abril, mayo y junio mostraron promedios más altos de hospitalizaciones durante todos los años. El grupo de edad más caro fue entre 60 y 69 años. La región Norte está menos equipada con médicos, camas de UCI y respiradores. Amazonas, Amapá y Roraima tienen las tasas más altas de incidencia de COVID-19 por cada 1,000,000 de habitantes. Conclusión: la pandemia aumenta la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y asistencial del sistema de salud en el Norte de Brasil, con una sobrecarga y un número creciente de muertes. Por lo tanto, existe una necesidad urgente de reasignar recursos y reorganizar la red de atención médica.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Perfil de Salud , Epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias/economía , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Betacoronavirus
6.
Pulmonology ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371054
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371055

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We are facing a pandemic with a great impact worldwide, as a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The medical community is still getting to know behavior of this virus and the consequences from a population point of view. All this knowledge is extremely dynamic, so some behaviors are still not well established. Otorhinolaryngologists have a central role in the management of this situation, in which they must assess the patient, avoid contamination to and by health professionals and other patients. Thus, the recommendations of the Brazilian Association of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervical-Facial Surgery (ABORL-CCF) have the main objective of reducing the spread of the new coronavirus during otorhinolaryngological care and assisting in the management of these patients. METHODS: Review of the main recommendations of national and international scientific societies, decisions by government agencies and class councils. The topics will be related to the general aspects of COVID-19, personal protective equipment, care in patient assistance, endoscopic exam routines and the management of sinonasal, otological and pediatric evaluations related to COVID-19. RESULTS: The use of personal protective equipment is considered crucial in routine ENT care. We recommend postponing appointments, exams and elective surgeries to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Similarly, we recommend changing routines in several areas of otolaryngology. Additionally, guidance is provided on the use of telemedicine resources during the pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: We are still at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and scientific evidence is still scarce and incomplete, so these ABORL-CCF recommendations for otorhinolaryngologists may be updated based on new knowledge and the pattern of the new coronavirus spread.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 139085, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361428

RESUMEN

The first COVID-19 case in Brazil was confirmed on February 25, 2020. On March 16, the state's governor declared public health emergency in the city of Rio de Janeiro and partial lockdown measures came into force a week later. The main goal of this work is to discuss the impact of the measures on the air quality of the city by comparing the particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations determined during the partial lockdown with values obtained in the same period of 2019 and also with the weeks prior to the virus outbreak. Concentrations varied with substantial differences among pollutants and also among the three studied monitoring stations. CO levels showed the most significant reductions (30.3-48.5%) since they were related to light-duty vehicular emissions. NO2 also showed reductions while PM10 levels were only reduced in the first lockdown week. In April, an increase in vehicular flux and movement of people was observed mainly as a consequence of the lack of consensus about the importance and need of social distancing and lockdown. Ozone concentrations increased probably due to the decrease in nitrogen oxides level. When comparing with the same period of 2019, NO2 and CO median values were 24.1-32.9 and 37.0-43.6% lower. Meteorological interferences, mainly the transport of pollutants from the industrial areas might have also impacted the results.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 138862, 2020 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361443

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a severe public health issue. The novelty of the virus prompts a search for understanding of how ecological factors affect the transmission and survival of the virus. Several studies have robustly identified a relationship between temperature and the number of cases. However, there is no specific study for a tropical climate such as Brazil. This work aims to determine the relationship of temperature to COVID-19 infection for the state capital cities of Brazil. Cumulative data with the daily number of confirmed cases was collected from February 27 to April 1, 2020, for all 27 state capital cities of Brazil affected by COVID-19. A generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to explore the linear and nonlinear relationship between annual average temperature compensation and confirmed cases. Also, a polynomial linear regression model was proposed to represent the behavior of the growth curve of COVID-19 in the capital cities of Brazil. The GAM dose-response curve suggested a negative linear relationship between temperatures and daily cumulative confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the range from 16.8 °C to 27.4 °C. Each 1 °C rise of temperature was associated with a -4.8951% (t = -2.29, p = 0.0226) decrease in the number of daily cumulative confirmed cases of COVID-19. A sensitivity analysis assessed the robustness of the results of the model. The predicted R-squared of the polynomial linear regression model was 0.81053. In this study, which features the tropical temperatures of Brazil, the variation in annual average temperatures ranged from 16.8 °C to 27.4 °C. Results indicated that temperatures had a negative linear relationship with the number of confirmed cases. The curve flattened at a threshold of 25.8 °C. There is no evidence supporting that the curve declined for temperatures above 25.8 °C. The study had the goal of supporting governance for healthcare policymakers.

15.
Oral Dis ; 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392364

RESUMEN

Initially, I would like to congratulate the Editors of Oral Diseases for the initiative of grouping together different realities of our colleagues around the world, in the face of what seems to be the biggest crisis, not only in health but also in economics, politics and why not say of values, which certainly goes beyond our generation, for some with an extra component, that includes religion.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 139090, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388137

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze how meteorological conditions such as temperature, humidity and rainfall can affect the spread of COVID-19 in five Brazilian (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Manaus and Fortaleza) cities. The cities selected were those with the largest number of confirmed cases considering data of April 13. Variables such as number of cumulative cases, new daily cases and contamination rate were employed for this study. Our results showed that higher mean temperatures and average relative humidity favored the COVID-19 transmission, differently from reports from coldest countries or periods of time under cool temperatures. Thus, considering the results obtained, intersectoral policies and actions are necessary, mainly in cities where the contamination rate is increasing rapidly. Thus, prevention and protection measures should be adopted in these cities aiming to reduce transmission and the possible collapse of the health system.

17.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e047, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401828

RESUMEN

The emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its association with severe pneumonia and deaths has exposed gaps in the health systems of several countries worldwide. Although the necessary focus has been to care for hospitalized patients, the strengthening of Primary Health Care (PHC) actions is necessary. PHC is the gateway to the health system in several countries, including Brazil and it plays a role in preventing, protecting, promoting, and treating individuals and communities. Brazil, like other countries, has faced the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. As Brazil has a universal and decentralized health system, in which PHC has been the model of health re-organizing the health system; here we reflected the importance of strengthening PHC in Brazil in the times of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401959

RESUMEN

We conducted the genome sequencing and analysis of the first confirmed COVID-19 infections in Brazil. Rapid sequencing coupled with phylogenetic analyses in the context of travel history corroborate multiple independent importations from Italy and local spread during the initial stage of COVID-19 transmission in Brazil.

20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(5): 1575-1586, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402018

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the behavioral aspects and beliefs of the population of Ceará in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire was conducted on sociodemographic aspects and opinions related to the pandemic. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated, the association between variables was performed with Chi-square, and the level of significance was 5%. The final sample had 2,259 participants, and an association was observed between females and perceiving themselves with a high risk of infection (p = 0.044) and males with non-performance of voluntary quarantine (p < 0.001). People aged 80 years and over were partially quarantined due to the flow of people at home (p < 0.001). Participants with elementary school education had a lower risk of infection than participants with a higher level of education (p < 0.001). This group includes people who did voluntary quarantine the least (p < 0.001). Participants living in the inland region of the state had less direct contact with someone tested positive for the Coronavirus (p = 0.031) and are less reclusive (p < 0.001). We can conclude that the approach to the COVID-19 pandemic varies by social aspects, such as gender, age, education, and place of residence, as well as the belief system of the population of the State of Ceará.

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