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2.
Zootaxa ; 5026(1): 145-150, 2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810936

RESUMEN

Hesychotypa albofasciata sp. nov. from Mexico (Veracruz) and Honduras, and Tulcus santossilvai sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca) are described and illustrated. Distinguishing characters from closely related species are provided and discussed.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Honduras , México
3.
Child Abuse Negl ; 123: 105381, 2021 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and use of modern contraception is limited in Honduras. The government has made substantial gains in promoting modern contraception. Young adults experience high rates of violence. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between ACEs and contraceptive behaviors among young women and men. METHODS: We used data from 810 women and 753 men aged 18-24 years from the 2017 Honduras Violence against Children Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey of childhood adversity. We assessed associations between ACEs and three contraceptive use outcomes: use versus nonuse of modern contraceptives; use of methods requiring medium/high or low programmatic support among current contraceptive users; and frequent versus infrequent condom use. FINDINGS: Exposure to physical or emotional abuse and witnessing violence in the home was not significantly associated with the three contraceptive use outcomes for men or women. Sexual abuse and parental separation reduced odds of contraceptive use among women (Odds Ratio (OR) < 0.60) but not among men. In contrast, orphan status increased odds of modern contraception use among men (OR 1.93) and frequent condom use among women (OR 2.22). CONCLUSION: The inconsistent direction and magnitude of associations between ACEs and modern contraceptive use among young men and women suggests divergent relationships between ACEs and sexual and reproductive health behaviors. Results may highlight the strength of norms around contraceptive use and/or widespread access to community-based family planning programs and comprehensive sexuality education, irrespective of exposure to ACEs in Honduras.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749305

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) can be sexually transmitted and can lead to severe neonatal and child health issues. The current study examines whether ZIKV-related ideational factors, including awareness of ZIKV and associated birth defects, are related to modern contraceptive use among women and men with sexual partners in four Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Data used are from cross-sectional household surveys conducted in 2018 in the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras with representative samples of men and women aged 18-49 (N = 1,100). The association between self-reported use of modern contraception and measures of Zika knowledge, risk perceptions and social norms, and contraceptive self-efficacy was examined via sex disaggregated multivariate logistic regression models. Both men (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.36-10.06, P < 0.05) and women (OR 3.71, 95% CI 2.30-5.99, P < 0.0001), who reported discussing family planning with their partner in the last year were more likely to use modern contraception compared with those who did not. Contrary to our hypothesis, knowledge that ZIKV can affect a fetus was negatively associated with modern contraceptive use for women (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P < 0.05). Given the cross-sectional nature of the survey, women not using contraception may be more likely to remember that ZIKV can affect a fetus. In the event of a related outbreak, future health promotion and communication efforts in LAC should focus on known determinants of modern contraceptive use, such as knowledge and partner communication, and knowledge of the health effects of ZIKV if pregnant, to influence family planning decision-making behavior.

5.
Trop Lepid Res ; 31(1): 48-52, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733399

RESUMEN

Jonaspyge elizabethae n. sp. is described from southwestern Honduras. It is similar to the other two Jonaspyge O. Mielke, 2002 species in having metallic dark-blue wings with purple sheen, crenulate hindwing outer margin, and black body with orange palpi and an orange abdomen tip. It is diagnosed by bright-orange (instead of white) fringes and dark (instead of orange) cheeks. Genomic sequence analysis of Jonaspyge reveals that it is a close relative of Jonaspyge jonas (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859) and Jonaspyge tzotzili (H. Freeman, 1969), differing from them by 5.3% in the COI DNA barcode. This new, third species of Jonaspyge is the most divergent member of the genus.

6.
Trop Lepid Res ; 31(1): 53-59, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733400

RESUMEN

Emesis eleanorae Gallardo & Grishin n. sp. is described from western Honduras. It differs from other species of Emesis Fabricius, 1807 in having a row of prominent iron-gray crescent-shaped postdiscal spots on both wings above, outlined by paler areas basad and mirrored as merlot-colored spots below, with the largest by the forewing costa, and in its females being bright golden-orange in color. Genomic sequence analysis of Emesis reveals that the new species belongs to the subgenus Aphacitis Hübner, [1819] and is sister to the clade containing Emesis diogenia Prittwitz, 1865 and Emesis heteroclita Stichel, 1929, and the clade of these three species is sister to Emesis vulpina Godman & Salvin, 1886.

7.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706788

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study explored social and behavioural factors associated with a home fortification of complementary foods program among families of undernourished children in 14 rural communities in Honduras. DESIGN: We collected and analysed survey data from a convenience sample of 196 households participating in a nutritional program using home fortification of complementary foods in 2017. The program supplied families with a soy-based atole powder fortified with micronutrients. A research team completed a face-to-face survey exploring social and behavioural factors associated with nutritional supplement use. Anthropometric measurements for participating children were abstracted from health clinic records of previous quarterly appointments. SETTING: The study took place in San Jose del Negrito, Honduras. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were parents or guardians of children enrolled in the nutrition program. RESULTS: Nearly half of participant families shared the nutritional supplement with other family members besides the index child, while 10 % reported using the supplement as a meal replacement for the child. Low education level of mothers was associated with improper use of the supplement (P = 0·005). Poorer families were more likely to share the supplement (P = 0·013). CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the challenges of programs using home fortification of complementary foods in the context of food scarcity. Findings highlight the importance of increasing rural children's overall caloric intake, perhaps by increasing access to locally available protein sources. Results also suggest transitioning nutritional programs to family-based interventions to increase overall intended compliance to nutrition programming.

8.
Hisp Health Care Int ; 19(4): 230-238, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664509

RESUMEN

The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of moral injury and Light Triad (LT) personality traits on anxiety and depression symptoms of health-care personnel during the coronavirus-2019 pandemic. A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was used, the study included a sample of 169 health-care workers from Honduras. Data was gathered through the Moral Injury Symptom Scale for Health Professionals (MISS-HP), Light Triad Scale (LTS), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and the Patient-Health Questionnaire-9. Results suggest that almost 9 out of 10 respondents experienced at least one potentially morally injurious event, 45.6% were at significant risk of impairment related to moral injury. Working with limited staff and resources, and the implications of it, was the most common potentially morally injurious situation reported by the respondents. Results suggest that MISS-HP Mistrust has significant negative correlations with LT traits. A hierarchical regression model determined that Moral Injury, but not LT traits, significantly affected depression symptoms. On the other hand, anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by Moral Injury, as did LTS-Humanism. The results were discussed according to their implications for public health policy in Latin America.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Personal de Salud , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Tegucigalpa; OPS; 2021-09-16. (OPS/HND/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54846

RESUMEN

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Sistemas de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud Mental , Administración Financiera , Administración en Salud Pública , América Central , Honduras
10.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359215

RESUMEN

In Honduras, many families are reliant on working equids in their daily life. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge about, and approaches to colic used by owners of working equids in Choluteca, Honduras using a phenomenological approach. Semi-structured, verbal questionnaires were conducted with ninety-three owners from eleven different communities in the Choluteca region on equid horse owners' knowledge of colic and treatments. Additional context was gained through observations and verbal questionnaires with three veterinary practitioners and eight agricultural pharmacy (agrovet) store owners. Working equids were commonly used for firewood collection 31% (40/126), transportation 24% (30/126), and carrying crops 13% (17/126). Thirty-eight percent of owners (35/92) said they did not know what colic was, 27% (24/89) could not name any clinical signs, and 46% (42/92) could not name any causes. Most owners with previous experience of colic had treated it themselves 79% (53/67), typically using herbal remedies. Colic was a major concern for owners of working equids who had prior experience or knowledge of the condition. Knowledge and understanding of colic varied, and access to evidence-based treatments was very limited. The findings will be used to inform the development of educational resources on colic in working equids.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

12.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100885, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409149

RESUMEN

Household food insecurity (HFI) is a significant problem in the developing world. Relationships between HFI and nutrition, physical growth, and development have been elucidated; less is known about the non-nutritional impacts among individuals living in rural areas in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine if HFI is a risk factor for suboptimal mental health and overall health in rural Honduras. In a population of 24,696 adults with 176 isolated villages in western Honduras, we collected data on household food insecurity and physical and mental health outcome measures. Using logistic regression with and without adjusting for village and household level unobservables invariant across individual respondents, we show that females (OR: 1.11, p <0.01)), indigenous people (OR: 2:00, p < 0.01), and those planning to migrate (OR: 1.24, p <0.01) have higher odds of experiencing food insecurity. The risks of food insecurity and poor health were mitigated among respondents living where they were born and having multi-generations of relatives living in the same village-a measure of the opportunity and availability of social networks. Living in a food insecure compared to a food secure household was associated with 77 percent higher odds of being depressed, 35 percent higher odds of low overall mental health, and 20 percent higher odds for low overall health.

13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112865, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419696

RESUMEN

The Gulf of Honduras includes extensive coral reefs in Belize and Guatemala, classified into four biogeographic zones, which are differentially affected by runoff, hurricanes, and fishing. Runoff mostly impacts the coastal and adjacent channel reefs. The Belize Barrier Reef (BBR) experiences less runoff impact due to the prevailing cyclonic ocean circulation. Hurricane waves powerfully impact the BBR, only occasionally the lee-side of Glover's Reef, and rarely the coastal and channel reefs. Fishing pressure is most intense on the coastal and channel reefs, comparatively modest on the BBR, and low at Glover's Reef. The effects of the three local stressors were evaluated using observations from 24 sites in the Gulf of Honduras. Data were analyzed using the Reef Health Index (RHI), with the highest RHI (4.3) for two Glover's Reef sites, medium RHI (2.6) for 10 sites on the barrier reef, and lowest RHI (2.1) for 8 coastal reef sites.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Animales , Belice , Arrecifes de Coral , Honduras
14.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 184: 107642, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216626

RESUMEN

The genus Beauveria comprises economically important entomopathogenic fungi, widely used for biological control in agriculture. Interest in these organisms in Costa Rica prompted surveys and establishment of collections in the past two decades. However, there was neither a formal identification nor a characterization of the isolates. With that purpose, the morphology and genetic variation by microsatellites and partial sequencing of Bloc, TEF-1α and RPB2 regions were studied for 32 isolates of Beauveria, which included 26 from Costa Rica, five from Puerto Rico and one from Honduras. The isolates were identified as B. bassiana (29) and B. caledonica (3). Ninety-three percent of B. bassiana isolates belonged to a monophyletic group of African and Neotropical isolates. A total of 105 alleles were recorded with 11 SSR markers, and the results suggested high diversity within the collection. Mantel tests showed low association between geographic origin and the variation among isolates.


Asunto(s)
Beauveria/clasificación , Genes Fúngicos , Variación Genética , Beauveria/citología , Beauveria/genética , Beauveria/aislamiento & purificación , Costa Rica , Honduras , Filogenia , Puerto Rico
17.
J Neurol Sci ; 427: 117551, 2021 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171744

RESUMEN

Arbovirus infections have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations. Among these, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is one of the most common. This study describes the characteristics of GBS associated with arbovirus infections during the outbreak which occurred in Honduras from January 2016 to February 2019. This was an observational retrospective study of adult patients who were diagnosed with GBS during that time. The diagnosis of GBS was based upon the criteria first published by Asbury, et al. and subsequently revised as the Brighton Criteria. A total of 91 patients with GBS constituted the study population. RT-PCR tests for ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV arboviruses were performed in 47 (52%) of the patients. Of the tested population, 8/47 were positive for one of the arboviruses (5/8 for ZIKV, 3/8 for CHIKV; 0/8 for DENV). The clinical profile of the eight cases with GBS and arboviral infection did not differ significantly from the GBS patients who tested negative for ZIKV and CHIKV. In the cases with GBS and ZIKV, a parainfectious onset of the disease was suggested. Although not a strikingly large number of patients with GBS and arbovirus infection were seen, the close temporal relationship in these eight cases suggests an arbovirus (ZIKV and CHIKV) etiology.


Asunto(s)
Dengue , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiología , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infección por el Virus Zika/complicaciones , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Motor de Búsqueda , Argentina , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecuador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , México , Pandemias , Perú , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay
19.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012211008995, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938325

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in Latin America, including Honduras, is serious. To help IPV victims, a community-based educational program has been implemented. This study aims to examine the impact of IPV training among teachers and health care professionals (n = 160) on increases in IPV knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy when dealing with IPV victims using a pretest and posttest design. We found that the treatment group who received IPV training showed significantly lower justification for IPV, higher gender equality attitudes, and higher IPV knowledge as well as higher confidence levels in identifying IPV victims and safety planning for victims. We concluded that the IPV training program using the community-based approaches has the potential to help IPV victims in Honduras. More efforts should be made to increase the educational opportunities the community members can receive.

20.
Front Psychol ; 12: 658739, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025522

RESUMEN

Religion and spirituality (R/S) serve as coping mechanisms for circumstances that threaten people's psychological well-being. However, using R/S inappropriately to deal with difficulties and problems in daily life may include the practice of Spiritual Bypass (SB). SB refers to avoiding addressing emotional problems and trauma, rather than healing and learning from them. On the other hand, coping strategies may be determined by the cultural context. This study aims to describe the presence of SB in individuals who may have experienced stressful situations and to understand the influence of culture on SB by comparing SB in two culturally different groups. The sample consists of a total of 435 people, 262 of Honduran nationality and 173 of Spanish nationality. Both groups are approximately equivalent in age and gender. The degree of SB, stressful events, perception of social support and spiritual well-being are examined, respectively, through the Spiritual Bypass Scale, and specific items and subscales from the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Wellbeing. The results showed a higher spiritual well-being and use of SB in the Honduran sample as compared to the Spanish sample, but similar social support and stressful events. Furthermore, some of the factors predicting SB were different between the two samples. While age and a greater number of R/S practices were important in both samples, for the Honduran sample the variables that best explained SB were being a Christian, having greater social support, fewer stressful events, and greater attendance at church or temple. For the Spanish sample, however, the variable that best explained SB was studying R/S texts. Therefore, SB must be understood within the culture in which it develops, since in different cultural contexts it appears to relate to differing factors. Thus, SB becomes a possible functional or dysfunctional coping strategy depending on the social context.

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