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Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449523


Introducción: La enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) se ha extendido entre la población de todo el país y ha tenido un gran impacto a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, existen diferencias geográficas importantes en la mortalidad de COVID-19 entre las diferentes regiones del mundo y en Costa Rica. Objetivo: Explorar el efecto de algunos de los factores sociodemográficos en la mortalidad de COVID-19 en pequeñas divisiones geográficas o cantones de Costa Rica. Métodos: Usamos registros oficiales y aplicamos un modelo de regresión clásica de Poisson y un modelo de regresión ponderada geográficamente. Resultados: Obtuvimos un criterio de información de Akaike (AIC) más bajo con la regresión ponderada (927.1 en la regresión de Poison versus 358.4 en la regresión ponderada). Los cantones con un mayor riesgo de mortalidad por COVID-19 tuvo una población más densa; bienestar material más alto; menor proporción de cobertura de salud y están ubicadas en el área del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Conclusiones: Una estrategia de intervención de COVID-19 específica debería concentrarse en áreas de la costa pacífica con poblaciones más densas, mayor bienestar material y menor población por unidad de salud.

Introduction: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread among the population of Costa Rica and has had a great global impact. However, there are important geographic differences in mortality from COVID-19 among world regions and within Costa Rica. Objective: To explore the effect of some sociodemographic factors on COVID-19 mortality in the small geographic divisions or cantons of Costa Rica. Methods: We used official records and applied a classical epidemiological Poisson regression model and a geographically weighted regression model. Results: We obtained a lower Akaike Information Criterion with the weighted regression (927.1 in Poisson regression versus 358.4 in weighted regression). The cantons with higher risk of mortality from COVID-19 had a denser population; higher material well-being; less population by health service units and are located near the Pacific coast. Conclusions: A specific COVID-19 intervention strategy should concentrate on Pacific coast areas with denser population, higher material well-being and less population by health service units.

Commun Med (Lond) ; 3(1): 102, 2023 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481623


INTRODUCTION: Variability in household secondary attack rates and transmission risks factors of SARS-CoV-2 remain poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a household transmission study of SARS-CoV-2 in Costa Rica, with SARS-CoV-2 index cases selected from a larger prospective cohort study and their household contacts were enrolled. A total of 719 household contacts of 304 household index cases were enrolled from November 21, 2020, through July 31, 2021. Blood specimens were collected from contacts within 30-60 days of index case diagnosis; and serum was tested for presence of spike and nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 prior infections among household contacts was defined based on the presence of both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. We fitted a chain binomial model to the serologic data, to account for exogenous community infection risk and potential multi-generational transmissions within the household. RESULTS: Overall seroprevalence was 53% (95% confidence interval (CI) 48-58%) among household contacts. The estimated household secondary attack rate is 34% (95% CI 5-75%). Mask wearing by the index case is associated with the household transmission risk reduction by 67% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.33 with 95% CI: 0.09-0.75) and not sharing bedroom with the index case is associated with the risk reduction of household transmission by 78% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.22 with 95% CI 0.10-0.41). The estimated distribution of household secondary attack rates is highly heterogeneous across index cases, with 30% of index cases being the source for 80% of secondary cases. CONCLUSIONS: Modeling analysis suggests that behavioral factors are important drivers of the observed SARS-CoV-2 transmission heterogeneity within the household.

When living in the same house with known SARS-CoV-2 cases, household members may change their behavior and adopt preventive measures to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. To understand how behavioral factors affect SARS-CoV-2 spreading in household settings, we focused on household members of individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and followed the way SARS-CoV-2 spread within the household, by looking at who had antibodies against the virus, which means they were infected. We also asked participants detailed questions about their behavior and applied mathematical modeling to evaluate its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We found that mask-wearing by the SARS-CoV-2 cases, and avoiding sharing a bedroom with the infected individuals, reduces SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, caring for SARS-CoV-2 cases, and prolonged interaction with infected individuals facilitate SARS-CoV-2 spreading. Our study helps inform what behaviors can help reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a household.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 21(1): 21, 2023 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37005606


OBJECTIVE: Our study analyzes the cost-effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccination campaigns in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. METHODS: Using a previously published SVEIR model, we analyzed the impact of a vaccination campaign (2021) from a national healthcare perspective. The primary outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and total costs. Other outcomes included COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, deaths, and life years. We applied a discount rate of 3% for health outcomes. We modeled a realistic vaccination campaign in each country (the realistic country-specific campaign). Additionally, we assessed a standard campaign (similar, "typical" for all countries), and an optimized campaign (similar in all countries with higher but plausible population coverage). One-way deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. FINDINGS: Vaccination was health improving as well as cost-saving in almost all countries and scenarios. Our analysis shows that vaccination in this group of countries prevented 573,141 deaths (508,826 standard; 685,442 optimized) and gained 5.07 million QALYs (4.53 standard; 6.03 optimized). Despite the incremental costs of vaccination campaigns, they had a total net cost saving to the health system of US$16.29 billion (US$16.47 standard; US$18.58 optimized). The realistic (base case) vaccination campaign in Chile was the only scenario, which was not cost saving, but it was still highly cost-effective with an ICER of US$22 per QALY gained. Main findings were robust in the sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 vaccination campaign in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries -that comprise nearly 80% of the region- was beneficial for population health and was also cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

Sci Total Environ ; 872: 162195, 2023 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36781131


Co-design processes are of key importance in planning and implementing Nature-based Solutions (NBS), but require boundary management between diverse holders of local, practical and scientific knowledge. Participatory and map-based planning tools, such as Geodesign workshops, can facilitate such boundary management through mobilising knowledge holders, and translating and negotiating between different perspectives. The COVID-19 pandemic hindered physical mobility, but offered an, albeit unintended, opportunity to explore new ways of virtual mobility for facilitating boundary management in NBS co-design through digital participatory tools. This short communication aims to demonstrate how a spatial planning process for NBS can be facilitated in an online context. We draw on an international case study for co-designing NBS in Costa Rica, conducted during the severe lock-down restriction of the COVID-19 pandemic. This novel approach showcases how physical presence and movement is replaced by virtual mobility enabled through an online geographic map-based environment that allowed participants to communicate their opinions and co-create local and regional NBS actions. The case study included developing and testing a co-design tool to understand and map local perceptions of social-ecological problems, and an actual co-design process for siting NBS options and jointly exploring their implications. We present two levels of the process: 1) the adaptation of the co-design tool, and 2) the use and usefulness of the co-design tool. Our evaluation shows that the tool served its purpose well and provided useful support to local stakeholders. We recommend to test further strategical combinations of in-person and virtual methods in NBS co-design processes to improve NBS planning and implementation.

COVID-19 , Ríos , Humanos , Costa Rica , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 20: 100451, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36852399


Background: Official death toll related to COVID-19 has been considerably underestimated in reports from some Latin American countries. This study aimed to analyze the mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in Costa Rica between March 2020 and December 2021. Methods: A registry based study based on 2017-2021 data from the National Institute of Statistics and Census was designed (N = 128,106). Excess deaths were defined by the WHO as "the difference in the total number of deaths in a crisis compared to those expected under normal conditions"; and were estimated using a Poisson regression, and mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) rates were calculated. Findings: The COVID-19 pandemic represented 15% of the deaths in Costa Rica between March 2020 and December 2021. The mortality rate related to COVID-19 was 83 per 100,000 person-years. Between March and July 2020 (low-incidence period), observed number of deaths was 9%-lower than expected, whereas it was 15% and 24% higher than expected between July 2020 and March 2021 (high incidence period - no vaccination), and between March 2021 and December 2021 (high incidence period - progressive vaccination) respectively. Between July 2020 and December 2021, excess deaths observed and COVID-19 deaths reported were comparable (7461 and 7620 respectively). Nevertheless, there were more deaths than expected for conditions that predispose to COVID-19 deaths. YPLL and mortality rates increased with age, but significant excess deaths were observed in all age-groups older than 30-39 years. No large differences were noted by districts' socioeconomic characteristics although excess death rate was lower in rural compared to urban areas. Interpretation: Reporting of deaths was only slightly underestimated. In the pre-vaccination period, mortality rate and YPLL rates increased with age, being highest in people aged 60 years or older and justifying the decision to initially prioritize vaccination of older individuals. Funding: The study was supported by the University of Costa Rica and the Agencia Costarricense de Investigaciones Biomédicas - Fundación Inciensa.

Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-6, 26-01-2023.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1443365


Introducción:La epidemiología del COVID 19, indica que los pobres son los más afectados de casos y muertes, según estudios hechos en El Salvador, España, Escocia, México, Latinoamérica y el mundo. Objetivo:Comparar el comportamiento del Covid 19 en Costa Rica y determinar su posible relación con la pobreza. Metodología:Se hicieron cuadros descriptivos de los casos de COVID 19 según quintiles de pobreza. La relación de la pobreza y los casos totales, fallecidos, activos y recuperados se estableció con los estadísticos, coeficiente decorrelación y riesgo relativo. Resultados:A diciembre 2020, hubo 166.700 casos, 2.153 fallecidos, 130.989 recuperados y 33.654 activos. El primer caso se dio en marzo 2020 y se inició una progresión mayor de casos a partir del 15 de junio de este año. Las pruebas estadísticas, riesgo relativo y coeficiente de correlación, indicaron que el total de casos y los fallecidos fueron mayores en los cantones más pobres. Conclusión:Comparando los resultados de pobreza con los casos total, fallecidos, recuperados y activos,la pobreza fue un factor determinante del total de casos y la mortalidad.Palabras Clave:COVID 19; pobreza; factores de riesgo

Introduction:The epidemiology of COVID 19 indicates that the poor are the most affected in cases and deaths, according to studies carried out in El Salvador, Spain, Scotland, Mexico, Latin America and the world. Objective:To compare the behavior of Covid 19 in Costa Rica and to determine its possible relationship with poverty. Methodology:Descriptive tables of the COVID 19 cases were made according to poverty quintiles. The relationship between poverty and total, deceased, active and recovered cases was established with the statistics, correlation coefficient and relative risk. Results:As of December 2020, there were 166,700 cases, 2,153 deaths, 130,989 recovered, and 33,654 actives. The first case occurred in March 2020 and a further progression of cases began on June 15 of this year. The statistical tests, relative risk and correlation coefficient, indicated that the total number of cases and deaths were higher in the poorest cantons. Conclusion:Comparing the poverty results with the total, deceased, recovered and active cases, poverty was a determining factor of the total cases and mortality.Key Words:COVID 19; poverty; risk factors

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , COVID-19 , Pobreza , Factores de Riesgo
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(1): 534-551, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650777


We present a numerical implementation for a multilayer network to model the transmission of Covid-19 or other diseases with a similar transmission mechanism. The model incorporates different contact types between individuals (household, social and sporadic networks) and includes an SEIR type model for the transmission of the virus. The algorithm described in this paper includes the main ideas of the model used to give public health authorities an additional tool for the decision-making process in Costa Rica by simulating extensive possible scenarios and projections. We include two simulations: a study of the effect of restrictions on the transmission of the virus and a Costa Rica case study that was shared with the Costa Rican health authorities.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Costa Rica/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 20(1)dic. 2022.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448834


Introducción: este artículo aborda la relación entre las tasas brutas de contagio y las tasas netas de fallecimiento por la COVID-19 -variables de estudio-, con indicadores socioeconómicos y de la salud -variables de contraste- en cuatro momentos de observación durante el primer año de la sindemia en Costa Rica. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron a) identificar los momentos de observación a partir de la cantidad de casos acumulados por semana epidemiológica; b) establecer la correlación estadística entre las tasas brutas de contagio y las variables de contraste; c) establecer la correlación estadística entre las tasas netas de fallecimientos y las variables de contraste; d) describir el desarrollo de las tasas de contagio y fallecimiento a nivel cantonal; e) caracterizar socioeconómicamente los cantones con valores muy altos en dichas tasas. Metodología: se desarrolló un estudio con enfoque cuantitativo mediante el método estadístico y la aplicación de pruebas de hipótesis de tipo bivariado, a saber, correlaciones Pearson y Spearman. Resultados: los principales resultados indicaron que el contagio está estrechamente vinculado, mayoritariamente, con factores socioeconómicos -densidad poblacional, índice de desarrollo social (IDS), índice de desarrollo humano (IDH) y tasas de delito contra el patrimonio-, mientras que los fallecimientos se asocian a factores biológicos como las tasas de enfermedades -hipertensión y respiratorias- Conclusiones: se demuestra la relación existente entre la enfermedad y las desigualdades sociales, es decir, cómo estas últimas se reproducen en el campo de la salud.

Introduction: This article addresses the relationship between the gross rates of transmission and the net death rates from COVID-19 -study variables-, with socioeconomic and health indicators -contrast variables- at four moments of observation during the first year of the syndemic in Costa Rica. The objectives of the research work are: a) identify the moments of observation based on the number of accumulated cases per epidemiological week; b) establish the statistical correlation between the crude rates of transmission and the contrast variables; c) establish the statistical correlation between the net death rates and the contrast variables; d) describe the development of transmission and death rates at the cantonal level, and e) socioeconomically characterize the cantons with very high values in those rates. Methods: A study with a quantitative approach is developed through the statistical method and the application of hypothesis tests at a bivariate level, namely, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Results: The main results indicate that transmission is closely related, mostly, to socioeconomic factors -population density; Social Development Index (IDS); Human Development Index (HDI) and crime rates against property-, while deaths they are related to biological factors such as the rates of diseases -hypertension and respiratory-. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the relationship between disease and social inequalities, that is, how social inequality is reproduced in the field of health.

Polymers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432989


Pineapple is a highly demanded fruit in international markets due to its unique appearance and flavor, high fiber content, vitamins, folic acid, and minerals. It makes pineapple production and processing a significant source of income for producing countries, such as Costa Rica. This review collects bibliographic information dating back to the beginnings of pineapple production in Costa Rica to the state of the market today. It details the impacts of its production chain and proposes a biorefinery as a solution to environmental problems. Besides the potentiality of new sustainable markets to contribute to the post-COVID-19 economy in Costa Rica is highlighted. The general characteristics of pineapple by-products -cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other high-value products like bromelain y saponin- are described, as well as the primary processes for their ex-traction via biorefinery and main applications in the medical field. Finally, a brief description of the main works in the literature involving modeling and simulation studies of pineapple by-products properties is included.

Cureus ; 14(10): e30616, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426346


Very few COVID-19-associated autoimmune encephalitis cases have been documented in children. This case report focuses on a previously healthy four-year-old girl who presented to the emergency room of the National Children's Hospital in Costa Rica in a postictal state due to a tonic-clonic seizure that progressed to status epilepticus. She had no previous history of fever or associated trauma. She was considered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive by epidemiological linkage four weeks prior to the event, and her immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels for SARS-CoV-2 were positive. She presented with generalized decrease in muscle strength, she couldn't even walk, also dyskinetic movements in upper extremities, language impairment, frequent seizures, retrograde amnesia, and orolingual dyskinesias. An extensive diagnostic workup was performed, including bacterial and viral panel in cerebrospinal fluid, however the only positive result was the IgG for SARS-CoV-2. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were compatible with autoimmune encephalitis.  An antibody panel was performed, which was negative in cerebrospinal fluid and positive for anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/b1 in serum. She received three antiseizure drugs, plasmapheresis, intravenous gamma-globulin, methylprednisolone, and rituximab, which partially improved her condition. She currently has refractory epilepsy, memory problems, loss of language skills, and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of autoimmune encephalitis secondary to SARS-COV-2 infection in a pediatric patient in Costa Rica.

BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 767, 2022 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184587


BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and individual-level observational data in Israel demonstrated approximately 95% effectiveness of mRNA-based vaccines against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Individual-level data are not available in many countries, particularly low- and middle- income countries. Using a novel Poisson regression model, we analyzed ecologic data in Costa Rica to estimate vaccine effectiveness and assess the usefulness of this approach. METHODS: We used national data from December 1, 2020 to May 13, 2021 to ascertain incidence, hospitalizations and deaths within ecologic units defined by 14 age groups, gender, 105 geographic areas, and day of the epidemic. Within each unit we used the proportions of the population with one and with two vaccinations, primarily tozinameran. Using a non-standard Poisson regression model that included an ecologic-unit-specific rate factor to describe rates without vaccination and a factor that depended on vaccine effectiveness parameters and proportions vaccinated, we estimated vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: In 3.621 million persons aged 20 or older, there were 125,031 incident cases, 7716 hospitalizations, and 1929 deaths following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis; 73% of those aged ≥ 75 years received two doses. For one dose, estimated effectiveness was 59% (95% confidence interval 53% to 64%) for SARS-CoV-2 incidence, 76% (68% to 85%) for hospitalizations, and 63% (47% to 80%) for deaths. For two doses, the respective estimates of effectiveness were 93% (90% to 96%), 100% (97% to 100%), and 100% (97% to 100%). CONCLUSIONS: These effectiveness estimates agree well with findings from clinical trials and individual-level observational studies and indicate high effectiveness in the general population of Costa Rica. This novel statistical approach is promising for countries where ecologic, but not individual-level, data are available. The method could also be adapted to monitor vaccine effectiveness over calendar time.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Prueba de COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Eficacia de las Vacunas
Postgrad Med ; : 1-13, 2022 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227619


OBJECTIVES: To analyze the temporal trends of premature mortality from diabetes in Costa Rica in the period 2000-2020, at a national level and by province, and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes mortality during the year 2020. METHODS: We studied the temporal trends of mortality from diabetes in Costa Rica in the period between 2000 and 2020. Age-standardized mortality rates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each year, sex and province. RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 17,968 deceased persons. The mean age was 72.5 years (range 1 to 109 years), and 51.5% of the population (n = 9253) was younger than 75 years. In both men and women, we observed a significant decrease in mortality from 2000 to 2014, followed by the opposite trend from 2014 to 2020, with average yearly increases of 13.9% in men and 11.6% in women. CONCLUSIONS: Premature mortality from diabetes has been growing from 2014. The COVID-19 pandemic changed the mortality pattern, increasing premature diabetes deaths in Costa Rica in 2020.

Res Sq ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172128


Variability in household secondary attack rates (SAR) and transmission risks factors of SARS-CoV-2 remain poorly understood. To characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a household setting, we conducted a household serologic study of SARS-CoV-2 in Costa Rica, with SARS-CoV-2 index cases selected from a larger prospective cohort study and their household contacts were enrolled. A total of 719 household contacts of 304 household index cases were enrolled from November 21, 2020, through July 31, 2021. Demographic, clinical, and behavioral information was collected from the index cases and their household contacts. Blood specimens were collected from contacts within 30-60 days of index case diagnosis; and serum was tested for presence of spike and nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 prior infections among household contacts was defined based on the presence of both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. To avoid making strong assumptions that the index case was the sole source of infections among household contacts, we fitted a chain binomial model to the serologic data, which allowed us to account for exogenous community infection risk as well as potential multi-generational transmissions within the household. Overall seroprevalence was 53% (95% confidence interval (CI) 48% - 58%) among household contacts The estimated household secondary attack rate (SAR) was 32% (95% CI 5% - 74%) and the average community infection risk was 19% (95% CI 14% - 26%). Mask wearing by the index case was associated with the household transmission risk reduction by 67% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.33 with 95% CI: 0.09-0.75) and sleeping in a separate bedroom from the index case reduced the risk of household transmission by 78% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.22 with 95% CI 0.10-0.41). The estimated distribution of household secondary attack rates was highly heterogeneous across index cases, with 30% of index cases being the source for 80% of secondary cases. Modeling analysis suggests behavioral factors were important drivers of the observed SARS-CoV-2 transmission heterogeneity within the household.

San José; OPS; 2022-09-23. (OPS/CRI/22-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56341


En el 2022 se celebra el 120.º aniversario de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). En calidad de organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la OPS brinda cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para abordar las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, como Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la Región de las Américas, participa en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible a nivel de país. A nivel subregional, la OPS trabaja con los mecanismos de integración para que la salud y sus determinantes tengan un lugar en la agenda política. En el informe anual correspondiente al 2021 se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS en los países y territorios en este período, con la aplicación de las estrategias de cooperación en los países, la respuesta a sus necesidades y prioridades, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la OPS y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. En consonancia con el tema general de "responder a la COVID-19 y prepararse para el futuro", se ponen de relieve las medidas que ha adoptado la OPS con respecto a la pandemia de COVID-19 y sus esfuerzos continuos en áreas prioritarias como las emergencias de salud, los sistemas y servicios de salud, las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles y la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y la equidad en la salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del bienio 2020-2021.

COVID-19 , Urgencias Médicas , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Equidad , Equidad de Género , Diversidad Cultural , Cooperación Técnica , Américas , Costa Rica
Phenomics ; 2(5): 312-322, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692458


The clinical manifestations of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, define a large spectrum of symptoms that are mainly dependent on the human host conditions. In Costa Rica, more than 169,000 cases and 2185 deaths were reported during the year 2020, the pre-vaccination period. To describe the clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Costa Rica during the pre-vaccination period, we implemented a symptom-based clustering using machine learning to identify clusters or clinical profiles at the population level among 18,974 records of positive cases. Profiles were compared based on symptoms, risk factors, viral load, and genomic features of the SARS-CoV-2 sequence. A total of 18 symptoms at time of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported with a frequency > 1%, and those were used to identify seven clinical profiles with a specific composition of clinical manifestations. In the comparison between clusters, a lower viral load was found for the asymptomatic group, while the risk factors and the SARS-CoV-2 genomic features were distributed among all the clusters. No other distribution patterns were found for age, sex, vital status, and hospitalization. In conclusion, during the pre-vaccination time in Costa Rica, the symptoms at the time of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection were described in clinical profiles. The host co-morbidities and the SARS-CoV-2 genotypes are not specific of a particular profile, rather they are present in all the groups, including asymptomatic cases. In addition, this information can be used for decision-making by the local healthcare institutions (first point of contact with health professionals, case definition, or infrastructure). In further analyses, these results will be compared against the profiles of cases during the vaccination period. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43657-022-00058-x.

Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 24(1)jun. 2022.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449907


La principal causa de muerte en Costa Rica desde 1970 en adelante históricamente ha sido el infarto agudo al miocardio previo a la pandemia por COVID-19. Está demostrado que las estrategias regionales de optimización del manejo del Infarto Agudo al Miocardio con Elevación del Segmento ST, mejoran el cumplimiento de las metas establecidas para la reperfusión coronaria; su implementación se traduce con múltiples beneficios para los diferentes sistemas de salud a nivel mundial. Estas estrategias deben ser comprendidas por equipos multidisciplinarios del sector prehospitalario, centros con y sin capacidad de Intervención Coronaria Percutánea (ICP), como protocolización, capacitación y retroalimentación constante. La inclusión de una estrategia Código Infarto ofrece potenciales beneficios adicionales al sistema de salud costarricense.

Regional management optimization strategies for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Need for "Costa Rica Heart Attack Code" In recent years Costa Rica's leading cause of death has been myocardial infarction before COVID-19 pandemic. Regionalized strategies focused on the optimization of STEMI treatment improves guideline's recommendations adherence and their application is associated with better coronary reperfusion outcomes that tracks multiple benefits for the healthcare systems involved. These strategies are constituted by multidisciplinary teams from prehospital settings as well as centers with and without PCI capability that include proper protocolization, practical application of evidence based medicine. The incorporation of a STEMI Code strategy may offer potential additional benefits to Costa Rica healthcare.

Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627759


Costa Rica is home to 557,000 migrants, whose disproportionate exposure to precarious, dangerous, and informal work has resulted in persistent inequities in health and wellbeing in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a novel multimodal grounded approach synthesizing documentary film, experiential education, and academic research to explore socioecological wellbeing among Nicaraguan migrant workers in Costa Rica. Participants pointed to the COVID-19 pandemic as exacerbating the underlying conditions of vulnerability, such as precarity and informality, dangerous working conditions, social and systemic discrimination, and additional burdens faced by women. However, the narrative that emerged most consistently in shaping migrants' experience of marginalization were challenges in obtaining documentation-both in the form of legal residency and health insurance coverage. Our results demonstrate that, in spite of Costa Rica's acclaimed social welfare policies, migrant workers continue to face exclusion due to administrative, social, and financial barriers. These findings paint a rich picture of how multiple intersections of precarious, informal, and dangerous working conditions; social and systemic discrimination; gendered occupational challenges; and access to legal residency and health insurance coverage combine to prevent the full achievement of a shared minimum standard of social and economic security for migrant workers in Costa Rica.

COVID-19 , Migrantes , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ciudadanía , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias
Epidemics ; 39: 100577, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636309


Successful partnerships between researchers, experts, and public health authorities have been critical to navigate the challenges of the Covid-19 pandemic worldwide. In this collaboration, mathematical models have played a decisive role in informing public policy, with findings effectively translated into public health measures that have shaped the pandemic in Costa Rica. As a result of interdisciplinary and cross-institutional collaboration, we constructed a multilayer network model that incorporates a diverse contact structure for each individual. In July 2020, we used this model to test the effect of lifting restrictions on population mobility after a so-called "epidemiological fence" imposed to contain the country's first big wave of cases. Later, in August 2020, we used it to predict the effects of an open and close strategy (the Hammer and Dance). Scenarios constructed in July 2020 showed that lifting restrictions on population mobility after less than three weeks of epidemiological fence would produce a sharp increase in cases. Results from scenarios in August 2020 indicated that the Hammer and Dance strategy would only work with 50% of the population adhering to mobility restrictions. The development, evolution, and applications of a multilayer network model of Covid-19 in Costa Rica has guided decision-makers to anticipate implementing sanitary measures and contributed to gain valuable time to increase hospital capacity.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Política Pública
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e23, 2022.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432498


Objective: Assess the impact of interventions introduced in Costa Rica during 2020 and 2021 to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Bayesian Poisson regression model was used, incorporating control or intervention measures as independent variables in the changes in reported case numbers per epidemiological week. Results: The results showed the relative and combined impact of containment policies and measures on the reduction of cases: mainly vehicular traffic restrictions, use of masks, and implementation of health guidelines and protocols. Evidence of impact was optimized and made available for decision-making by the country's health and emergency authorities. Several iterations were generated for constant monitoring of variations in impact at four different moments in the pandemic's spread. Conclusion: The simultaneous implementation of different mitigation measures in Costa Rica has been a driving force in reducing the number of COVID-19 cases.

Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das intervenções realizadas na Costa Rica durante 2020 e 2021 para o controle da pandemia de COVID-19. Método: Foi utilizado um modelo Bayesiano de regressão de Poisson que incorporou as medidas de controle ou intervenção como variáveis independentes sobre a variação do número de casos por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Os resultados evidenciaram o efeito relativo e conjunto que as políticas ou medidas de contenção tiveram na redução de casos, principalmente as restrições a veículos, o uso de máscaras e a implementação de diretrizes e protocolos de saúde. As evidências dos efeitos foram otimizadas e disponibilizadas às autoridades sanitárias e de emergência do país para auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Diversas iterações foram geradas para o monitoramento constante da variação nos efeitos em quatro momentos distintos do avanço da pandemia. Conclusão: A aplicação simultânea de diferentes medidas de mitigação na Costa Rica tem sido um agente promotor da diminuição de casos de COVID-19.