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1.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 43(6): 1081-1090, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573394

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Over the past decade, the Amazon basin has faced numerous infectious epidemics. Our comprehension of the actual extent of these infections during pregnancy remains limited. This study aimed to clarify the clinical and epidemiological features of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases during pregnancy in western French Guiana and along the Maroni River over the previous nine years. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled pregnant women living in west French Guiana territory and giving birth in the only local referral center after 22 weeks of gestation between 2013 and 2021. Data on symptomatic or asymptomatic biologically confirmed emerging or re-emerging diseases during pregnancy was collected. RESULTS: Six epidemic waves were experienced during the study period, including 498 confirmed Zika virus infections (2016), 363 SARS-CoV-2 infections (2020-2021), 87 chikungunya virus infections (2014), 76 syphilis infections (2013-2021), and 60 dengue virus infections (2013-2021) at different gestational ages. Furthermore, 1.1% (n = 287) and 1.4% (n = 350) of pregnant women in west French Guiana were living with HIV and HTLV, respectively. During the study period, at least 5.5% (n = 1,371) faced an emerging or re-emerging infection during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the diversity, abundance, and dynamism of emerging and re-emerging infectious agents faced by pregnant women in the Amazon basin. Considering the maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes associated with these infections, increased efforts are required to enhance diagnosis, reporting, and treatment of these conditions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Fiebre Chikungunya , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Infección por el Virus Zika , Humanos , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Adulto , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Dengue/epidemiología , Sífilis/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171645, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479523

RESUMEN

The origin of introduction of a new pathogen in a country, the evolutionary dynamics of an epidemic within a country, and the role of cross-border areas on pathogen dynamics remain complex to disentangle and are often poorly understood. For instance, cross-border areas represent the ideal location for the sharing of viral variants between countries, with international air travel, land travel and waterways playing an important role in the cross-border spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, monitoring the point of entry and the evolutionary dynamics of viruses in space and time within local populations remain challenging. Here we tested the efficiency of wastewater-based epidemiology and genotyping in monitoring Covid-19 epidemiology and SARS-CoV-2 variant dynamics in French Guiana, a tropical country located in South America. Our results suggest that wastewater-based epidemiology and genotyping are powerful tools to monitor variant introduction and disease evolution within a tropical country but the inclusion of both clinical and wastewater samples could still improve our understanding of genetic diversity co-circulating. Wastewater sequencing also revealed the cryptic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variants within the country. Interestingly, we found some amino acid changes specific to the variants co-circulating in French Guiana, suggesting a local evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 variants after their introduction. More importantly, our results showed that the proximity to bordering countries was not the origin of the emergence of the French Guianese B.1.160.25 variant, but rather that this variant emerged from an ancestor B.1.160 variant introduced by European air plane travelers, suggesting thus that air travel remains a significant risk for cross-border spread of infectious diseases. Overall, we suggest that wastewater-based epidemiology and genotyping provides a cost effective and non-invasive approach for pathogen monitoring and an early-warning tool for disease emergence and spread within a tropical country.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Aguas Residuales , COVID-19/epidemiología , América del Sur
3.
Sante Publique ; 35(4): 417-422, 2023 12 11.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38078636

RESUMEN

In 2020, food shortages occurred at the beginning of the confinement period that was supposed to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. In French Guiana, where a major part of the population lives under the poverty line, health workers voiced major concerns. Alongside massive food aid distributions, a first transversal study was carried out in August 2020 targeting poor neighborhoods in Cayenne. The results were particularly worrying. More than 80% of households had been suffering from hunger during that month, with a median decrease of 46% in revenue. Two other investigations followed in February and then in August of 2021. With the relaxing of the health measures, the situation improved in the Cayenne region, but two out of three were still affected, showing signs of quantitative deficiencies and insufficient food diversity. The situation seemed particularly grave for children. In light of this situation, we propose to create an observatory of food insecurity in Guiana, while maintaining this topic as a health priority. In addition, the fight against food insecurity cannot be limited to multi-sectorial material and strategic aide. It must be thought about in a more global manner, including health and social questions, territorial management policies, access to land and water, access to rights and social inclusion. Targeted actions helping the most exposed and vulnerable people is also an important stake, independent of the administrative situation and residency rights of the concerned people.


En 2020, des pénuries alimentaires sont survenues dès l'entrée en vigueur du confinement destiné à contrôler la pandémie de COVID-19. En Guyane Française, où une forte proportion de la population vivait déjà sous le seuil de pauvreté, des alertes préoccupantes ont émané d'acteurs de santé. En parallèle du déploiement d'une aide alimentaire massive, une première enquête transversale a été menée en août 2020, ciblant les quartiers précaires des environs de Cayenne. Les résultats étaient particulièrement inquiétants : plus de 80 % des ménages avaient souffert de la faim dans le mois, avec une baisse médiane de revenus de 46 %. Deux autres enquêtes ont suivi, en février, puis en août 2021. Avec l'allègement des mesures sanitaires, la situation s'était sensiblement améliorée dans la région de Cayenne, mais deux ménages sur trois restaient impactés, avec des carences quantitatives et une diversité alimentaire insuffisante. La situation semblait particulièrement critique parmi les enfants. Au vu de cette situation, nous proposons de créer un observatoire de l'insécurité alimentaire en Guyane, tout en maintenant ce sujet en tête des priorités sanitaires. En outre, la lutte contre l'insécurité alimentaire ne peut se limiter à l'aide matérielle : la stratégie, multisectorielle, doit être pensée en globalité, intégrant les problématiques sanitaires et sociales, les enjeux de l'aménagement du territoire, de l'accès à la terre et à l'eau, de l'accès aux droits et à l'insertion sociale. Un ciblage juste des actions vers les publics les plus exposés et vulnérables est également un enjeu important, indépendamment de la situation administrative et du droit au séjour des personnes concernées.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Hambre , Niño , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 57(spe): e20220382, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992302

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the conceptions about COVID-19 among Brazilians who carry out commuting to work in clandestine mines located on the borders between Brazil, French Guiana and Suriname. METHOD: This is qualitative research, from an analytical perspective, based on Social Representation Theory. Semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were carried out with 10 Brazilians who experience work routine in clandestine mining on the border between Brazil, French Guiana and Suriname. RESULTS: Two analytical categories emerged: "The disease of otherness"; and "Health access dimension". CONCLUSION: Disease severity was attributed to another or a human body organ, and not to individuals as a whole. Access to health services was established on issues of inequity, violence and illegal practices. The nature of a transient population, which carries out commuting and informal and clandestine work, demonstrates vulnerability to COVID-19 and a lower propensity to receive care.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Humanos , Pandemias , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología
5.
Malar J ; 22(1): 237, 2023 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37587474

RESUMEN

Scaling-up an experimental intervention is always a challenge. On the border between French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname, an interventional study demonstrated the effectiveness of distributing self-diagnosis and self-treatment kits (Malakits) to control malaria in mobile and hard-to-reach populations. Its integration into the Suriname's National Malaria Elimination Plan after a 2-year experiment faced numerous challenges, including human resources to cope with the additional workload of coordinators and to maintain the motivation of community health workers. The economic recession in Suriname, the Covid pandemic, and logistical issues also hampered the scale-up. Finally, thanks to the commitment of stakeholders in Suriname and French Guiana, the integration of Malakit distribution into the Surinamese national programme was proved possible.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Guyana Francesa , Suriname , Investigación , Brasil
6.
Food Nutr Bull ; 44(1): 3-11, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In French Guiana, restrictions to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 were put in place between March 2020 and March 2022. In vulnerable urban neighborhoods, during this period, requests for food assistance increased and fear of hunger overtook fear of being affected by COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey was to describe food security during the COVID-19 pandemic in French Guiana and to study the relationship between the socioeconomic conditions of the study households and household hunger. METHODS: A multicenter survey was therefore conducted in mobile clinics and fixed structures providing care to at-risk urban populations. In a face-to-face interview, a community health worker asked participants questions about the sociodemographic and economic profile of the household, and about household food security (food consumption score, coping strategies in the face of food shortages, and household hunger index). Two hundred seventy-seven households were recruited in February 2021. RESULTS: According to the household hunger scale, 42.6% of households experienced moderate hunger and 23.8% of households experienced severe hunger in the month preceding the survey. Lack of residence permit, lack of social support, water insecurity, small housing, and lack of access to an urban garden were determinants related to the risk of household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity has affected a large majority of the households in this survey, and the immediate consequences for children's health were already apparent. These results draw attention to a neglected health problem in a socioeconomically vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hambre , Niño , Humanos , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Pandemias , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1059137, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36761125

RESUMEN

Purpose: The border between the State of Amapa, Brazil, and French Guiana is mostly primary forest. In the Oyapock basin, socioeconomic circumstances have fueled sex work, gold mining and the circulation of sexually transmitted infections. Given the lack of comprehensive data on this border area, we describe the different sexually transmitted infections along the Brazil/French Guiana border and the testing and care activity. Methods: We conducted a review of the available scientific and technical literature on sexually transmitted infections in this complex border area. Temporal trends were graphed and for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) we estimated incidence using the European Center for prevention and Disease Control modeling tool. Results: Until 2019, 26 of the 46 HIV-infected patients followed and treated in Saint Georges de l'Oyapock were residing on the Brazilian side in Oiapoque. Virological suppression was only achieved for 75% of treated patients; but dropped to 62% during the COVID-19 epidemic. In 2019, cooperation efforts allowed HIV care in Oiapoque, resulting in the transfer of Brazilian patients previously followed on the French side and a substantial increase in the number of patients followed in Oiapoque. The average yearly HIV serological testing activity at the health center in Saint Georges was 16 tests per 100 inhabitants per year; in Camopi it was 12.2 per 100 inhabitants. Modeling estimated the number of persons living with HIV around 170 persons, corresponding to a prevalence of 0.54% and about 40 undiagnosed infections. The model also suggested that there were about 12 new infections per year in Saint Georges and Oiapoque, representing an HIV incidence rate of 3.8 cases per 10,000 per year. HPV prevalence in Saint Georges ranges between 25 and 30% and between 35 and 40% in Camopi. Testing activity for other sexually transmitted infections markedly increased in the past 5 years; the introduction of PCR for chlamydiasis and gonorrhea also had a substantial impact on the number of diagnoses. Conclusions: The ongoing cooperation between multiple partners on both sides of the border has led to remarkable progress in primary prevention, in testing efforts, in treatment and retention on both sides of the border. In a region with intense health professional turnover, nurturing cooperation and providing accurate assessments of the burden of sexually transmitted infections is essential to tackle a problem that is shared on both sides of the border.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control
9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 105: 105370, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184049

RESUMEN

Since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan in December 2019, this RNA virus gave rise to different viral lineages with different virological, epidemiological and immunological properties. Here we describe the dynamics of circulation of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in an Amazonian South American French overseas territory, French Guiana (FG). The data analyzed are based on the general epidemic course, and genomic surveillance data come from whole genome sequencing (WGS) as well as typing PCRs. From March 2020 to October 2021, four COVID-19 epidemic waves were observed in FG with an evolution of viral lineages influenced by virus introductions from continental France and above all by land-based introductions from neighbouring countries. The third epidemic wave from March to June 2021 was driven by a predominant Gamma introduced from Brazil and a less frequent Alpha introduced from France. This coexistence was completely substituted by Delta that initiated the fourth epidemic wave.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Brasil
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 746-751, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714395

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the neonatal outcomes related to maternal SARS-COV-2 infection. METHODS: In this study, we identified newborns born between May 14 and August 31, 2020, to mothers who were PCR-SRAS-CoV-2 positive at the time of delivery. From the cohort of 974 infants, we performed a nested case-control study. RESULTS: During the study period, 133 (13.7%) mothers were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among the 35 pregnant women with COVID-19 symptoms (26.3%), cough was the most common symptom, present in half of the cases. Four of them have progressed to critical pneumonia requiring transfer to intensive care unit. The neonates from mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR, were routinely tested for COVID-19 within the first 24 h after labor, and 3 other newborns tested in the presence of symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to preterm birth, meconium-stained amniotic fluid distress, and neonatal asphyxia. Most infants were breastfed at birth, regardless of their mothers' COVID-19 status. In COVID-19-positive pregnant women admitted to intensive care unit, the proportion of preterm births (OR=12.5 [1.7-90.5]), fetal death in utero (OR=25.9 [2.2-305]) and admission in neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR=13.4 [3.0-60]), appeared higher than the controls. No maternal deaths were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest little neonatal morbidity associated with maternal COVID-19, except for those born to mothers admitted to intensive care unit. However, under breastfeeding conditions with rigorous hygiene precautions and parental education, the risk of transmission of SARS-COV-2 virus to the newborn was very low.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e02742021, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522806

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: French Guiana (FG) is an ultra-peripheral European region in the Amazon, and the COVID-19 epidemic has had very different kinetics from both its giant neighbors, Brazil or mainland France. METHODS: This study summarized the epidemics of COVID-19 in FG. RESULTS: The tropical climate, multiethnicity, and remoteness of the population forced healthcare providers to accordingly adapt the management of the epidemic. Incidence and mortality have been lower than that in Europe and Latin America due to a combination of prevalence of the youth in the population and highly developed healthcare system. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, vaccine hesitancy hinders the rapid expansion of vaccine coverage.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Adolescente , Brasil , COVID-19/epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Humanos
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 296: 114747, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123372

RESUMEN

Worldwide, the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 disproportionally affect vulnerable groups in society. This paper assesses responses to, and impacts of, the pandemic among mobile migrant populations who work in Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Suriname and French Guiana. These populations are characterized by poverty, informal or illegal status, and limited access to health care and information. Field research in Suriname (November 2020-January 2021) and French Guiana (January, May, June 2021) included qualitative interviews, informal conversations and observations, and a quantitative survey with 361 men and women in ASGM communities. Contrary to reports from the ASGM sector elsewhere, interviewed inhabitants of ASGM areas in Suriname and French Guiana showed little concern about COVID-19. Respondents reported feeling safer in the forest where they work than in the urban areas or in their home country. Trust in home remedies and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals further reduced anxiety about the pandemic. Three-quarters of survey respondents reported that the COVID-19 pandemic had not affected their work or income at all. The researchers conclude that in these remote Amazon communities, responses to COVID-19 mirror attitudes and behavior vis-à-vis malaria and other health risks: self-medicate, ignore, and pray. Living on the margins of society mitigates the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19, as containment measures are not applied to these socially invisible populations. Whereas the urban poor are severely hit by the pandemic, this hidden population benefits from high gold prices, an outdoors lifestyle, and traditional resourcefulness in dealing with a life full of risks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Migrantes , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Oro , Humanos , Masculino , Minería , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Suriname/epidemiología
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009945, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While Latin America has been heavily affected by the pandemic, only a few seroprevalence studies have been conducted there during the first epidemic wave in the first half of 2020. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was performed between 15 July 2020 and 23 July 2020 among individuals who visited 4 medical laboratories or 5 health centers for routine screening or clinical management, with the exception of symptomatic suggestive cases of covid-19. Samples were screened for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG directed against domain S1 of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using the anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Euroimmun. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overall seroprevalence was 15.4% [9.3%-24.4%] among 480 participants, ranging from 4.0% to 25.5% across the different municipalities. The seroprevalence did not differ according to gender (p = 0.19) or age (p = 0.51). Among SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals, we found that 24.6% [11.5%-45.2%] reported symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Our findings revealed high levels of infection across the territory but a low number of resulting deaths, which can be explained by French Guiana's young population structure.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257169, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516569

RESUMEN

A prospective study was conducted among different intra and extra-hospital populations of French Guiana to evaluate the performance of saliva testing compared to nasopharyngeal swabs. Persons aged 3 years and older with mild symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and asymptomatic persons with a testing indication were prospectively enrolled. Nasopharyngeal and salivary samples were stored at 4°C before analysis. Both samples were analyzed with the same Real-time PCR amplification of E gene, N gene, and RdRp gene. Between July 22th and October 28th, 1159 persons were included, of which 1028 were analyzed. When only considering as positives those with 2 target genes with Ct values <35, the sensitivity of RT-PCR on saliva samples was 100% relative to nasopharyngeal samples. Specificity positive and negative predictive values were above 90%. Across a variety of cultures and socioeconomic conditions, saliva tests were generally much preferred to nasopharyngeal tests and persons seemed largely confident that they could self-sample. For positive patients defined as those with the amplification of 2 specific target genes with Ct values below 35, the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR on saliva samples was similar to nasopharyngeal samples despite the broad range of challenging circumstances in a tropical environment.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Saliva/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/normas , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Guyana Francesa , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Clima Tropical
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2673-2676, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289335

RESUMEN

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 caused by the Gamma variant of concern infected 24/44 (55%) employees of a gold mine in French Guiana (87% symptomatic, no severe forms). The attack rate was 60% (15/25) among fully vaccinated miners and 75% (3/4) among unvaccinated miners without a history of infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Oro , Humanos
17.
Br J Nurs ; 30(9): 540-546, 2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983812

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In emergency departments (EDs), the staff continually face stressful situations requiring staff to adopt various coping strategies. AIMS: The study aimed to assess work-related stress in ED during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: The study was a monocentric investigation based on a questionnaire survey that elicits general information and uses the Karasek model to analyse the data. FINDINGS: A total of 117 forms were collected for analysis. The score for decision latitude (or autonomy and skills at work) was 70 (IQR: 64-74) and the score for psychological demand was 25 (IQR: 23-27). The score for social support by the management team was 11 (IQR: 9-12) and the score for social support by colleagues 12 (IQR: 10-12). Of the total number of respondents, job strain was assessed as affecting 24.8%. CONCLUSION: The study shows high levels of stress among the ED workforce. The findings indicate that it is imperative to develop simple management tools that are capable of measuring the internal causes of stress in order to develop an adapted wellness programme in ED.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Brotes de Enfermedades , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Estrés Laboral , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/enfermería , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Humanos , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53771

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Hospitals in the French Territories in the Americas (FTA) work according to international and French standards. This paper aims to describe different aspects of critical care in the FTA. For this, we reviewed official information about population size and intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity in the FTA and literature on FTA ICU specificities. Persons living in or visiting the FTA are exposed to specific risks, mainly severe road traffic injuries, envenoming, stab or ballistic wounds, and emergent tropical infectious diseases. These diseases may require specific knowledge and critical care management. However, there are not enough ICU beds in the FTA. Indeed, there are 7.2 ICU beds/100 000 population in Guadeloupe, 7.2 in Martinique, and 4.5 in French Guiana. In addition, seriously ill patients in remote areas regularly have to be transferred, most often by helicopter, resulting in a delay in admission to intensive care. The COVID-19 crisis has shown that the health care system in the FTA is unready to face such an epidemic and that intensive care bed capacity must be increased. In conclusion, the critical care sector in the FTA requires upgrading of infrastructure, human resources, and equipment as well as enhancement of multidisciplinary care. Also needed are promotion of training, research, and regional and international medical and scientific cooperation.


[RESUMEN]. Los hospitales en los territorios franceses de la Región de las Américas funcionan según las normas francesas e internacionales. El objetivo de este artículo es describir distintos aspectos de los cuidados intensivos en los territorios franceses. Para ello, hemos revisado los datos oficiales sobre el tamaño de la población y el número de camas de las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI), así como la bibliografía sobre algunos aspectos específicos de las UCI, en los territorios franceses. Las personas que viven en los territorios franceses, o que están de visita en ellos, están expuestas a riesgos específicos: principalmente traumatismos graves causados por el tránsito, envenenamiento por mordeduras, heridas de bala o por apuñalamiento, y enfermedades infecciosas tropicales emergentes. La atención de estos traumatismos y enfermedades puede requerir conocimientos específicos y cuidados intensivos. Sin embargo, no hay suficientes camas de UCI en los territorios franceses. De hecho, hay 7,2 camas de UCI por 100 000 habitantes en Guadalupe, 7,2 en Martinica y 4,5 en Guayana Francesa. Además, los pacientes gravemente enfermos que viven en zonas remotas a menudo tienen que ser trasladados, normalmente por helicóptero, lo que retrasa su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. La crisis de la COVID-19 ha puesto de manifiesto que el sistema de atención de salud en los territorios franceses no está preparado para enfrentarse a una epidemia de estas dimensiones y que debe aumentarse la capacidad hospitalaria de las unidades de cuidados intensivos. En conclusión, el sector de los cuidados intensivos en los territorios franceses tiene que mejorar su infraestructura, recursos humanos y equipamiento, así como perfeccionar la atención multidisciplinaria. También es necesario promover la capacitación, la investigación y la cooperación médica y científica, tanto regional como internacional.


[RESUMO]. Os hospitais nos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas funcionam segundo os padrões franceses e internacionais. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever os diversos aspectos da atenção intensiva nesta região. Analisamos os dados oficiais relativos ao tamanho da população e ao número de leitos de unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) nestes territórios junto com uma revisão da literatura científica sobre as características particulares destes centros de terapia intensiva. Os residentes locais ou visitantes dos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas são expostos a riscos específicos, sobretudo acidentes de trânsito graves, envenenamentos por animais peçonhentos, ferimentos por armas brancas ou armas de fogo e doenças infecciosas tropicais emergentes que requerem conhecimento especializado e atenção intensiva. Porém, não há leitos suficientes de UTI nos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas: são 7,2 leitos de UTI por 100.000 habitantes em Guadalupe, 7,2 na Martinica e 4,5 na Guiana Francesa. Ademais, em áreas remotas, os pacientes em estado crítico frequentemente precisam ser transferidos por helicóptero, o que causa demora na internação em UTI. A crise da COVID-19 demonstra o despreparo do sistema de saúde para enfrentar a pandemia e a necessidade de aumentar o número de leitos de UTI nestes territórios. Em conclusão, é imprescindível modernizar a infraestrutura e os equipamentos, capacitar melhor os recursos humanos e melhorar a atenção multidisciplinar. Incentivar a formação profissional, pesquisa e cooperação médico-científica regional e mundial é também fundamental.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Críticos , Medicina Tropical , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Guyana Francesa , Guadalupe , Martinica , Cuidados Críticos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Medicina Tropical , Guyana Francesa , Guadalupe , Martinica , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Guyana Francesa
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 586299, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777876

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID 19 epidemic submerged many health systems in the Amazon. The objective of the present study was to focus on the epidemic curves of the COVID 19 epidemic in different centers, and to look at testing and mortality data. Methods: Publicly available datasets were used. The log10 of the daily cumulated number of cases starting from the day the territory reached 100 cumulated cases was plotted to compare the magnitude, shape and slope of the different curves. The maximum daily testing efforts were plotted for each territory in relation to the maximum daily number of diagnoses. The case fatality rate was computed by dividing the number of COVID 19 deaths by the number of confirmed cases. Results: In the Amazonian regions in general the speed of growth was generally lower than in Europe or the USA, or Southern Brazil. Whereas, countries like South Korea or New Zealand "broke" the curve relatively rapidly the log linear trajectory seemed much longer with signs of a decline in growth rate as of early July 2020. After a very slow start, French Guiana had the lowest slope when compared to other Amazonian territories with significant epidemics. The Amazonian states of Roraima, Amazonas, Parà, and Amapà had among the highest number of cases and deaths per million inhabitants in the world. French Guiana had significantly fewer deaths relative to its number of confirmed cases than other Amazonian territories. French Guiana had a late epidemic surge with intense testing scale-up often exceeding 4,000 persons tested daily per million inhabitants. Brazil was an outlier with low daily testing levels in relation to the number of daily diagnoses. Conclusions: There were marked heterogeneities mortality rates suggesting that socioeconomic, political factors, and perhaps ethnic vulnerability led to striking outcome differences in this Amazonian context.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Brasil/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Humanos , América del Norte/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1634, 2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712596

RESUMEN

While general lockdowns have proven effective to control SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, they come with enormous costs for society. It is therefore essential to identify control strategies with lower social and economic impact. Here, we report and evaluate the control strategy implemented during a large SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in June-July 2020 in French Guiana that relied on curfews, targeted lockdowns, and other measures. We find that the combination of these interventions coincided with a reduction in the basic reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 from 1.7 to 1.1, which was sufficient to avoid hospital saturation. We estimate that thanks to the young demographics, the risk of hospitalisation following infection was 0.3 times that of metropolitan France and that about 20% of the population was infected by July. Our model projections are consistent with a recent seroprevalence study. The study showcases how mathematical modelling can be used to support healthcare planning in a context of high uncertainty.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , Pandemias , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Número Básico de Reproducción/prevención & control , Número Básico de Reproducción/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/tendencias , Adulto Joven
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