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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-05. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/20-0013).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52544

RESUMEN

Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have recommended that uninterrupted vaccination be maintained as an essential health service. To this end, PAHO's Comprehensive Family Immunization Unit of the Family, Health Promotion, and Life Course Department has worked assiduously with the countries of the Region to maintain sound national immunization programs on several fronts, such as the preparation of documents and guidelines for continuing vaccination in the context of COVID-19; monitoring the disease’s impact on vaccination coverage; assessing the effects of the postponement of measles vaccination campaigns (Plurinational State of Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Paraguay) due to the pandemic; and strengthening vaccination against seasonal influenza. The data presented in this publication were collected through a survey, sent every two weeks to IM focal points and advisors in the at PAHO country offices in the Region. The SurveyMonkey virtual platform was used and the data were analyzed with MS Excel tools. All the variables included in the survey were described using the appropriate univariate statistics. Categorical variables were described using proportions and percentages. Ordinal variables were described using the mean and median. Work has also been carried out to monitor the functioning of immunization services and the main problems they face because of the pandemic. To date, five-country surveys have been conducted; the first was sent out on 16 April, the last on 6 July. This document summarizes the surveys' main findings and developments. The responses in this report represent the opinions of survey participants, and do not represent reports officially sent or solicited by PAHO; the data should, therefore, be interpreted with caution.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Inmunización , Cobertura de Vacunación , Prioridades en Salud , Servicios de Salud , Bolivia , Colombia , República Dominicana , Honduras , Paraguay
2.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(2): 257-262, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702272

RESUMEN

The emergence of COVID-19 infection (caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) in Wuhan, China in the latter part of 2019 has, within a relatively short time, led to a global pandemic. Amidst the initial spread of SARS-CoV-2 across Asia, an epidemiologic trend emerged in relation to high altitude (HA) populations. Compared with the rest of Asia, SARS-CoV-2 exhibited attenuated rates of expansion with limited COVID-19 infection severity along the Tibetan plateau. These characteristics were soon evident in additional HA regions across Bolivia, central Ecuador, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Sichuan province of mainland China. This mini-review presents a discussion surrounding attributes of the HA environment, aspects of HA physiology, as well as, genetic variations among HA populations which may provide clues for this pattern of SARS-CoV-2 expansion and COVID-19 infection severity. Explanations are provided in the hypothetical, albeit relevant historical evidence is provided to create a foundation for future research.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Bolivia/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo
3.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 238-242, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-528245

RESUMEN

The present study is aimed to assess the risk factors for mortality in the first 107 rRT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Bolivia. For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, the epidemiological data records were collected from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health of Bolivia, obtaining the clinical and epidemiological data of the COVID-19 cases that were laboratory-diagnosed during March 2-29, 2020. Samples were tested by rRT-PCR to SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of the National Center of Tropical Diseases (CENETROP), following the protocol Charite, Berlin, Germany. The odds ratio (OR) with respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for mortality as dependent variable was calculated. When we comparatively analyzed survivors and non-survivors in this first group of 107 cases in Bolivia, we found that at bivariate analyses, age (±60 years old), hypertension, chronic heart failure, diabetes, and obesity, as well as the requirement of ICU, were significantly exposure variables associated with death. At the multivariate analysis (logistic regression), two variables remained significantly associated, age, ±60 years-old (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.8-104.1) and hypertension (OR=3.3, 95%CI 1.3-6.3). As expected, age and comorbidities, particularly hypertension, were independent risk factors for mortality in Bolivia in the first 107 cases group. More further studies are required to better define risk factors and preventive measures related to COVID-19 in this and other Latin American countries.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bolivia/epidemiología , Niño , Intervalos de Confianza , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/mortalidad , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Humanos , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/mortalidad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Análisis de Regresión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113174, 2020 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592297

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers are facing high workloads with resource constraints and risk of virus exposure, and healthcare organizations need to support their healthcare workers to reduce their anxiety. Based on a recent 8-point framework of COVID-19 specific organization support, we devised a measure of COVID-19 Organizational Support (COVID-OS). We tested the new measure with 712 healthcare workers in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and found the new measure formed three factors to predict healthcare workers' anxiety and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. We call for further studies to test COVID-OS in other countries and settings.

5.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 238-242, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487789

RESUMEN

The present study is aimed to assess the risk factors for mortality in the first 107 rRT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Bolivia. For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, the epidemiological data records were collected from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health of Bolivia, obtaining the clinical and epidemiological data of the COVID-19 cases that were laboratory-diagnosed during March 2-29, 2020. Samples were tested by rRT-PCR to SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of the National Center of Tropical Diseases (CENETROP), following the protocol Charite, Berlin, Germany. The odds ratio (OR) with respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for mortality as dependent variable was calculated. When we comparatively analyzed survivors and non-survivors in this first group of 107 cases in Bolivia, we found that at bivariate analyses, age (±60 years old), hypertension, chronic heart failure, diabetes, and obesity, as well as the requirement of ICU, were significantly exposure variables associated with death. At the multivariate analysis (logistic regression), two variables remained significantly associated, age, ±60 years-old (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.8-104.1) and hypertension (OR=3.3, 95%CI 1.3-6.3). As expected, age and comorbidities, particularly hypertension, were independent risk factors for mortality in Bolivia in the first 107 cases group. More further studies are required to better define risk factors and preventive measures related to COVID-19 in this and other Latin American countries.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bolivia/epidemiología , Niño , Intervalos de Confianza , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/mortalidad , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Humanos , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/mortalidad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Análisis de Regresión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113174, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585436

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers are facing high workloads with resource constraints and risk of virus exposure, and healthcare organizations need to support their healthcare workers to reduce their anxiety. Based on a recent 8-point framework of COVID-19 specific organization support, we devised a measure of COVID-19 Organizational Support (COVID-OS). We tested the new measure with 712 healthcare workers in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and found the new measure formed three factors to predict healthcare workers' anxiety and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. We call for further studies to test COVID-OS in other countries and settings.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Personal de Salud , Estrés Laboral/terapia , Satisfacción Personal , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Apoyo Social , Carga de Trabajo , Ansiedad/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Bolivia , Ecuador , Humanos , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Pandemias , Perú
7.
Lancet ; 395(10238): 1727-1734, 2020 05 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276547

RESUMEN

Indigenous communities worldwide share common features that make them especially vulnerable to the complications of and mortality from COVID-19. They also possess resilient attributes that can be leveraged to promote prevention efforts. How can indigenous communities best mitigate potential devastating effects of COVID-19? In Bolivia, where nearly half of all citizens claim indigenous origins, no specific guidelines have been outlined for indigenous communities inhabiting native communal territories. In this Public Health article, we describe collaborative efforts, as anthropologists, physicians, tribal leaders, and local officials, to develop and implement a multiphase COVID-19 prevention and containment plan focused on voluntary collective isolation and contact-tracing among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon. Phase 1 involves education, outreach, and preparation, and phase 2 focuses on containment, patient management, and quarantine. Features of this plan might be exported and adapted to local circumstances elsewhere to prevent widespread mortality in indigenous communities.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Grupos de Población , Aislamiento Social , Betacoronavirus , Bolivia , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Poblaciones Vulnerables
10.
Lancet ; 395(10238): 1727-1734, 2020 05 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422124

RESUMEN

Indigenous communities worldwide share common features that make them especially vulnerable to the complications of and mortality from COVID-19. They also possess resilient attributes that can be leveraged to promote prevention efforts. How can indigenous communities best mitigate potential devastating effects of COVID-19? In Bolivia, where nearly half of all citizens claim indigenous origins, no specific guidelines have been outlined for indigenous communities inhabiting native communal territories. In this Public Health article, we describe collaborative efforts, as anthropologists, physicians, tribal leaders, and local officials, to develop and implement a multiphase COVID-19 prevention and containment plan focused on voluntary collective isolation and contact-tracing among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon. Phase 1 involves education, outreach, and preparation, and phase 2 focuses on containment, patient management, and quarantine. Features of this plan might be exported and adapted to local circumstances elsewhere to prevent widespread mortality in indigenous communities.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Grupos de Población , Aislamiento Social , Betacoronavirus , Bolivia , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Poblaciones Vulnerables
11.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-164993

RESUMEN

In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Altitud , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Bolivia/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Oxígeno , Pandemias , Tibet/epidemiología , Virulencia
12.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102152

RESUMEN

In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Altitud , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Bolivia/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Oxígeno , Pandemias , Tibet/epidemiología , Virulencia
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101653, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-26769

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Bolivia. Here, we report the main clinical findings, and epidemiological features of the first series of cases, and a cluster, confirmed in Bolivia. METHODS: For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, information was obtained from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Among 152 suspected cases investigated, 12 (7.9%) were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by rRT-PCR. The median age was 39 years (IQR 25-43), six of them male. Two cases proceed from Italy and three from Spain. Nine patients presented fever, and cough, five sore throat, and myalgia, among other symptoms. Only a 60 y-old woman with hypertension was hospitalized. None of the patients required ICU nor fatalities occurred in this group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of surveillance of COVID-19 in Bolivia, with patients managed mainly with home isolation. Preparedness for a significant epidemic, as is going on in other countries, and the deployment of response plans for it, in the country is now taking place to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population.

14.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101653, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60082

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Bolivia. Here, we report the main clinical findings, and epidemiological features of the first series of cases, and a cluster, confirmed in Bolivia. METHODS: For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, information was obtained from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Among 152 suspected cases investigated, 12 (7.9%) were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by rRT-PCR. The median age was 39 years (IQR 25-43), six of them male. Two cases proceed from Italy and three from Spain. Nine patients presented fever, and cough, five sore throat, and myalgia, among other symptoms. Only a 60 y-old woman with hypertension was hospitalized. None of the patients required ICU nor fatalities occurred in this group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of surveillance of COVID-19 in Bolivia, with patients managed mainly with home isolation. Preparedness for a significant epidemic, as is going on in other countries, and the deployment of response plans for it, in the country is now taking place to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population.

15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101653, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247926

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Bolivia. Here, we report the main clinical findings, and epidemiological features of the first series of cases, and a cluster, confirmed in Bolivia. METHODS: For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, information was obtained from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Among 152 suspected cases investigated, 12 (7.9%) were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by rRT-PCR. The median age was 39 years (IQR 25-43), six of them male. Two cases proceed from Italy and three from Spain. Nine patients presented fever, and cough, five sore throat, and myalgia, among other symptoms. Only a 60 y-old woman with hypertension was hospitalized. None of the patients required ICU nor fatalities occurred in this group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of surveillance of COVID-19 in Bolivia, with patients managed mainly with home isolation. Preparedness for a significant epidemic, as is going on in other countries, and the deployment of response plans for it, in the country is now taking place to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolivia/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Tos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Fiebre , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Aislamiento de Pacientes/métodos , Neumonía Viral/virología , ARN Viral/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , España , Adulto Joven
16.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333993

RESUMEN

In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Altitud , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Bolivia/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Oxígeno , Pandemias , Tibet/epidemiología , Virulencia
18.
Lima; Organismo Andino de Salud Convenio Hipólito Unanue; 36; 20000430. 36 p. (Situación Actual de la Pandemia Covid-19 a Nivel Mundial y en los Países Andinos, 4, 4).
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117557

RESUMEN

Consolidado de la situación epidemiológica de la COVID-19 en los países de la Región Andina (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela) y a nivel mundial al 30 de abril de 2020.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Perú , Venezuela , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador
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