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1.
Int J Vasc Med ; 2022: 3045942, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187232

RESUMEN

Background: Many of the therapeutic proposals for COVID-19 have been associated with adverse effects, including the risk of QT interval prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). The objective was to determine the use of drugs with a risk of QT interval prolongation in 21 clinics/hospitals in Colombia from January to December 2020. Methods: This cross-sectional study identified drug use according to pharmacological groups with potential risk of QT interval prolongation according to a risk classification: conditional, possible, and known risk of TdP. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: A total of 355,574 patients who received QT-prolonging drugs were identified (equivalent to 51.4% of all inpatients treated during the study period). Of the group of patients on QT drugs, 54.4% used at least one drug with conditional risk, 52.6% with possible risk, and 40.3% with known risk. The most commonly used belonged to the group of drugs for the nervous system (63.0%), alimentary tract and metabolism (56.8%), anti-infectives for systemic use (13.0%), and the cardiovascular system (11.7%). On average, patients received 2.0 ± 1.5 risk drugs. Regarding drugs initially considered against COVID-19, 2,120 patients (0.6%) received azithromycin, 802 (0.2%) received chloroquine, 517 received hydroxychloroquine (0.1%), and 265 received lopinavir/ritonavir (0.1%). Conclusion: The high proportion of patients treated at the hospital level who receive drugs with risk of prolonging the QT interval should alert those responsible for their care to avoid fatal outcomes, especially during the COVID-19 epidemic, when some QT drugs are being used more frequently.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 937644, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187605

RESUMEN

Governments across the globe have implemented different strategies to handle the COVID-19 pandemic. A national mandatory quarantine was the most applied policy tool. While there are studies that tested the effectiveness of a national mandatory quarantine, the question about the effectiveness of additional quarantine policies is not yet answered. In this study we focus on three large cities in Colombia (Bogota, Medellin and Cali) with similar socio-economic conditions but made use of different COVID-19 prevention measures. We examine whether different non-pharmaceutical policy interventions (NPIs) conducted in these three cities are effective against the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. We inspect the effect of the quarantine policies restricting exit from home by sex, ID number, whereby only Bogota implemented the restriction to leave the home according to sex followed by a restriction according to ID number, and Medellin and Cali implemented a restriction by ID number only. Data for the analysis are obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia [Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE)]. The data on pandemic severity is measured by the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases per city. We conduct single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) to examine differences in the extent of the pandemic severity in Bogota, Medellin and Cali. We found that NPIs in all three Colombian cities had a positive effect on slowing the spread of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Ciudades , Colombia/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Políticas
3.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 33: 101100, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193444

RESUMEN

Introduction: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, called COVID-19, in Colombia as well as in a great part of the world, has been declared as a public health emergency of international concern, affecting different aspects of the daily life, being one of the most important the access and distribution of necessary medicine, not only for the known deceases but also for the mitigation of COVID 19. Objective: the distribution of medicines should maintain stability in the supply chain of essential medicines, thus ensuring high quality medicines that could help in the treatment to fight the virus. Methodology: through this work a detailed analysis of the variable and critical points in the supply chain of essential medicines to mitigate COVID-19 is developed. Results: A new architecture based on the Blockchain Hyperledger is presented. It will help to solve those critical points found, through the secure trace of the medicine supply chain. In Colombia, by using this architecture all actors take responsibilities in the distribution chain, ensuring a high level of transparency in the distribution process. Discussion: by verifying the proper functioning of the model, the main difficulty when using Hyperledger is the lack of suppliers with experience; besides, there are not enough standardization or regulations of Blockchain. Conclusion: It is proved that Blockchain is an optimal technology to ensure essential medicine supply chain for the COVID 19 treatment in Colombia.

4.
Sugar Tech ; : 1-13, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065321

RESUMEN

Food science innovation depends on consumers' needs and is currently seeking functional food with health effects. Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is known for its potential health effects, but there is a lack of holistic analysis on technological advancement and socio-economic and market trends for decision-making in the development of the technology. The aim of this article was to analyse the research trends, recent patents, and market trends and niches for NCS to structure an NCS technological roadmap. Scientometric, bibliometric methods, and global and local market information on NCS were used. Comprehensive analysis of the worldwide research trends and patents on NCS processing and of the growth of the main niche markets for Colombian NCS exports in the last five years was conducted. Finally, with the information obtained, an NCS technological roadmap was structured, which can be used as a tool for planning innovation processes and supporting the development of new research using market information and new norms forged by the COVID-19 pandemic for Colombian case. Furthermore, the methodological design could be used for other NCS producer countries. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12355-022-01200-9.

5.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(10): 1076-1080, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113400

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women continue to be vulnerable to COVID-19, and their immunosuppressed state could put them at greater risk of developing more severe forms of the disease. In Colombia and Latin America, there are few studies on the immune response of the newborn against SARS-CoV-2. AIM: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in umbilical cord blood in two hospital centers in Córdoba and Sucre. METHODS: Between March and June 2021, a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Two hospitals from the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, located in the Northwest Caribbean area of Colombia, participated. Three hundred sixty umbilical cord blood samples were taken at the two hospitals. A commercial ELISA was performed to detect total IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. The ethics committee approved the study of the participating institutions. RESULTS: Of 3.291 women who gave birth in the hospital centers included in the study, 360 (11%) participated. Complete clinical data were obtained for 223 women. The mean age of the women was 24 years (range, 15-42). 29.4% (106/360) of the umbilical cord samples had total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women did not have blood samples taken. 58% of the women were asymptomatic. There was no association between umbilical cord samples, clinical, epidemiological characteristics, and serological response to antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of umbilical cord blood samples was 29.4% for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The study provides essential aspects for the epidemiological approach to neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Nefrologia ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124061

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients with SARS CoV-2 infection is unknown. The knowledge about the behavior of different immunosuppression schemes in clinical outcomes is scarce. This study aimed to determine the risk of death in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 under two different schemes of immunosuppression. METHODS: We describe our experience in kidney transplant recipients with SARS CoV-2 infection in seven transplant centers during the first year of the pandemic before starting the vaccination programs in the city of Bogotá. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, immunosuppression schemes at presentation, and global treatment strategies were compared between recovered and dead patients; survival analysis was carried out between calcineurin inhibitors based regimen and free calcineurin inhibitors regimen. RESULTS: Among 165 confirmed cases, 28 died (17%); the risk factors for mortality identified in univariate analysis were age older than 60 years (p = .003) diabetes (p = .001), immunosuppression based on calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) (p = .025) and patients receiving steroids (p = .041). In multivariable analysis, hypoxemia (p = .000) and calcineurin inhibitors regimen (p = .002) were predictors of death. Survival analysis showed increased mortality risk in patients receiving CNI based immunosuppression regimen vs CNI free regimens (mortality rates were, respectively, 21.7% and 8.5% (p .036). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the calcineurin inhibitors probably do not provide greater protection compared to calcineurin inhibitor free schemes being necessary to carry out analyzes that allow us to evaluate the outcomes with different immunosuppression schemes in solid organ transplant recipients with SARS CoV-2 infection.

7.
Biomedica ; 42(3): 492-507, 2022 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122289

RESUMEN

Introduction: Sexual violence is a public health problem included in political and social agendas worldwide. It is a medical emergency seen in health services, which are the main source of record-keeping by means of public health surveillance systems. Objective: To analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of victims of sex offenses and their offenders in the municipality of Envigado, Antioquia, between 2011 and 2020. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed all the sexual violence records reported in the Envigado Public Health Surveillance System for gender and intrafamilial violence (file code INS-875) during the 2011-2020 period. Results: A total of 807 cases of sexual violence were recorded between 2011 and 2020; 62.0% were cases of sexual abuse against persons under 18 years of age, and 82.3% of the victims were adolescent women suffering sexual violence exerted by relatives. The main aggressors were men (99.1%) with a median age of 26 years. Conclusion: Sexual violence has increased over time and in 2020, the year of population confinement due to COVID-19, the rates in women and in the life courses of early childhood, adolescence, and youth were the highest during the study period.


Introducción. La violencia sexual es un problema de salud pública inscrito en las agendas sociales y políticas a nivel global. Representa una urgencia médica que se atiende en los servicios de salud, lo que los convierte en la principal fuente de su registro en los sistemas de vigilancia en salud pública. Objetivo. Analizar las características sociodemográficas de las víctimas de violencia sexual y de sus victimarios en el municipio de Envigado, Antioquia, entre el 2011 y el 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal descriptivo a partir de todos los registros de violencia sexual notificados en el Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública de la violencia de género e intrafamiliar de Envigado (código de ficha INS-875), durante el periodo 2011-2020. Resultados. Se registraron 807 casos de violencia sexual entre 2011 y 2020; el 62,0 % correspondió a casos de abuso sexual a personas menores de 18 años; el 82,3 % de las víctimas estaba constituido por mujeres adolescentes agredidas por familiares; los principales agresores fueron hombres (99,1 %), con una mediana de edad 26 años. Conclusión. La violencia sexual es un problema en aumento; en el 2020, año del confinamiento poblacional por la Covid-19, las tasas en mujeres y durante la primera infancia, la adolescencia y la juventud, fueron las más altas del periodo de estudio.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Criminales , Delitos Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/epidemiología , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274484, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121816

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the cumulative incidence, prevalence, and seroconversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated factors among healthcare workers (HCWs) of a University Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. An ambispective cohort was established from March 2020 to February 2021. From November 2020 to February 2021, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured on two occasions 14-90 days apart to determine seroprevalence and seroconversion. We used multivariate log-binomial regression to evaluate factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 2,597 HCWs, the cumulative incidence of infection was 35.7%, and seroprevalence was 21.5%. A reduced risk of infection was observed among those aged 35-44 and ≥45 years (adjusted relative risks [aRRs], 0.84 and 0.83, respectively), physicians (aRR, 0.77), those wearing N95 respirators (aRR, 0.82) and working remotely (aRR, 0.74). Being overweight (aRR, 1.18) or obese (aRR, 1.24); being a nurse or nurse assistant (aRR, 1.20); working in the emergency room (aRR, 1.45), general wards (aRR, 1.45), intensive care unit (aRR, 1.34), or COVID-19 areas (aRR, 1.17); and close contact with COVID-19 cases (aRR, 1.47) increased the risk of infection. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study reflects the dynamics of the first year of the pandemic in Bogotá. A high burden of infection calls for strengthening prevention and screening measures for HCWs, focusing especially on those at high risk.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Incidencia , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversión , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
9.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(9)2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136651

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. In Colombia, many commercial methods are now available to perform the RT-qPCR assays, and laboratories must evaluate their diagnostic accuracy to ensure reliable results for patients suspected of being positive for COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to compare four commercial RT-qPCR assays with respect to their ability to detect the SARS-CoV2 virus from nasopharyngeal swab samples referred to Laboratorio Carvajal IPS, SAS in Tunja, Boyacá, Colombia. We utilized 152 respiratory tract samples (Nasopharyngeal Swabs) from patients suspected of having SARS-CoV-2. The diagnostic accuracy of GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp (In Vitro Diagnostics) (GF-TM), One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR (Vitro Master Diagnostica) (O-S RT-qPCR), and the Berlin modified protocol (BM) were assessed using the gold-standard Berlin protocol (Berlin Charité Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit, New England Biolabs) (BR) as a reference. Operational characteristics were estimated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and predictive values. Using the gold-standard BR as a reference, the sensitivity/specificity of the diagnostic tests was found to be 100%/92.7% for GF-TM, 92.75%/67.47% for O-S RT-qPCR, and 100%/96.39% for the BM protocol. Using BR as a reference, the sensitivity/specificity for the diagnostic tests were found to be 100%/92.7% for the GF-TM assay, 92.72%/67.47% for the O-S RT-qPCR, and 100%/96.39% for BM. Relative to the BR reference protocol, the GF-TM and BM RT-PCR assays obtained similar results (k = 0.92 and k = 0.96, respectively), whereas the results obtained by O-S-RT-qPCR were only moderately similar. We conclude that the GF-TM and BM protocols offer the best sensitivity and specificity, with similar results in comparison to the gold-standard BR protocol. We recommend evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of the OS-RT-qPCR protocol in future studies with a larger number of samples.

10.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 51(3): 245-255, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085127

RESUMEN

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 poses unprecedented challenges in the health care. Among them is the increase in cases of delirium. The severe SARS-CoV-2 disease, COVID-19, has common vulnerabilities with delirium and produces alterations in organs such as the lungs or the brain, among others, which have the potential to trigger the mental disorder. In fact, delirium may be the first manifestation of the infection, before fever, general malaise, cough or respiratory disturbances. It is widely supported that delirium increases the morbidity and mortality in those who suffer from it during hospitalization, so it should be actively sought to carry out the relevant interventions. In the absence of evidence on the approach to delirium in the context of COVID-19, this consensus was developed on three fundamental aspects: diagnosis, non-pharmacological treatment and pharmacological treatment, in patients admitted to the general hospital. The document contains recommendations on the systematic use of diagnostic tools, when to hospitalize the patient with delirium, the application of non-pharmacological actions within the restrictions imposed by COVID-19, and the use of antipsychotics, taking into account the most relevant side effects and pharmacological interactions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Delirio , Psiquiatría , Prueba de COVID-19 , Colombia , Consenso , Delirio/diagnóstico , Delirio/etiología , Delirio/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
New Microbes New Infect ; 48: 101026, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090798

RESUMEN

Background: The population of South America has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this region, during the year 2020, high seroprevalence percentages were reported, which have been associated with the socioeconomic characteristics of the population, mainly in urban areas. However, a relative lack of information on the dynamics of the pandemic in rural areas of these countries, where the population is more vulnerable, is still present. This study determined antibody prevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in urban and rural food producing workers in Colombia. Methods: A total of 1242 workers, urban and rural, linked to poultry, dairy, and meat production and supply chains, were analyzed through a sociodemographic survey and two serological tests against S and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Results: 78.7% were male. 50.9% of the participants were rural inhabitants, with an average age of 40.9 years old. 39.2% had IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 S protein and 31.3% against N protein for the same virus; 83.6% had not been tested with an RT-PCR test for COVID-19 and 75.7% did not report symptoms related to the disease. The associated risk factors were low education, OR: 1.46, greater number of cohabitants, OR: 1.36, and contact with people infected with COVID-19, OR: 2.03. Conclusions: The seroprevalences found suggest an important interconnectivity between rural and urban areas, where asymptomatic subjects and sociodemographic factors facilitate the virus' spread in the population.

12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 896318, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159257

RESUMEN

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact both in general and mental healthcare, challenged the health systems worldwide, and affected their capacity to deliver essential health services. We aimed to describe perceived changes in ease of access to general and mental healthcare among patients with a diagnosis of depression and/or unhealthy alcohol use in Colombia. Methods: This study is embedded in the DIADA project, a multicenter implementation research study aimed at evaluating the integration of mental healthcare in primary care in Colombia. Between November 2020 and August 2021, we conducted a COVID-19 pandemic impact assessment in a cohort of participants with newly diagnosed depression and/or unhealthy alcohol use part of DIADA project. We assessed the ease of access and factors related to perceived ease of access to general or mental healthcare, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: 836 participants completed the COVID-19 pandemic impact assessment. About 30% of participants considered their mental health to be worse during the pandemic and 84.3% perceived access to general healthcare to be worse during the pandemic. Most of participants (85.8%) were unable to assess access to mental health services, but a significant proportion considered it to be worse. Experiencing worse ease of access to general healthcare was more frequent among women, patients with diagnosis of depression, and patients with comorbidities. Experiencing worse ease of access to mental healthcare was more frequent among patients aged between 30 and 49.9 years, from socioeconomic status between 4 and 6, affiliated to the contributive social security regime, attending urban study sites, and those who perceived their mental health was worse during the pandemic. Discussion: Despite the overall perception of worse mental health during the pandemic, the use of mental healthcare was low compared to general healthcare. Ease of access was perceived to be worse compared to pre-pandemic. Ease of access and access were affected by geographical study site, socioeconomic status, age and gender. Our findings highlight the need for improved communication between patients and institutions, tailored strategies to adapt the healthcare provision to patients' characteristics, and continued efforts to strengthen the role of mental healthcare provision in primary care.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Servicios de Salud Mental , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Atención Primaria de Salud
13.
Bogotá; OPS; 2022-09-26. (OPS/COL/22-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56343

RESUMEN

En el 2022 se celebra el 120.º aniversario de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). En calidad de organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la OPS brinda cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para abordar las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, como Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la Región de las Américas, participa en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible a nivel de país. A nivel subregional, la OPS trabaja con los mecanismos de integración para que la salud y sus determinantes tengan un lugar en la agenda política. En el informe anual correspondiente al 2021 se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS en los países y territorios en este período, con la aplicación de las estrategias de cooperación en los países, la respuesta a sus necesidades y prioridades, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la OPS y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. En consonancia con el tema general de "responder a la COVID-19 y prepararse para el futuro", se ponen de relieve las medidas que ha adoptado la OPS con respecto a la pandemia de COVID-19 y sus esfuerzos continuos en áreas prioritarias como las emergencias de salud, los sistemas y servicios de salud, las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles y la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y la equidad en la salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del bienio 2020-2021.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Urgencias Médicas , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Equidad , Equidad de Género , Diversidad Cultural , Cooperación Técnica , Américas , Colombia
14.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(3): e200, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388928

RESUMEN

Abstract Introduction: The practice of anesthesiology during the COVlD-i9/SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a psychological impact, and has been associated with ethical dilemmas, work overload, and occupational risk. Objective: To understand different problems affecting anesthesiologists, in particular with regards to professional ethics in the decision-making process, increased personal workload, and the potential risk in terms of their own safety and health, as a consequence of working during the COVlD-19 pandemic. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists members of the Colombian Society of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation (S.C.A.R.E.), to enquire about work hours, occupational safety, prevention standards and strategies, and ethical aspects involved in decision making during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: 218 anesthesiologist participated in the survey. Most of the respondents felt that there was not a significant increase in their workload, except for those in critical care (42.5 %; n = 17). Most of the participants believe that leisure time is not enough. 55.96 % (n = 122) of the participants said they felt moderately safe with the biosecurity measures, but with a higher risk of contagion versus other practitioners, with 72.9 % (n = 159) responding that they used their own money to buy personal protection equipment (PPE). There was also evidence that one fourth of the respondents has faced ethical dilemmas during the resuscitation of SARS-CoV-2 - infected patients. Conclusions: The information gathered is a preliminary approach to the situation arising in Colombia as a result of the pandemic; it is clear that anesthesiologists perceive higher associated lack of safety due to different factors such as higher risk of infection, shortage of PPEs and burnout, inter alia. Hence we believe that it is fundamental to acknowledge the work of all anesthesiologists and understand the impact that the pandemic has had on this group of professionals.


Resumen Introducción: El ejercicio de la anestesiología durante la pandemia por COVID-i9/SARS-CoV-2 ha tenido un impacto psicológico y ha estado asociado a dilemas éticos, aumento en la sobrecarga y riesgo laboral. Objetivo: Comprender distintos problemas en los que se han visto envueltos los médicos anestesiólogos, en especial los relacionados con su ética profesional en el proceso de tomar decisiones, el aumento en la carga personal y el posible riesgo de su seguridad y salud como consecuencia de su labor durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Por medio de una encuesta, aplicada a anestesiólogos afiliados a la Sociedad Colombiana de Anestesiología y Reanimación (S.C.A.R.E.), se indagó acerca de jornadas laborales, seguridad laboral, normas y estrategias de prevención, y aspectos éticos vinculados con la toma de decisiones durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Resultados: Participaron 218 anestesiólogos. La mayoría de los encuestados consideró que no hubo aumento significativo en su carga laboral, excepto aquellos que ejercen en cuidado crítico (42,5 %; n = 17). La mayoría de los participantes consideran que el tiempo de descanso no es suficiente. Un 55,96 % (n = 122) de los participantes, refieren sentirse moderadamente seguros con las medidas de bioseguridad, pero con un mayor riesgo de contagio frente a otros profesionales, con un 72,9 % (n = 159) y manifestaron haber invertido de sus propios recursos para la adquisición de elementos de protección personal (EPP). Así mismo, se evidenció que una cuarta parte de los entrevistados se ha enfrentado a dilemas éticos durante la reanimación de pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Conclusiones: La información obtenida hace un acercamiento inicial a la problemática generada en Colombia por la pandemia, donde es evidente que los anestesiólogos perciben una mayor inseguridad asociada, debido a diversos factores como mayor riesgo de infección, insuficiencia de EPP y burnout, entre otros. Por ende, creemos que es fundamental reconocer el trabajo de todos los anestesiólogos, y comprender el impacto que la pandemia ha tenido en estos profesionales.

15.
J Public Health Res ; 11(3): 22799036221115770, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052098

RESUMEN

Background: COVID-19 cases in Medellín, the second largest city in Colombia, were monitored during the first year of the pandemic using both mathematical models based on transmission theory and surveillance from each observed epidemic phase. Design and Methods: Expected cases were estimated using mandatory reporting data from Colombia's national epidemiological surveillance system from March 7, 2020 to March 7, 2021. Initially, the range of daily expected cases was estimated using a Borel-Tanner stochastic model and a deterministic Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model. A subsequent expanded version of the SIR model was used to include asymptomatic cases, severe cases and deaths. The moving average, standard deviation, and goodness of fit of estimated cases relative to confirmed reported cases were assessed, and local transmission in Medellin was contrasted with national transmission in Colombia. Results: The initial phase was characterized by imported case detection and the later phase by community transmission and increases in case magnitude and severity. In the initial phase, a maximum range of expected cases was obtained based on the stochastic model, which even accounted for the reduction of new imported cases following the closure of international airports. The deterministic estimate achieved an adequate fit with respect to accumulated cases until the conclusion of the mandatory national quarantine and gradual reopening, when reported cases increased. The estimated new cases were reasonably fit with the maximum reported incidence. Conclusion: Adequate model fit was obtained with the reported data. This experience of monitoring epidemic trajectory can be extended using models adapted to local conditions.

16.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 6965-6976, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082107

RESUMEN

Purpose: We aimed to assess the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and oxygenation index on COVID-19 patients' mortality risk. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes from patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, from March to July 2020. We assessed exploratory associations between oxygenation index and Hb concentration at admission and clinical outcomes. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to evaluate the observed nonlinear relations and the classification and regression trees (CART) algorithm to assess the interaction effects. Results: We included 550 patients, of which 52% were male. The median age was 57 years old, and the most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (29%). The median value of SpO2/FiO2 was 424, and the median Hb concentration was 15 g/dL. The mortality was 15.1% (83 patients). Age, sex, and SpO2/FiO2, were independently associated with mortality. We described a nonlinear relationship between Hb concentration and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with mortality and an interaction effect between SpO2/FiO2 and Hb concentration. Patients with a similar oxygenation index had different mortality likelihoods based upon their Hb at admission. CART showed that patients with SpO2/FiO2 < 324, who were less than 81 years with an NLR >9.9, and Hb > 15 g/dl had the highest mortality risk (91%). Additionally, patients with SpO2/FiO2 > 324 but Hb of < 12 g/dl and a history of hypertension had a higher mortality likelihood (59%). In contrast, patients with SpO2/FiO2 > 324 and Hb of > 12 g/dl had the lowest mortality risk (9%). Conclusion: We found that a decreased SpO2/FiO2 increased mortality risk. Extreme values of Hb, either low or high, showed an increase in the likelihood of mortality. However, Hb concentration modified the SpO2/FiO2 effect on mortality; the probability of death in patients with low SpO2/FiO2 increased as Hb increased.

18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e78, 2022.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35990530

RESUMEN

Objectives: To quantify socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 mortality in Colombia and to assess the extent to which type of health insurance, comorbidity burden, area of residence, and ethnicity account for such inequalities. Methods: We analyzed data from a retrospective cohort of COVID-19 cases. We estimated the relative and slope indices of inequality (RII and SII) using survival models for all participants and stratified them by age and gender. We calculated the percentage reduction in RII and SII after adjustment for potentially relevant factors. Results: We identified significant inequalities for the whole cohort and by subgroups (age and gender). Inequalities were higher among younger adults and gradually decreased with age, going from RII of 5.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.25, 9.82) in participants younger than 25 years to RII of 1.49 (95% CI = 1.41, 1.58) in those aged 65 years and older. Type of health insurance was the most important factor, accounting for 20% and 59% of the relative and absolute inequalities, respectively. Conclusions: Significant socioeconomic inequalities exist in COVID-19 mortality in Colombia. Health insurance appears to be the main contributor to those inequalities, posing challenges for the design of public health strategies.


Objetivos: Quantificar as desigualdades socioeconômicas na mortalidade por COVID-19 na Colômbia e avaliar até que ponto o tipo de cobertura de assistência à saúde, a carga de comorbidades, o local de residência e a etnia contribuíram para tais desigualdades. Métodos: Analisamos dados de uma coorte retrospectiva de casos de COVID-19. Calculamos os índices relativo e angular de desigualdade (RII e SII, respectivamente) utilizando modelos de sobrevivência em todos os participantes, estratificando-os por idade e gênero. Calculamos o percentual de redução no RII e no SII após ajuste para fatores possivelmente relevantes. Resultados: Identificamos desigualdades significativas na coorte como um todo e por subgrupos (idade e gênero). As desigualdades foram maiores para adultos mais jovens e decaíram gradualmente com a idade, indo de um RII de 5,65 (intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95% = 3,25; 9,82] nos participantes com idade inferior a 25 anos a um RII de 1,49 [IC 95% = 1,41; 1,58] nas pessoas com 65 anos ou mais. O tipo de cobertura de assistência à saúde foi o fator mais importante, representando 20% e 59% das desigualdades relativa e absoluta, respectivamente. Conclusões: Desigualdades socioeconômicas significativas afetaram a mortalidade por COVID-19 na Colômbia. O tipo de cobertura de saúde parece ser o principal fator contribuinte para essas desigualdades, impondo desafios à elaboração de estratégias de saúde pública.

19.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 73(2): 194-202, 2022 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939413

RESUMEN

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of symptoms of depression and worry affecting pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Descriptive crosssectional study that included pregnant women with access to a technological device (mobile phone, computer or tablet) and Internet connection, living in Antioquia, Colombia. Women with literary and technological illiteracy were excluded. An online survey was conducted to gather information about sociodemographic and baseline clinical conditions and the main concerns caused by the pandemic. Additionally, the Edinburg Depression Scale (EPDS) was applied in order to measure the risk of depression. The Jamovi software was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results: Overall, 345 pregnant women between 15 and 44 years of age were surveyed, with the finding of a 30.4 % prevalence of the risk of depression. Domestic violence and absence of a support network were identified in 4.9 % and 8.4 % of cases. The major sources of worry were the fear of being separated from their babies on the day of birth, the possibility of having to be alone during childbirth, and the fear of contagion due to potential effects on the fetus or the newborn. Conclusions: Depression symptoms have been frequent among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to inquire about stress factors and depression symptoms during prenatal visits, childbirth and the postpartum period. Additional local studies are needed to assess other mental health disorders that may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de los síntomas de depresión y las preocupaciones que afectaron a las gestantes durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo, se incluyeron mujeres gestantes, con acceso a un medio tecnológico (celular, computador o tableta) y conectividad a internet, residentes en Antioquia, Colombia. Se excluyeron mujeres con analfabetismo literario y tecnológico. Se encuestaron, en línea, las condiciones sociodemográficas y clínicas basales y las principales preocupaciones generadas por la pandemia, además se aplicó la Escala de Depresión de Edimburgo (EPDS) para medir el riesgo de depresión. Se usó el software Jamovi para el procesamiento y análisis estadístico. Resultados: se encuestaron 345 mujeres gestantes de 15 a 44 años, se identificó una prevalencia de riesgo de depresión en 30,4 % de las mujeres encuestadas. Se identificó violencia intrafamiliar en el 4,9 % y ausencia de red de apoyo en el 8,4 %. Se encontraron como mayores preocupaciones temor a ser separadas del bebé el día del parto, la posibilidad de no tener acompañante durante el parto, y temor al contagio por los efectos en el bebé in útero o en el recién nacido. Conclusiones: los síntomas de depresión han sido frecuentes en las mujeres gestantes durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Es importante averiguar por factores de estrés y síntomas de depresión en el control prenatal, el parto y el postparto. Se requieren nuevos estudios locales que evalúen otros trastornos de salud mental que se hayan podido incrementar durante la pandemia por COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mujeres Embarazadas , COVID-19/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo , Prevalencia
20.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100198, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935750

RESUMEN

We aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Colombia and Peru. We performed a secondary analysis using a database generated by the University of Maryland and Facebook (Facebook, Inc). We Included adult (18 and over) Facebook users residing in LAC who responded to the survey between May 20, and November 5, 2021. We Included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental health, economic and food insecurity, compliance with mitigation strategies against COVID-19, and practices related to vaccination against this disease. We estimated crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95 %CI. We analyzed a sample of 44,678 adults from Colombia and 24,302 from Peru. The prevalence of parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 was 7.41 % (n = 3,274) for Colombia and 6.64 % (n = 1,464) for Peru. In Colombia, age above 35 years old, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, anxiety symptoms, having a chronic condition or more comorbidities, and being vaccinated were associated with a higher probability of vaccinating children and adolescents against COVID-19. In Peru, female gender, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, anxiety symptoms, having a chronic condition or more comorbidities, having had COVID-19, and being vaccinated were associated with a higher probability of vaccinating children against COVID-19. Living in a town, a village, or a rural area was associated with a higher prevalence of non-intention to vaccinate children and adolescents against COVID-19. About 9 out of 10 parents in Colombia and Peru intend to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19. This intention is associated with some factors which are similar between the two countries, as well as other factors and variations among the different regions of each country.

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