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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078715

RESUMEN

A growing body of literature has documented an increased risk of gender-based violence (GBV) within the context of COVID-19 and service providers' reduced capacity to address this vulnerability. Less examined are the system-level impacts of the pandemic on the GBV sector in low- and middle-income countries. Drawing on the perspectives of 18 service providers working across various GBV-related sectors in Guatemala, we explored how the Guatemalan GBV prevention and response system operated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings highlight that the pandemic reinforced survivors' existing adversities (inadequate transportation access, food insecurity, digital divides), which subsequently reduced access to reporting, justice, and support. Consequently, the GBV prevention and response system had to absorb the responsibility of securing survivors' essential social determinants of health, further limiting already inflexible budgets. The pandemic also imposed new challenges, such as service gridlocks, that negatively affected survivors' system navigation and impaired service providers' abilities to efficiently receive reports and mobilize harm reduction and prevention programming. The findings underscore the systemic challenges faced by GBV service providers and the need to incorporate gender mainstreaming across public service sectors-namely, transportation and information/communication-to improve lifesaving GBV service delivery for Guatemalan survivors, particularly survivors in rural/remote regions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Género , COVID-19/epidemiología , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Población Rural , Sobrevivientes
2.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e79, 2022.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35990526

RESUMEN

Objectives: To assess the baseline prevalence of mental health conditions and associated exposures in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) in Guatemala. Methods: We analyzed baseline information from the 2020 Web-based COVID-19 Health Care Workers Study (HEROES)-Guatemala. Outcomes included mental distress and depressive symptoms. Exposures included COVID-19 experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and job characteristics. We used crude and adjusted Poisson regression models in our analyses. Results: Of the 1801 HCWs who accepted to participate, 1522 (84.5%) completed the questionnaire; 1014 (66.8%) were women. Among the participants, 59.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.6, 61.5) screened positive for mental distress and 23% (95% CI = 20.9, 25.2) for moderate to severe depressive symptoms. COVID-19 experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and job characteristics were associated with the study outcomes. Participants who were worried about COVID-19 infection were at higher risk of mental distress (relative risk [RR] = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.30, 1.66) and depressive symptoms (RR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17, 1.96). Similarly, the youngest participants were at elevated risk of mental distress (RR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.24, 2.63) and depressive symptoms (OR = 4.58; 95% CI = 1.51, 13.87). Conclusions: Mental health conditions are highly prevalent among Guatemalan.


Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência basal de condições de saúde mental e exposições associadas em uma coorte de trabalhadores da saúde (TS) na Guatemala. Métodos: Analisamos as informações da linha de base do estudo on-line sobre trabalhadores da saúde e a COVID-19 (HEROES), realizado em 2020 na Guatemala. Os desfechos incluíram angústia debilitante e sintomas de depressão. As exposições incluíram experiências com a COVID-19, características sociodemográficas e características do trabalho. Usamos em nossas análises modelos de regressão bruta e ajustada de Poisson. Resultados: Dos 1801 TS que concordaram em participar, 1522 (84,5%) preencheram o questionário, sendo que 1014 (66,8%) eram mulheres. Dentre esses participantes, 59,1% (intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%=56,6; 61,5) apresentaram resultado positivo na triagem de angústia debilitante e 23% (IC 95%=20,9, 25,2) apresentaram resultado positivo para sintomas de depressão moderados a graves. Experiências com COVID-19, e características sociodemográficas e de trabalho apresentaram associação com os resultados do estudo. Os participantes que estavam preocupados com infecção por COVID-19 apresentaram maior risco de angústia debilitante (risco relativo [RR]=1,47; IC95%=1,30; 1,66) e sintomas de depressão (RR=1,51; IC 95% =1,17; 1,96). Da mesma maneira, os participantes mais jovens apresentaram alto risco de apresentarem angústia debilitante (RR=1,80; IC 95%=1,24; 2,63) e sintomas de depressão (OR=4,58; IC 95%=1,51; 13,87). Conclusões: Condições de saúde mental são altamente prevalentes entre os guatemaltecos.

3.
Front Res Metr Anal ; 7: 899611, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937848

RESUMEN

Scientific diasporas are organized groups of professionals who work together to contribute to their country of origin. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, scientific diasporas around the world have focused their efforts to support the public health response in their countries of origin. As the first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Guatemala in March of 2020, a team of four Guatemalan nationals, residing abroad and in-country, started collaborating to tackle COVID-19 misinformation and issues with healthcare services navigation. Their collaboration was facilitated by FUNDEGUA, a Guatemalan nonprofit, which provided a legal framework to establish partnerships and fundraise. The team created a digital technological system called ALMA (Asistente de Logística Médica Automatizada in Spanish). A female character named ALMA was created to personify the digital information services, through social media profiles, an interactive website, a free national multilingual call center, and an artificial intelligence-based chatbot. More members joined the nascent interdisciplinary diaspora through professional/personal references or social media. ALMA provided a platform for Guatemalan nationals to contribute with their skillset to their country during a global crisis through flexible schedules and short- or long-term involvement. As the team grew, the services for query resolution and information dissemination expanded as well. The ALMA initiative shows that scientific diasporas can provide an avenue for professionals to contribute to Guatemala, regardless of their residence and job commitments.

4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S6): S602-S614, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977333

RESUMEN

Objectives. To assess the baseline prevalence of mental health conditions and associated exposures in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) in Guatemala. Methods. We analyzed baseline information from the 2020 Web-based COVID-19 Health Care Workers Study (HEROES)-Guatemala. Outcomes included mental distress and depressive symptoms. Exposures included COVID-19 experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and job characteristics. We used crude and adjusted Poisson regression models in our analyses. Results. Of the 1801 HCWs who accepted to participate, 1522 (84.5%) completed the questionnaire; 1014 (66.8%) were women. Among the participants, 59.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.6, 61.5) screened positive for mental distress and 23% (95% CI = 20.9, 25.2) for moderate to severe depressive symptoms. COVID-19 experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and job characteristics were associated with the study outcomes. Participants who were worried about COVID-19 infection were at higher risk of mental distress (relative risk [RR] = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.30, 1.66) and depressive symptoms (RR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17, 1.96). Similarly, the youngest participants were at elevated risk of mental distress (RR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.24, 2.63) and depressive symptoms (OR = 4.58; 95% CI = 1.51, 13.87). Conclusions. Mental health conditions are highly prevalent among Guatemalan HCWs. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S6):S602-S614. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306648).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ansiedad/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, ago. 2022. Special Issue Emergency Preparedness in the Americas
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56234

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar la prevalencia de base de los trastornos de salud mental y exposiciones conexas en una cohorte de trabajadores de salud de Guatemala. Métodos Se analizó la información de base del estudio HÉROES (por COVID-19 HEalth caRe wOrkeRs Study, sobre los trabajadores de salud durante la pandemia) en Guatemala, realizado en línea en el 2020. Las variables de resultado fueron malestar psicológico y síntomas depresivos. Las exposiciones incluyeron expe- riencias con la COVID-19, características sociodemográficas y características del trabajo. En los análisis se utilizaron modelos de regresión de Poisson brutos y ajustados. Resultados. De los 1801 trabajadores de salud que aceptaron participar, 1522 (84,5%) completaron el cues- tionario; 1014 (66,8%) eran mujeres. De los participantes, 59,1% (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC 95%] = 56,6-61,5) tuvo un tamizaje positivo para malestar psicológico y 23% (IC 95% = 20,9-25,2) para síntomas depresivos de moderados a graves. Las experiencias con la pandemia de COVID-19, las características sociodemográficas y las características del trabajo se correlacionaron con las variables de resultado del estudio. Los participantes que estaban preocupados por el contagio de la COVID-19 tuvieron un mayor riesgo de malestar psicológico (riesgo relativo [RR] = 1,47; IC 95% = 1,30-1,66) y síntomas depresivos (RR = 1,51; IC 95% = 1,17-1,96). Asimismo, los participantes más jóvenes presentaban un riesgo alto de malestar psicoló- gico (RR = 1,80; IC 95% = 1,24-2,63) y síntomas depresivos (razón de posibilidades [OR] = 4,58; IC 95% = 1,51-13,87). Conclusiones. Las afecciones de salud mental tienen una prevalencia sumamente alta en los trabajadores de salud de Guatemala.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess the baseline prevalence of mental health conditions and associated exposures in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) in Guatemala. Methods. We analyzed baseline information from the 2020 Web-based COVID-19 Health Care Workers Study (HEROES)–Guatemala. Outcomes included mental distress and depressive symptoms. Exposures included COVID-19 experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and job characteristics. We used crude and adjus- ted Poisson regression models in our analyses. Results. Of the 1801 HCWs who accepted to participate, 1522 (84.5%) completed the questionnaire; 1014 (66.8%) were women. Among the participants, 59.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.6, 61.5) screened positive for mental distress and 23% (95% CI = 20.9, 25.2) for moderate to severe depressive symptoms. COVID-19 experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and job characteristics were associated with the study outcomes. Participants who were worried about COVID-19 infection were at higher risk of mental distress (relative risk [RR] = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.30, 1.66) and depressive symptoms (RR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17, 1.96). Similarly, the youngest participants were at elevated risk of mental distress (RR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.24, 2.63) and depressive symptoms (OR = 4.58; 95% CI = 1.51, 13.87). Conclusions. Mental health conditions are highly prevalent among Guatemalan.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar a prevalência basal de condições de saúde mental e exposições associadas em uma coorte de trabalhadores da saúde (TS) na Guatemala. Métodos. Analisamos as informações da linha de base do estudo on-line sobre trabalhadores da saúde e a COVID-19 (HEROES), realizado em 2020 na Guatemala. Os desfechos incluíram angústia debilitante e sintomas de depressão. As exposições incluíram experiências com a COVID-19, características sociodemo- gráficas e características do trabalho. Usamos em nossas análises modelos de regressão bruta e ajustada de Poisson. Resultados. Dos 1801 TS que concordaram em participar, 1522 (84,5%) preencheram o questionário, sendo que 1014 (66,8%) eram mulheres. Dentre esses participantes, 59,1% (intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%=56,6; 61,5) apresentaram resultado positivo na triagem de angústia debilitante e 23% (IC 95%=20,9, 25,2) apresentaram resultado positivo para sintomas de depressão moderados a graves. Experiências com COVID-19, e características sociodemográficas e de trabalho apresentaram associação com os resul- tados do estudo. Os participantes que estavam preocupados com infecção por COVID-19 apresentaram maior risco de angústia debilitante (risco relativo [RR]=1,47; IC95%=1,30; 1,66) e sintomas de depressão (RR=1,51; IC 95% =1,17; 1,96). Da mesma maneira, os participantes mais jovens apresentaram alto risco de apresentarem angústia debilitante (RR=1,80; IC 95%=1,24; 2,63) e sintomas de depressão (OR=4,58; IC 95%=1,51; 13,87). Conclusões. Condições de saúde mental são altamente prevalentes entre os guatemaltecos.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Personal de Salud , COVID-19 , Guatemala , Salud Mental , Personal de Salud , Salud Mental , Personal de Salud
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-08-10. (OPS/FPL/IM/22-0020).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56232

RESUMEN

EN ESTA EDICIÓN: Semana de Vacunación en las Américas 2022: “¿Estás protegido? Ponte todas tus vacunas” | Lo que he aprendido…Ana Elena Chévez, Asesora Técnica Sénior del Fondo Rotatorio para la Compra de Vacunas | Estudio sobre la reticencia a la vacunación contra la COVID-19 en el Caribe | Las vacunas sin jeringas podrían tener numerosos beneficios pero requieren más inversión | Aumento del número de materiales de comunicación publicados por IM, 2018-2021 | Inmunización, curso de vida y salud mental: cooperación técnica en Cuba para hacer frente a la pandemia | Los esfuerzos de colaboración con las autoridades ancestrales como clave para avanzar en la cobertura de la vacunación contra la COVID-19 en Guatemala | Introducción de la vigilancia activa de los ESAVI tras la vacunación contra la COVID-19 en mujeres embarazadas en Guatemala | Clasificación final de casos en la Región de las Américas, 2022.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Cuba , Guatemala , Américas , Región del Caribe
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-10. (PAHO/FPL/IM/22-0020).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56231

RESUMEN

IN THIS EDITION: Vaccination Week in the Americas 2022: “Are You Fully Vaccinated? Get All Your Shots” | What I Have Learned… Ana Elena Chévez, Senior Technical Advisor, Revolving Fund for Access to Vaccines | Studying COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in the Caribbean | Vaccines without Needles Could Have Numerous Benefits but Require Further Investment | Increase in Number of Communications Materials Published by IM, 2018–20211 | Immunization, life course, and mental health: technical cooperation in Cuba to respond to the pandemic | Collaborative Efforts with Ancestral Authorities as a Key to Advancing COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage in Guatemala | Implementing Active ESAVI Surveillance following COVID-19 Vaccination among Pregnant Women in Guatemala | Final Classification of Cases in the Region of the Americas, 2021.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Cuba , Guatemala , Américas , Región del Caribe
8.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-08-10. (OPS/FPL/IM/22-0020).
en Francés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56230

RESUMEN

DANS CE NUMÉRO: Semaine de la vaccination dans les Amériques 2022 : « Es-tu protégé ? Prends tous tes vaccins » | Ce que j’ai appris... Ana Elena Chévez, Conseillère technique principale du Fonds renouvelable pour l’accès aux vaccins | Étude de la réticence à la vaccination anti-COVID-19 dans les Caraïbes | Les vaccins sans aiguilles pourraient avoir de nombreux avantages, mais nécessitent des investissements supplémentaires | Augmentation du nombre de documents de communication publiés par IM, 2018-2021 | Vaccination, cycle de vie et santé mentale : coopération technique à Cuba pour faire face à la pandémie | Efforts de collaboration avec les autorités ancestrales : un facteur clé de progression de la couverture vaccinale anti-COVID-19 au Guatemala | Mise en oeuvre d’une surveillance active des ESAVI après la vaccination anti-COVID-19 de femmes enceintes au Guatemala | Classement final des cas, Région des Amériques, 2021.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Cuba , Guatemala , Américas , Región del Caribe
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-08-10. (OPAS/FPL/IM/22-0020).
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56229

RESUMEN

NESTA EDIÇÃO: Semana de Vacinação nas Américas 2022: “Você está protegido? Tome todas as vacinas | O que aprendi... Ana Elena Chévez, Assessora Técnica Sênior do Fundo Rotativo para Acesso a Vacinas | Estudo sobre a hesitação à vacina contra COVID-19 no Caribe | Vacinas sem agulhas podem ter inúmeros benefícios, mas exigem mais investimentos | Aumento do número de materiais de comunicação publicados pela IM, 2018 a 2021 | Imunização curso de vida e saúde mental: cooperação técnica em Cuba para enfrentar a pandemia | Esforços de colaboração com autoridades ancestrais como chave para o avanço da cobertura da vacinação contra COVID-19 na Guatemala | Implementação de vigilância ativa de ESAVI após a vacinação de gestantes contra COVID-19 na Guatemala | Classificação final dos casos na Região das Américas, 2021.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Cuba , Guatemala , Américas , Región del Caribe
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891324

RESUMEN

Essential agricultural workers work under occupational conditions that may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission. Data from an agricultural worker cohort in Guatemala, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N IgG) testing were used to estimate past infections and analyze risk factors associated with seropositivity at enrollment and association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The stability of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were assessed in a subset of participants. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) for seroprevalence at enrollment was estimated accounting for correlations within worksites. At enrollment, 616 (46.2%) of 1334 (93.2%) participants had anti-N IgG results indicating prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cough ≤ 10 days prior to enrollment (aRR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46) and working as a packer (aRR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.67-2.38) or packing manager within the plants (aRR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.36-2.43) were associated with increased risk of seropositivity. COVID-19 incidence density among seronegative workers was 2.3/100 Person-Years (P-Y), higher than seropositive workers (0.4/100 P-Y). Most workers with follow-up NAb testing (65/77, 84%) exhibited a 95% average decrease in NAb titers in <6 months. While participants seropositive at baseline were less likely to experience a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during follow-up, NAb titers rapidly waned, underscoring the need for multipronged COVID-19 prevention strategies in the workplace, including vaccination.

11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05018, 2022 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862262

RESUMEN

Background: Effective health communication to encourage participation in COVID-19 preventive behaviours is crucial in helping mitigate viral spread. Intentions and beliefs are known determinants of adherence to these behaviours, therefore, health communication interventions based on these constructs may be effective. Visual languageless messages can be particularly useful in multilingual countries, where text-based communications can limit message exposure. This pre- and post-intervention study sought to identify the effect of exposure to languageless animated messages, presented in the Graphic Interchange Format (GIF), communicating COVID-19 preventive behaviours (physical distancing, handwashing, and mask-wearing) on behavioural intentions and beliefs. Methods: Between February and March 2021, a nationally representative sample of 308 Guatemalan adults completed this online survey experiment. Self-reported performance of preventive behaviours, understanding of COVID-19 transmission risk, as well as intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy beliefs about preventive behaviours were assessed at baseline. Participants were then exposed to a random combination of three of four possible GIFs in random presentation order. Following exposure to each GIF, intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy beliefs were reassessed. Results: In terms of main effects, GIF exposure was significantly associated with improved intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy beliefs in relation to physical distancing; intentions and outcome expectancy beliefs in relation to handwashing; and intentions and self-efficacy in relation to mask-wearing. These associations were not dependent on the combination of the three of four possible GIFs presented. Pairwise comparisons revealed that observed improvements in scores were most pronounced from baseline to the first GIF exposure and reduced thereafter. Conclusions: Exposure to languageless GIFs communicating COVID-19 preventive behaviours is associated with improvements in key social-cognitive determinants of those behaviours. Dosage of GIF exposure and durability of effects are issues that warrant further attention so we can better understand the conditions and point at which benefits are maximised. Moreover, the effect on behavioural adherence is yet to be determined. GIFs provide a valuable means to widely disseminate health messages via social media during public health crises, such as COVID-19. When these messages are languageless, the potential reach of dissemination can be maximised.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comunicación en Salud , Adulto , COVID-19/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Intención , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Nature ; 2022 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798864
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682502

RESUMEN

Assessing COVID-19 vaccination uptake of transborder populations is critical for informing public health policies. We conducted a probability (time-venue) survey of adults crossing from Mexico into Guatemala from September to November 2021, with the objective of describing COVID-19 vaccination status, willingness to get vaccinated, and associated factors. The main outcomes were receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, being fully vaccinated, and willingness to get vaccinated. We assessed the association of outcomes with sociodemographic characteristics using logistic regressions. Of 6518 participants, 50.6% (95%CI 48.3,53.0) were vaccinated (at least one dose); 23.3% (95%CI 21.4,25.2) were unvaccinated but willing to get vaccinated, and 26.1% (95%CI 24.1,28.3) were unvaccinated and unwilling to get vaccinated. Those living in Mexico, independent of country of birth, had the highest proportion vaccinated. The main reason for unwillingness was fear of side effects of COVID-19 vaccines (47.7%, 95%CI 43.6,51.9). Education level was positively associated with the odds of partial and full vaccination as well as willingness to get vaccinated. People identified as Catholic had higher odds of getting vaccinated and being fully vaccinated than members of other religious groups or the non-religious. Further studies should explore barriers to vaccination among those willing to get vaccinated and the motives of the unwilling.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Guatemala , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , México , Vacunación
14.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(2): 78-82, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763821

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies allows asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19 to be identified, and post-infection and post-vaccination immunity status to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To know the behavior of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies before and after vaccination in workers of a cancer center. METHODS: Prior to the application of the vaccine, the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (n = 171) was analyzed by evaluating anti-N IgG antibodies; post-vaccination, after receiving the second dose, anti-S IgG antibodies were evaluated (n = 60). RESULTS: Prior to vaccination, IgG antibodies were present in 18.71% of participants; they were detected in 65.22% of those with prior history of COVID-19 diagnosis and in 11.49% of those without it. The positions with the highest prevalence were nurses (28.26%), paramedics (27.59%) and administrative workers (27.78%), p < 0.01. Anosmia, ageusia and chest tightness were associated with the presence of IgG (p < 0.05). Post-vaccination, all participants developed IgG antibodies; people with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis had higher titers: 10,277 vs. 6,819 AU/mL, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies allowed asymptomatic health workers to be identified. A high percentage of participants with prior COVID-19 diagnosis had antibodies. All participants developed IgG antibodies after vaccination, with higher titers being identified in those with previous infection.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 permite identificar individuos asintomáticos con COVID-19 y evaluar la inmunidad posinfección y posvacunación. OBJETIVO: Conocer el comportamiento de los anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 pre y posvacunación en trabajadores de un centro oncológico. MÉTODOS: Antes de aplicar la vacuna se analizaron los anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 (n = 171) con la evaluación de IgG anti-N; después de la segunda dosis se evaluó IgG anti-S (n = 60). RESULTADOS: Prevacunación, los anticuerpos IgG estaban presentes en 18.71 % de los participantes; se detectaron en 65.22 % de aquellos con antecedente de diagnóstico de COVID-19 y en 11.49 % de aquellos sin antecedentes. Los profesiones con mayor prevalencia fueron enfermeros (28.26 %), paramédicos (27.59 %) y administrativos (27.78 %), p < 0.01. La anosmia, ageusia y opresión en el pecho se asociaron a la presencia de IgG (p < 0.05). Posvacunación, todos los participantes desarrollaron IgG; las personas con diagnóstico previo de COVID-19 presentaron mayores títulos: 10 277 versus 6819 UA/mL, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 permitió identificar a trabajadores de salud asintomáticos. Un alto porcentaje de los participantes con diagnóstico previo de COVID-19 presentó anticuerpos. Todos los participantes desarrollaron anticuerpos IgG posvacunación; las personas con infección previa presentaron una cuantificación más alta de títulos.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Virus del SRAS , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Prueba de COVID-19 , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Vacunación
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(2): 81-85, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375532

RESUMEN

Resumen Introducción: El estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 permite identificar individuos asintomáticos con COVID-19 y evaluar la inmunidad posinfección y posvacunación. Objetivo: Conocer el comportamiento de los anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 pre y posvacunación en trabajadores de un centro oncológico. Métodos: Antes de aplicar la vacuna se analizaron los anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 (n = 171) con la evaluación de IgG anti-N; después de la segunda dosis se evaluó IgG anti-S (n = 60). Resultados: Prevacunación, los anticuerpos IgG estaban presentes en 18.71 % de los participantes; se detectaron en 65.22 % de aquellos con antecedente de diagnóstico de COVID-19 y en 11.49 % de aquellos sin antecedentes. Los profesiones con mayor prevalencia fueron enfermeros (28.26 %), paramédicos (27.59 %) y administrativos (27.78 %), p < 0.01. La anosmia, ageusia y opresión en el pecho se asociaron a la presencia de IgG (p < 0.05). Posvacunación, todos los participantes desarrollaron IgG; las personas con diagnóstico previo de COVID-19 presentaron mayores títulos: 10 277 versus 6819 UA/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusiones: El estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 permitió identificar a trabajadores de salud asintomáticos. Un alto porcentaje de los participantes con diagnóstico previo de COVID-19 presentó anticuerpos. Todos los participantes desarrollaron anticuerpos IgG posvacunación; las personas con infección previa presentaron una cuantificación más alta de títulos.


Abstract Introduction: The study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies allows asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19 to be identified, and post-infection and post-vaccination immunity status to be evaluated. Objective: To know the behavior of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies before and after vaccination in workers of a cancer center. Methods: Prior to the application of the vaccine, the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (n = 171) was analyzed by evaluating anti-N IgG antibodies; post-vaccination, after receiving the second dose, anti-S IgG antibodies were evaluated (n = 60). Results: Prior to vaccination, IgG antibodies were present in 18.71% of participants; they were detected in 65.22% of those with prior history of COVID-19 diagnosis and in 11.49% of those without it. The positions with the highest prevalence were nurses (28.26%), paramedics (27.59%) and administrative workers (27.78%), p < 0.01. Anosmia, ageusia and chest tightness were associated with the presence of IgG (p < 0.05). Post-vaccination, all participants developed IgG antibodies; people with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis had higher titers: 10,277 vs. 6,819 AU/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusions: The study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG allowed asymptomatic health workers to be identified. A high percentage of participants with prior COVID-19 diagnosis had antibodies. All participants developed IgG after vaccination, with higher titers being identified in those with previous infection.

16.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 68(6): 1213-1217, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303776

RESUMEN

Burnout is a syndrome consisting of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion along with depersonalization and poor sense of personal accomplishment. Often related to work conditions. Several recent studies from around the world have shown high rates of burnout among medical students in different countries. In Guatemala City, we decided to assess levels of burnout in 2017 and then again in December 2020. In the first wave from one private medical school, we had a total of 159 respondents (response rate of 56.7%) and 132 (48.5%) in the second wave. Not surprisingly rates of burnout were higher during the pandemic even though response rate is lower. Surprisingly we found that rates of depersonalization had not increased, and levels of personal accomplishment had. These findings present a mixed picture of levels of burnout in Guatemala City. Further qualitative research is indicated to explore cultural differences in order to set up appropriate and suitable intervention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , COVID-19 , Estudiantes de Medicina , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Guatemala/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Glob Public Health ; 17(5): 652-661, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282763

RESUMEN

We explored how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health and wellbeing of Indigenous gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Guatemala, a group that experiences intersectional stigma and structural barriers to health. Between February and May 2021, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews via Zoom with key stakeholders (n = 11) working with Indigenous GBM throughout Guatemala. We coded thematically and conducted narrative analysis to identify the most salient themes. Participants described that prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, many Indigenous GBM migrated to urban centres to avoid stigma and violence from families and rural communities. After the onset of COVID-19, many Indigenous GBM lost their jobs and were forced to move back in with families. For Indigenous GBM who returned, participants described a perceived increase in the severity of physical and psychological violence. Participants attributed this increase in severity to retribution from families and communities for having left. Most Indigenous GBM-serving organisations reported a drastic increase in demand for mental health services. Organisations serving Indigenous GBM have an urgent need to scale up their mental health services and find innovative ways to provide these services remotely during the pandemic and beyond. Technology-based mental health interventions that require little 'live' interaction may be appropriate.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Guatemala/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Violencia
18.
medRxiv ; 2022 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169807

RESUMEN

We evaluated the clinical and socioeconomic burdens of respiratory disease in a cohort of Guatemalan banana plantation workers. All eligible workers were offered enrollment from June 15â€"December 30, 2020, and annually, then followed for influenza-like illnesses (ILI) through: 1) self-reporting to study nurses, 2) sentinel surveillance at health posts, and 3) absenteeism. Workers with ILI submitted nasopharyngeal swabs for influenza, RSV, and SARS-CoV-2 testing, then completed surveys at days 0, 7, and 28. Through October 10, 2021, 1,833 workers developed 169 ILIs (12.0/100 person-years) and 43 (25.4%) of these ILIs were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (3.1/100 person-years). Workers with SARS-CoV-2-positive ILI reported more anosmia (p<0.01), dysgeusia (p<0.01), difficulty concentrating (p=0.01), and irritability (p=0.01), and greater clinical and well-being severity scores (Flu-iiQ) than test-negative ILIs; they also had greater absenteeism (p<0.01) and lost income (median US$127.1, p<0.01). These results support the prioritization of Guatemalan farm workers for COVID-19 vaccination.

19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother's locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women's characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. RESULTS: Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (ß = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (ß = - 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, - 0.03) more than in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities' capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico , Promoción de la Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Servicios de Salud Materna , Atención Prenatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Guatemala , Instituciones de Salud , Honduras , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nicaragua , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , Adulto Joven
20.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 77, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900568

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presents a challenge to health care for patients with chronic diseases, especially hypertension, because of the important association and increased risk of these patients with a severe presentation of COVID-19 disease. The Guatemalan Ministry of Health has been implementing a multi-component program aimed at improving hypertension control in rural communities since 2019 as a part of an intervention research cluster randomized trial. When the first cases of COVID-19 were reported (March 13, 2020) in Guatemala, our study paused all study field activities, and began monitoring participants through phone calls. The objective of this paper is to describe the approach used to monitor study participants during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare data obtained during phone calls for intervention and control group participants. Methods: We developed a cross-sectional study within the HyTREC (Hypertension Outcomes for T4 Research within Lower Middle-Income Countries) project 'Multicomponent Intervention to Improve Hypertension Control in Central America: Guatemala' in which phone calls were made to participants from both intervention and control groups to monitor measures important to the study: delivery of antihypertensive medications in both groups, receipt of coaching sessions and use of a home blood pressure monitor by intervention group participants, as well as reasons that they were not implemented. Results: Regarding the delivery of antihypertensive drugs by the MoH to participants, those in the intervention group had a higher level of medication delivery (73%) than the control group (51%), p<0.001. Of the total participants in the intervention group, 62% had received at least one health coaching session in the previous three months and 81% used a digital home blood pressure monitor at least twice a week. Intervention activities were lower than expected due to restricted public transportation on top of decreased availability of health providers. Conclusion: In Guatemala, specifically in rural settings, access to antihypertensive medications and health services during pandemic times was impaired and less than expected, even after accounting for the program's implementation activities and actions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hipertensión , Estudios Transversales , Guatemala/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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