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1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 132: 13-17, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035760

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Studies have documented the significant direct and indirect psychological, social, and economic consequences of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in many countries but little is known on its impact in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) already facing difficult living conditions and having vulnerable health systems that create anxiety among the affected populations. Using a multinational convenience sample from four LMICs (DR Congo, Haiti, Rwanda, and Togo), this study aims to explore the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and associated risk and protective factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 1267 individuals (40.8% of women) completed a questionnaire assessing exposure and stigmatization related to COVID-19, anxiety, and resilience. Analyses were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety. RESULTS: Findings showed a pooled prevalence of 24.3% (9.4%, 29.2%, 28.5%, and 16.5% respectively for Togo, Haiti, RDC, and Rwanda, x2 = 32.6, p < .0001). For the pooled data, exposure to COVID-19 (ß = 0.06, p = .005), stigmatization related to COVID-19 (ß = 0.03, p < .001), and resilience (ß = -0.06, p < .001) contributed to the prediction of anxiety scores. Stigmatization related to COVID-19 was significantly associated to anxiety symptoms in all countries (ß = 0.02, p < .00; ß = 0.05, p = .013; ß = 0.03, p = .021; ß = 0.04, p < .001, respectively for the RDC, Rwanda, Haiti, and Togo). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the need for health education programs in LMICs to decrease stigmatization and the related fears and anxieties, and increase observance of health instructions. Strength-based mental health programs based on cultural and contextual factors need to be developed to reinforce both individual and community resilience and to address the complexities of local eco-systems.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Resiliencia Psicológica , Estigma Social , Adulto , Ansiedad/etiología , Congo/epidemiología , Femenino , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Rwanda/epidemiología , Togo/epidemiología
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1853, 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272250

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In late January, a worldwide crisis known as COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO. Within only a few weeks, the outbreak took on pandemic proportions, affecting over 100 countries. It was a significant issue to prevent and control COVID-19 on both national and global scales due to the dramatic increase in confirmed cases worldwide. Government guidelines provide a fundamental resource for communities, as they guide citizens on how to protect themselves against COVID-19, however, they also provide critical guidance for policy makers and healthcare professionals on how to take action to decrease the spread of COVID-19. We aimed to identify the differences and similarities between six different countries' (US, China, South Korea, UK, Brazil and Haiti) government-provided community and healthcare system guidelines, and to explore the relationship between guideline issue dates and the prevalence/incidence of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: To make these comparisons, this exploratory qualitative study used document analysis of government guidelines issued to the general public and to healthcare professionals. Documents were purposively sampled (N = 55) and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: The major differences in the evaluation and testing criteria in the guidelines across the six countries centered around the priority of testing for COVID-19 in the general population, which was strongly dependent on each country's healthcare capacity. However, the most similar guidelines pertained to the clinical signs and symptoms of COVID-19, and methods to prevent its contraction. CONCLUSION: In the initial stages of the outbreak, certain strategies were universally employed to control the deadly virus's spread, including quarantining the sick, contact tracing, and social distancing. However, each country dealt with differing healthcare capacities, risks, threats, political and socioeconomic challenges, and distinct healthcare systems and infrastructure. Acknowledging these differences highlights the importance of examining the various countries' response to the COVID-19 pandemic with a nuanced view, as each of these factors shaped the government guidelines distributed to each country's communities and healthcare systems.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Gobierno , Guías como Asunto , Brasil/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , República de Corea/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1986-1988, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978934

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a unique threat to patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe a case of a patient with pulmonary MDR-TB and COVID-19 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and highlight the challenges and approach to managing a patient with both diseases.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Adulto , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
6.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(6): 569-571, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816516

RESUMEN

In the 1st trimester of 2020, there were mixed feelings among Haitians about the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. In effect, many of the concerns emanating from the relatively weak health infrastructure in Haiti were analyzed from a resilience perspective. Many professionals living in Haiti with whom we have conversed believe that Haitians were better prepared to cope with the social distancing and mental health outcomes associated with the pandemic because of their 3-month exposure to the effects of Peyi Lòk ("country in lockdown") as well as previous major natural disasters. In that regard, previous traumatic exposures may serve as a buffer against the debilitating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among Haitians. For the past 3 months, Haitians have naturally adopted a practical posture to cope with the pandemic where only school buildings are closed. Consequently, we remain convinced that from a psychological perspective, individuals from high-income countries that are severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic could learn from the Haitian way of coping with large-scale disasters. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Haití , Humanos , Pandemias
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 69, 2020 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676298

RESUMEN

Several characteristics of refugee and migrant populations make them susceptible to acquire COVID-19. To fully understand the impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants in the Americas, it is important to consider the broader geopolitical context and appreciate the differences among migratory groups. There are three migrant groups in the Americas that are particularly susceptible to COVID-19: Central American migrants at the northern Mexico border, Venezuelans within South America, and Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Refugees and displaced migrants are the world's collective responsibility, and thus, it would be imprudent to displace their care to resource constrained developing nations.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Refugiados , Migrantes , Betacoronavirus , América Central/etnología , Países en Desarrollo , República Dominicana/epidemiología , Haití/etnología , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Pandemias , América del Sur/epidemiología , Venezuela/etnología , Poblaciones Vulnerables
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 605-608, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597389

RESUMEN

As COVID-19 cases continue to increase globally, fragile health systems already facing challenges with health system infrastructure, SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic capacity, and patient isolation capabilities may be left with few options to effectively care for acutely ill patients. Haiti-with only two laboratories that can perform reverse transcriptase PCR for SARS-CoV-2, a paucity of hospital beds, and an exponential increase in cases-provides an example that underpins the need for immediate infrastructure solutions for the crisis. We present two COVID-19 treatment center designs that leverage lessons learned from previous outbreaks of communicable infectious diseases and provide potential solutions when caseload exceeds existing capacity, with and without access to SARS-CoV-2 testing. These designs are intended for settings in which health facilities and testing resources for COVID-19 are surpassed during the pandemic, are adaptable to local conditions and constraints, and mitigate the likelihood of nosocomial transmission while offering an option to care for hospitalized patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Arquitectura y Construcción de Instituciones de Salud , Instituciones de Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Capacidad de Reacción , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Haití/epidemiología , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
11.
J Community Health ; 45(3): 437-439, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72168

RESUMEN

Recently, the cholera outbreak in Haiti demonstrated just how unprepared the country is to rapidly isolate an outbreak of this magnitude, and its vulnerability to the COVID-19 pandemic. This communication briefly examines the health system in Haiti and its vulnerability toward the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Planificación en Desastres , Brotes de Enfermedades , Recursos en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Haití/epidemiología , Recursos en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables
13.
J Community Health ; 45(3): 437-439, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303920

RESUMEN

Recently, the cholera outbreak in Haiti demonstrated just how unprepared the country is to rapidly isolate an outbreak of this magnitude, and its vulnerability to the COVID-19 pandemic. This communication briefly examines the health system in Haiti and its vulnerability toward the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Planificación en Desastres , Brotes de Enfermedades , Recursos en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Haití/epidemiología , Recursos en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables
15.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(spe): :e20200242, ago. 2020. mapas
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1129217

RESUMEN

Objetivo: compreender a vivência do enfrentamento e repercussões da COVID-19 na perspectiva das famílias de imigrantes haitianos no Brasil. Método: estudo qualitativo, do tipo ação-participante, fundamentado no Itinerário de Pesquisa de Paulo Freire, que possui três fases: Investigação Temática; Codificação e Descodificação; Desvelamento Crítico. Foi realizado Círculo de Cultura Virtual em maio de 2020, com 10 famílias de imigrantes haitianos, residentes no oeste de Santa Catarina. Resultados: os participantes discutiram preocupações geradas no enfrentamento da pandemia: trabalho e subsistência da família no Brasil e no Haiti; incerteza do futuro; risco de contaminação e de morrer no Brasil; cancelamento das aulas dos filhos; desânimo e solidão. Desvelaram oportunidades na vivência da pandemia: ajuda recebida; força pessoal e familiar; repensar a vida; confiança em Deus e esperança. Conclusões e implicações para a prática: os imigrantes haitianos se encontram em situação de vulnerabilidade social, econômica e de saúde mental no enfrentamento da COVID-19. A identificação dessa vulnerabilidade, considerando fatores sociais, econômicos e culturais é fundamental à proposição de políticas públicas e adoção de estratégias efetivas de enfrentamento da situação. O Círculo de Cultura Virtual amplia possibilidades para a enfermagem, pois possibilita as interações necessárias à promoção da saúde, mesmo diante da pandemia


Objective: to understand the experience of coping and repercussions of COVID-19 from the perspective of Haitian immigrant families in Brazil. Method: qualitative, action-participant study, based on Paulo Freire's Research Itinerary, which has three phases: Thematic Research; Encoding and Decoding; Critical Unveiling. A Virtual Culture Circle was held in May 2020, with 10 families of Haitian immigrants residing in western Santa Catarina. Results: the participants discussed concerns generated in facing the pandemic: work and family subsistence in Brazil and Haiti; uncertainty of the future; risk of contamination and dying in Brazil; cancellation of children's classes; discouragement and loneliness. They revealed opportunities in experiencing the pandemic: help received; personal and family strength; rethinking life; trust in God and hope. Conclusions and implications for practice: Haitian immigrants are in a situation of social, economic and mental health vulnerability when facing COVID-19. The identification of this vulnerability considering social, economic and cultural factors is fundamental to the proposition of public policies and the adoption of effective strategies to face the situation. The Virtual Culture Circle expands possibilities for nursing, as it enables the interactions necessary for health promotion, even in the face of the pandemic


Objetivo: comprender la experiencia de afrontamiento y las repercusiones de COVID-19 desde la perspectiva de las familias de inmigrantes haitianos en Brasil. Método: estudio cualitativo, de tipo acción-participante, basado en el Itinerario de Investigación de Paulo Freire, que tiene tres fases: Investigación temática; Codificación y decodificación; Revelación crítica. En mayo de 2020 se realizó un Círculo de Cultura Virtual, con 10 familias de inmigrantes haitianos que residen en el oeste de Santa Catarina. Resultados: los participantes discutieron las preocupaciones generadas al enfrentar la pandemia: el trabajo y la subsistencia familiar en Brasil y Haití; la incertidumbre del futuro; el riesgo de contaminación y muerte en Brasil; la cancelación de las clases infantiles; el desánimo y la soledad. Revelaron oportunidades en la experiencia de la pandemia: la ayuda recibida; fortaleza personal y familiar; el repensar la vida; la confianza en Dios y la esperanza. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica: los inmigrantes haitianos se encuentran en una situación de vulnerabilidad social, económica y de salud mental en la confrontación de COVID-19. La identificación de esta vulnerabilidad, considerando los factores sociales, económicos y culturales es fundamental para la propuesta de políticas públicas y la adopción de estrategias efectivas para enfrentar la situación. El Círculo de Cultura Virtual amplía las posibilidades de la enfermería, ya que permite las interacciones necesarias para la promoción de la salud, incluso ante la pandemia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Emigración e Inmigración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil , Salud Mental/etnología , Vulnerabilidad Social , Haití/etnología
16.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 22: 1-8, 2020. ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141564

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Compreender as repercussões da COVID-19 no contexto dos determinantes sociais da saúde de mulheres imigrantes haitianas. Método: Estudo qualitativo, tipo ação-participante, fundamentado nos pressupostos de Freire, realizando-se um Círculo de Cultura Virtual, com a participação de 11 mulheres imigrantes haitianas. Foram percorridas as etapas do Itinerário de Pesquisa: Investigação Temática; Codificação e Descodificação; Desvelamento Crítico. Resultados: Nos diálogos emergiram o medo em relação à pandemia, escassos recursos econômicos, preconceito e racismo como aspectos dos determinantes sociais de saúde, que implicam na sua saúde mental das imigrantes, mas que referiram sentir-se acolhidas no Brasil. Conclusão: A partir dos determinantes sociais da saúde, apresentados pelas mulheres imigrantes haitianas no enfrentamento da pandemia mostra- se relevante a articulação entre ações de promoção da saúde, com ênfase na competência cultural, de forma a estimular o empoderamento das pessoas.


Objectives: To understand the repercussions of COVID-19 in the context of the social determinants of health of Haitian immigrant women. Method: Qualitative, participatory action study, based on Freire's assumptions, with a Virtual Culture Circle andbthe participation of eleven Haitian immigrant women. The stages of the Research Itinerary were covered: Thematic Research; Encoding and Decoding; Critical Unveiling. Results: In the dialogues, fear of the pandemic, scarce economic resources, prejudice, and racism emerged as aspects of the social determinants of health, which affect the mental health of immigrants but who mentioned feeling welcomed in Brazil. Conclusion: Based on the social determinants of health, presented by Haitian immigrant women in facing the pandemic, the collaboration between health promotion actions is relevant, with an emphasis on cultural capability, in order to stimulate the empowerment of individuals.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Emigración e Inmigración , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Enfermería en Salud Pública , Salud de la Mujer/etnología
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(1): 144-147, 2017 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799635

RESUMEN

Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 is recognized as a common cause of upper respiratory infections and influenza-like illness. In screening children with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in a school cohort in rural Haiti, we identified HCoV-NL63 in blood samples from four children. Cases clustered over an 11-day period; children did not have respiratory symptoms, but two had gastrointestinal complaints. On phylogenetic analysis, the Haitian HCoV-NL63 strains cluster together in a highly supported monophyletic clade linked most closely with recently reported strains from Malaysia; two respiratory HCoV-NL63 strains identified in north Florida in the same general period form a separate clade, albeit again with close linkages with the Malaysian strains. Our data highlight the variety of presentations that may be seen with HCoV-NL63, and underscore the apparent ease with which CoV strains move among countries, with our data consistent with recurrent introduction of strains into the Caribbean (Haiti and Florida) from Asia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Línea Celular , Niño , Coronavirus/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Filogenia , Población Rural
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