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1.
Tegucigalpa; OPS; 2021-09-16. (OPS/HND/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54846

RESUMEN

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Sistemas de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud Mental , Administración Financiera , Administración en Salud Pública , América Central , Honduras
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Motor de Búsqueda , Argentina , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecuador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , México , Pandemias , Perú , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113933, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873009

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. METHODS: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. The total sample size consisted of 1559 respondents from Honduras (34%), Chile (29%), Costa Rica (17%), Mexico (11%), and Spain (9%). RESULTS: The most common stress domains correspond to family (22.97%), financial (22.53%), academic (16.47%), leisure time constraints (14.23%), health (12.48%), peer group (7.63%), and religious concerns (3.69%). These domains are significantly associated with the respondent's country, sex, employment status, and being or not a health worker. Respondents who reported confinement stress also reported higher scores in anxiety, depression, and somatization. The Global Severity Index was significantly predicted by confinement stress, health, academic, and leisure time-related stress, sex, age, being a health worker, COVID-19 Personal Concern, and Perceived Seriousness. Non-significant predictors were employment status, the number of people at home, presence of older adults and children at home, financial, peer group, family, and religious concerns; the regression model had an R2 of 0.26. Similar analyses were conducted for somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on the mental health of the general population, particularly regarding anxiety, depression, and somatization. Specific populations, such as women and healthcare workers, are at particular risk of suffering a deterioration in mental wellbeing. The implications of the study for public policy are discussed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Chile , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , España , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e358-e359, 2021 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693878

RESUMEN

A recent correspondence discussed that in trying times, technology can help be applied toward epidemiology to benefit communities by building a basic surveillance system. This suggested development in Honduras can be utilized in the Philippines to improve the State's handling of health emergencies. With this, this paper accentuates the importance of prevention and planning to ensure public health in the Philippines, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Dengue , Honduras , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Filipinas/epidemiología , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 97-107, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533501

RESUMEN

We conducted a study to document the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on cancer screening continuum in selected low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). LMICs having an operational cancer control plan committed to screen eligible individuals were selected. Managers/supervisors of cancer screening programs were invited to participate in an online survey and subsequent in-depth interview. Managers/supervisors from 18 programs in 17 countries participated. Lockdown was imposed in all countries except Brazil. Screening was suspended for at least 30 days in 13 countries, while diagnostic-services for screen-positives were suspended in 9 countries. All countries except Cameroon, Bangladesh, India, Honduras and China managed to continue with cancer treatment throughout the outbreak. The participants rated service availability compared to pre-COVID days on a scale of 0 (no activities) to 100 (same as before). A rating of ≤50 was given for screening services by 61.1%, diagnostic services by 44.4% and treatment services by 22.2% participants. At least 70% participants strongly agreed that increased noncompliance of screen-positive individuals and staff being overloaded or overwhelmed with backlogs would deeply impact screening programs in the next 6 months at least. Although many of the LMICs were deficient in following the "best practices" to minimize service disruptions, at least some of them made significant efforts to improve screening participation, treatment compliance and program organization. A well-coordinated effort is needed to reinitiate screening services in the LMICs, starting with a situational analysis. Innovative strategies adopted by the programs to keep services on-track should be mutually shared.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Bangladesh , Brasil , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Camerún , China , Estudios Transversales , Países en Desarrollo , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Honduras , Humanos , India , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología
9.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e297-e298, 2021 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512491

RESUMEN

A recently published article of this journal stated that informatics solutions can guide better public health decision-making during the COVID 19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic. Honduras is a country facing the COVID-19 pandemic with a weak health surveillance system while also fighting a dengue epidemic and the aftermath of two hurricanes that struck its territory in November 2020. In response, we as academics started a COVID-19 and Dengue Observatory combining several technological platforms and developing multidisciplinary research to help the country navigate the crisis. Mapping the pandemic and the natural disasters showed us that technology can be applied toward epidemiology to benefit communities in a time of need by quickly building a basic digital health surveillance system for Honduras.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Dengue , Dengue/epidemiología , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245025, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411780

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted presentations with rising evidence of immune-mediated mechanisms underplay. We sought to explore the outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients treated with a multi-mechanism approach (MMA) in addition to standard-of-care (SC) versus patients who only received SC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This observational cohort study was performed at five institutions, 3 in the United States and 2 in Honduras. Patients were stratified for MMA vs. SC treatment during ICU stay. MMA treatment consists of widely available medications started immediately upon hospitalization. These interventions target immunomodulation, anticoagulation, viral suppression, and oxygenation. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) for the index hospitalization and were measured using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 86 patients admitted, 65 (76%) who had severe COVID-19 were included in the study; 30 (46%) patients were in SC group, compared with 35 (54%) patients treated with MMA group. Twelve (40%) patients in the SC group died, compared with 5 (14%) in the MMA group (p-value = 0.01, Chi squared test). After adjustment for gender, age, treatment group, Q-SOFA score, the MMA group had a mean length of stay 8.15 days, when compared with SC group with 13.55 days. ICU length of stay was reduced by a mean of 5.4 days (adjusted for a mean age of 54 years, p-value 0.03) and up to 9 days (unadjusted for mean age), with no significant reduction in overall adjusted mortality rate, where the strongest predictor of mortality was the use of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The finding that MMA decreases the average ICU length of stay by 5.4 days and up to 9 days in older patients suggests that implementation of this treatment protocol could allow a healthcare system to manage 60% more COVID-19 patients with the same number of ICU beds.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/terapia , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Tiempo de Internación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Respiración Artificial , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e476-e483, 2021 05 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Few reports exist in Latin America, a current epicenter of transmission. Here, we aim to describe the epidemiology and outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Honduras. METHODS: Baseline clinical and epidemiological information of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases detected between 17 March-4 May in the San Pedro Sula Metropolitan area was collected; for hospitalized cases, clinical data were abstracted. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the factors associated with hospitalization. RESULTS: We identified 877 COVID-19 cases, of which 25% (n = 220) were hospitalized. The 19-44-year age group (57.8%) and males (61.3%) were predominant in overall COVID-19 cases. Of the cases, 34% (n = 299) had at least 1 preexisting medical condition. Individuals aged 45-69 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.85-5.76) or ≥70 years (aOR = 9.12; 95% CI, 5.24-15.86), of male sex (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.44), and those with a preexisting condition (aOR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.43-3.14) had higher odds of hospitalization. Of inpatients, 50% were hospitalized more than 7 days. The median length of hospitalization was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8-29) among individuals aged 19-44 years, and 17 days (IQR, 11-24.6) among those aged 45-69. Of the fatal cases, 42% occurred among adults under 60 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a high proportion of COVID-19 cases in Honduras occurred among younger adults, who also constituted a significant proportion of severe and fatal cases. Preexisting conditions were associated with severe outcomes independently from age and were highly prevalent in Honduran COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Anciano , Honduras/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
16.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 63-67, 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283030

RESUMEN

Honduras se encuentra en el puesto 56 a nivel mundial con 4,151 muertes reportadas y 170,304 casos confirmados de COVID-19 hasta el 1 de marzo del 2021. Esta revisión bibliográfica se llevó a cabo con el propósito de brindar una perspectiva científica sobre el uso del protocolo MAIZ (Microdacyn, Azitromicina, Ivermectina y Zinc) propuesto para uso terapéutico y profiláctico durante la fase de infección precoz/respuesta viral y contactos asintomáticos de COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre los lineamientos de instituciones gubernamentales y organismos internacionales, artículos y estudios científicos en PubMed, The Lancet, SciELO. La búsqueda se limitó a los artículos en español e inglés publicados entre el año 2010 y el 1 de marzo del 2021 concluyendo que el protocolo MAIZ carece de evidencia científica que respalde su efectividad contra el COVID-19 y es necesario realizar ensayos clínicos para respaldar su uso de manera responsable...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Protocolos Clínicos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Bases de Datos Bibliográficas , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave
17.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(2): 70-76, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, map
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152089

RESUMEN

Antecedentes. Cobertura Universal en Salud es uno de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Las personas con dis-capacidad suelen tener mayores dificultades de acceso a la salud que el resto de la población. Factores del entorno como el diseño y las construcciones pueden ser una barrera o un facilitador. Ob-jetivo. Evaluar lascaracterísticas de accesibilidad en el diseño y las ayudas técnicas para la movilidad en los establecimientos de salud en zonas de realización del servicio médico social, Carre-ra de Medicina UNAH, cohorte 2013-2014. Métodos. En base a principios de diseño universal se evaluaron barreras y facilitado-res para el acceso a la salud en establecimientos de salud, inclu-yendo centros de atención primaria y hospitales. Resultados. Se evaluaron 176 establecimientos en 17 departamentos, 154 uni-dades de atención primaria (UAP) y 22 hospitales. Las mayores barreras fueron la señalización inadecuada de rutas: 150 (97.4%) UAP y 20 (90.9%) hospitales; la carencia de soportes en los ba-ños: 152 (98.7%) UAP y 20 (90.9%) hospitales; la inaccesibilidad a personas en sillas de ruedas: 129 (83.8%) UAP y 9 (40.9%) hospitales. Discusión. Mejorar el acceso y la calidad de los ser-vicios de salud para las personas con discapacidad es impres-cindible para reducir las inequidades. Nuestro estudio indica que el diseño de los establecimientos de salud en Honduras supone una barrera para el acceso y calidad de salud de las personas con discapacidad. Se exhorta al Estado a regular y supervisar el diseño y construcción de edificios accesibles para todos, a fin de reducir las brechas en salud...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Accesibilidad Arquitectónica , Servicios de Salud para Personas con Discapacidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Cobertura Universal de Salud
18.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 11(1): 1096-1102, abr.- sept. 2020. tab, map, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140359

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: El 31 de diciembre de 2019, Chi-na comunicó un reporte de casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida. El 11 de febrero de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) de-nominó a la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019: COVID-19.(1) En América Latina el primer caso se confirmó el 25 de febrero de 2020 en Brasil.(2) En Honduras se confirmaron los dos primeros casos de COVID-19 el 10 de marzo,(3) y el primer caso en edad pediátrica en San Pedro Sula (S.P.S.) se confirmó el 25 de marzo de 2020.(4)Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 en la edad pediátrica en S.P.S., Honduras. Pacientes y mé-todos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, y trans-versal. Se utilizó un muestreo no probabilístico de 415 pacientes en edad pediátrica (IC 95%) a quienes se les realizó una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (PCR-tr). Las variables estudiadas fueron: sociodemográ-ficas, curso de la enfermedad, manifestaciones clínicas, factores de riesgo, manejo del pacien-te, condición actual del paciente y distribución según el establecimiento de salud notificante. La información recolectada fue ingresada en una base de datos y analizada en Microsoft Ex-cel. Resultados: 170 (40.96%) pacientes en edad pediátrica resultaron positivos. El grupo etáreo más afectado fueron los adolescentes (54.71%). El curso de la enfermedad fue sintomático en 124 pacientes. El síntoma que más frecuentemente se reportó fue fiebre (37.10%). A la fecha de finalización del estudio, 152 con-tinuaban activos con COVID-19. Conclusiones: Este estudio resume las principales característi-cas clínicas y epidemiológicas de la COVID-19 en niños y adolescentes de S.P.S...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Respiratoria
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-05. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/20-0013).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52544

RESUMEN

Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have recommended that uninterrupted vaccination be maintained as an essential health service. To this end, PAHO's Comprehensive Family Immunization Unit of the Family, Health Promotion, and Life Course Department has worked assiduously with the countries of the Region to maintain sound national immunization programs on several fronts, such as the preparation of documents and guidelines for continuing vaccination in the context of COVID-19; monitoring the disease’s impact on vaccination coverage; assessing the effects of the postponement of measles vaccination campaigns (Plurinational State of Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Paraguay) due to the pandemic; and strengthening vaccination against seasonal influenza. The data presented in this publication were collected through a survey, sent every two weeks to IM focal points and advisors in the at PAHO country offices in the Region. The SurveyMonkey virtual platform was used and the data were analyzed with MS Excel tools. All the variables included in the survey were described using the appropriate univariate statistics. Categorical variables were described using proportions and percentages. Ordinal variables were described using the mean and median. Work has also been carried out to monitor the functioning of immunization services and the main problems they face because of the pandemic. To date, five-country surveys have been conducted; the first was sent out on 16 April, the last on 6 July. This document summarizes the surveys' main findings and developments. The responses in this report represent the opinions of survey participants, and do not represent reports officially sent or solicited by PAHO; the data should, therefore, be interpreted with caution.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Inmunización , Cobertura de Vacunación , Prioridades en Salud , Servicios de Salud , Bolivia , Colombia , República Dominicana , Honduras , Paraguay
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