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1.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 26: 100589, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37727866

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted significant global challenges that are expressed in a variety of socio-politico-economic scenarios, depending upon individual countries' preparedness and resilience. The impact COVID-19 in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), most of which are categorized as Lower and Middle-Income Countries, has been pronounced. Furthermore, many of these SIDS possess specific vulnerabilities to global threats. This paper contextualizes the experience of Trinidad and Tobago from some perspectives of geoeconomics, healthcare, and international relations. In many ways, the experience is similar to that of other SIDS with the inherent nuances of a post-colonial world. Trinidad and Tobago was ranked number one by the Oxford University COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) "Lockdown rollback checklist: Do countries meet WHO recommendations for rolling back lockdown?". Despite the significant political support to combat the disease, by the end of 2022, the country had recorded over four thousand deaths and just over 50% of the population is vaccinated. This paper seeks to discuss the successes and challenges faced by this twin island state.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37623129

RESUMEN

Persons with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were identified as particularly at risk of severe morbidity and mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is written about the impact of COVID-19 on this sub-population in the Caribbean, where the prevalence of NCDs is disproportionately high. This study aimed to ascertain COVID-related concerns, and the mental health impact of the pandemic among persons with and without NCDs in Trinidad and Tobago, during the acute period of COVID-19 lockdowns early in the pandemic. An anonymous online survey collected cross-sectional data from a convenience sample nationwide. Of 1287 respondents, 219 self-identified as having an NCD. Findings suggest that the pandemic was experienced unequally by persons with NCDs, who were more likely to be concerned about health and wellbeing and to report health inequalities-unemployment, social isolation and negative effects of government restrictions. Compared to those without NCDs, they were more likely to increase use of marijuana during the lockdown period, and to report severe anxiety/depression that can result in exacerbation of NCDs. Interventions for persons with NCDs must address the mental health consequences of any pandemic, including increased drug use, and also address social inequalities to reduce sustained post-pandemic mental health impact and negative health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Salud Mental , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
3.
Cureus ; 15(8): e43171, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560056

RESUMEN

Background After three years of COVID-19, the WHO declared that the pandemic was no longer a global health emergency. Vaccination remains part of the management strategy, given the current phase of the pandemic. This study explored the reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Trinidad and Tobago (TT). Methodology A qualitative study of persons 18 years and over from the eastern, northwest, northcentral, and southwestern geographical areas of TT, who are unvaccinated and hesitant, was done by convenience sampling. Formal in-depth virtual interviews were done on a one-to-one basis using a semi-structured questionnaire. The interviews were recorded and transcribed using the principles of reflexive thematic analysis of participants' responses.  Results From 25 participants' responses, the main themes for being vaccine-hesitant were fear, inefficacy, information inadequacy, perceived susceptibility, mistrust, herbal alternatives, and religious hesitations. Additionally, their motivations for receiving the vaccine in the future were surrounded by themes of necessity, perceived susceptibility, health benchmark, and assurance. Conclusion and recommendations This qualitative investigation identified traditional factors contributing to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and unique determinants such as herbal use and religious beliefs within the TT context. These insights could inform future research and facilitate the development of tailored strategies to address persistent vaccine hesitancy for COVID-19.

4.
Cureus ; 15(3): e35961, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37051005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Persons living with HIV may be at risk of more severe forms of COVID-19 infection and minimizing health risks largely depends on their acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccinations. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the correlates and predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among persons living with HIV in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview was conducted. Data were compiled on patient socio-demographics, diagnosed chronic diseases, psychological factors, and decisions to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Pearson χ2 tests examined the associations between study variables and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined its predictors. RESULTS: In this study, 84% were virally suppressed, i.e., HIV viral load <1000 copies/ml. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was found to be 39%. Univariate analysis showed that higher vaccine hesitancy was significantly associated with females (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.23-3.33) and patients of mixed ethnicity (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.07-3.15). In our multivariable analysis, psychological factors namely, confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.47), the perceived benefits of the vaccine (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.79), and cues to action (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.97) were observed as predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors such as confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and cues to action were possible predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study underscored the continued need for strategies to increase confidence and knowledge about the benefits of taking the COVID-19 vaccine among persons living with HIV.

5.
Port of Spain; PAHO; 2023-04-11. (PAHO/TTO/FPL/COVID-19/23-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-57379

RESUMEN

Vaccination is one of the most important and effective tools in protecting populations from infectious diseases of public health concern. This includes using vaccines to prevent the spread of COVID-19, but some Health Care Workers (HCWs) are hesitant toward the effectiveness and safety of these vaccines and may delay or even refuse to get vaccinated when offered. In this survey, the intention of the HCWs in Trinidad and Tobago to get the COVID-19 vaccine was demonstrated by 74% of the respondents wanted to get the vaccine as soon as possible, whereas 26% expressed vaccine hesitancy. Nurses were hesitant at more than four times the rate of physicians. The youngest age group (22–31 years) was twice as hesitant as the oldest (51–81 years), and females were more than 1.5 times as hesitant than their male colleagues. When comparing the findings from Trinidad and Tobago to those from the entire Caribbean survey, there are similar findings in the data for the entire Caribbean, including Trinidad and Tobago, whereby it was observed that nurses were twice as hesitant as compared to physicians, and the younger HCWs were more hesitant than the older ones, although the difference between sexes is not as big for the Caribbean. Efforts need to be made to increase risk perception of COVID-19 disease versus all approved vaccines, so that HCWs feel more confident not only getting vaccinated themselves but also in recommending that their patients, family, and friends get vaccinated as well. Messaging also needs to emphasize the importance of taking the first vaccine that is available and not delaying vaccination in the hope of receiving a vaccine of personal preference. Trusted technical spokespersons should be used to empathetically communicate critical messages about vaccine safety and efficacy and the importance of getting vaccinated with the first vaccine that is offered.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunación , Vacunas , Inmunización , Personal de Salud , Trinidad y Tobago
6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(3)2023 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36978335

RESUMEN

An antimicrobial consumption (AMC) study was performed in Trinidad and Tobago at the Eastern Regional Health Authority (ERHA). A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted from 1 November 2021 to 30 March 2022. Dosage and package types of amoxicillin, azithromycin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole were investigated. Consumption was measured using the World Health Organization's Antimicrobial Resistance and Consumption Surveillance System methodology version 1.0, as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 population per day (DID). They were also analyzed using the 'Access', 'Watch' and 'Reserve' classifications. In the ERHA, AMC ranged from 6.9 DID to 4.6 DID. With regards to intravenous formulations, the 'Watch' group displayed increased consumption, from 0.160 DID in 2017 to 0.238 DID in 2019, followed by a subsequent drop in consumption with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Oral co-amoxiclav, oral cefuroxime, oral azithromycin and oral co-trimoxazole were the most highly consumed antibiotics. The hospital started off as the higher consumer of antibiotics, but this changed to the community. The consumption of 'Watch' group antibiotics increased from 2017 to 2021, with a drop in consumption of 'Access' antibiotics and at the onset of COVID-19. Consumption of oral azithromycin was higher in 2021 than 2020.

7.
Dent J (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36975583

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study's aim was to assess Trinidad and Tobago dentists' vaccine acceptance, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: All dentists registered with the Trinidad and Tobago Dental Association were invited to complete an online anonymous questionnaire between June and October 2021. RESULTS: A total of 46.2% of dentists responded. The majority of respondents had excellent knowledge of COVID-19 (94.8%), use of personal protective equipment (98.7%) and N95 masks (93.5%), but had poor knowledge about the reuse of N95 masks (27.5%). A total of 34.9% were comfortable providing emergency care to positive or suspected cases of COVID-19, and 64.5% were afraid of becoming infected from a patient. PPE usage was reported at 97.4% and 67.3% for N95 masks. All surfaces of waiting areas were disinfected every 2 h by 59.2%. A total of 90.8% agreed to be vaccinated straight away if a vaccine were made available. CONCLUSION: Dentists in Trinidad and Tobago have good levels of knowledge, attitude, practices regarding COVID-19. Dentists also have high levels of vaccine acceptance and can play a role in advocating for the COVID-19 vaccine.

8.
Clin Optom (Auckl) ; 15: 37-43, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36896339

RESUMEN

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic lockdown obligated higher education students to attend online courses, leading to prolonged exposure to digital displays. Excessive time on digital devices could be a risk factor for ocular problems, including symptomatic dry eye. There are limited evidences to show the magnitude of symptomatic dry eye disease and its associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to fill this gap, among university students in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students attending the University of West Indies, Saint Augustine Campus from October 2020 to April 2021. The standardized ocular surface disease index questionnaire, descriptive statics and binary logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dry eye diseases. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: Four hundred (96.3%) participants completed the questionnaire. Among all, 64.8% were female and 50.5% were east Indians. About 48% were using visual display units for average of 10-15 hours/day. The prevalence of symptomatic dry eye disease was 84.3% (95% CI = 80.8-87.5%) with OSDI score ≥13. Lack of education about dry eye 2.69 (95% CI: 1.41-5.13), use of the reading mode of computer 3.92 (95% CI: 1.57-9.80), refractive error 3.20 (95% CI: 1.66-6.20), previous systemic medications 2.80 (95% CI: 1.15-6.81), and average hours of visual display unit use/day (p<0.001) were significantly associated with symptomatic dry eye disease. Conclusion: Symptomatic dry eye disease was a prominent problem among students at the University of West Indies. Average of >4 hours of visual display unit use/day, refractive error, positive history of systemic medication, lack of education about dry eye, and using computers in reading mode were associated factors.

9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1094001, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36815150

RESUMEN

Aim: To determine the effects of knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of primary care health workers toward receiving the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine in North Central, Trinidad. Methods: A pretested de novo questionnaire containing forty-eight (48) closed ended questions and one (1) open ended question was used to gather data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data obtained from the questionnaire. These included percentages, means and standard deviations for the descriptive aspect and the Chi-Square test to examine any significant associations. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to assess any significant differences in means among several categories and the independent samples t-test for assessing any significant difference in means between two categories. Results: 273 respondents completed the questionnaire. Most of the participants (72.2%) were female and within the age range 25-36 (56.0%). The mean knowledge score about the AstraZeneca vaccine was 16.28 (SD = 2.28) out of 19 with an overall correct response rate of 79%. 30.4% of participants had a good attitude score and 59.7% had a positive perception toward the AstraZeneca vaccine. There were significant associations between knowledge and marital status (p = 0.001), income level (p = 0.001), education level (p < 0.001), and length of employment (p = 0.041); attitudes and sex (p = 0.01), age (p = 0.04), marital status (p = 0.009), income level (p < 0.001), education level (p = 0.005) and category of staff (p < 0.001); perception and sex (p = 0.002), marital status (p = 0.027), income level (p < 0.001), and category of staff (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The main contributors to vaccine hesitancy were inadequate duration of clinical trials and fear of adverse side effects. A significant number of participants (17%) were unwilling to get the vaccine due to lack of information.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Trinidad y Tobago , Atención Primaria de Salud
10.
Heliyon ; 9(2): e13686, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36852073

RESUMEN

Background: The limited accessibility of in-person optometry services during the coronavirus disease 2019 highlighted the need for teleoptometry but no data exists to substantiate the foregoing in Trinidad & Tobago (T&T). The study assessed the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) of optometrists toward teleoptometry in T&T. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a convenient sampling technique to administer a structured, web-based survey to all registered optometrists in T&T between March and June 2021. Information on demographics and KAP of teleoptometry were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean, percentages, and standard deviations) were used to describe the characteristics of respondents. The mean scores for the main outcomes (KAP) were compared between the categorical groups of the demographic variables, using a one-way analysis of variance. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 116 registered optometrists in T&T, 63 responded to the survey (response rate, 54.3%), and were mostly women (44, 69.8%), aged 21-30 years (42, 66.7%), worked in urban regions (41, 65.1%), and half of them (32, 50.8%) had practiced optometry for five or more years. More than two-thirds of the optometrists (76.4%) reported that they had never provided teleoptometry services, and only a few (2, 3.2%) had training on teleoptometry. The percentage mean scores for knowledge were significantly lower than attitude (38.5 ± 17.9% vs 78.2 ± 29.9%; P = 0.002) and perception (46.2 ± 11.4%; P < 0.001) scores, all of which were significantly lower among self-employed than employed optometrists (P < 0.02, for all three variables). While men and non-professional computer users had higher mean scores for attitude than women (3.03 [95%CI: 2.14, 3.93] vs 2.31 [95%CI: 1.41, 3.21], P = 0.037) and professional users (3.15 [95%CI: 2.07, 4.24] vs 2.18 [95%CI: 1.12, 3.24], P = 0.001), knowledge and perception scores varied significantly with practitioners' years of experience (P = 0.042) and age (P = 0.041), respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that although there was limited knowledge of teleoptometry among the participants, particularly the self-employed and the less experienced optometrists, most of them had good attitudes and perceptions toward teleoptometry. To fill the identified knowledge gap, there is a need for teleoptometry training among optometrists in T&T.

11.
J Ment Health ; 32(5): 869-878, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083113

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic its negative effects have been highlighted globally. There is little literature that examines the positive impact on daily living. AIMS: To examine the positive influences of government-imposed COVID-19 public health restrictions on adults throughout Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and their associated factors. METHOD: A cross-sectional study, using an adapted pretested online survey instrument, was conducted amongst non-institutionalised, community-dwelling adults using convenience sampling. RESULTS: Of 1287 completed and weighted responses, the mean age (S.D.) was 39.2 (14.6) years, 49% were males, and 61% completed secondary level education. The top 5 positive experiences were more time spent with family (80%), more down-time (78%), learning new skills (68%), more time for hobbies (66%), self-care (57%), more time spent with friends (55%) and eating healthier (50%). The importance of religion, working from home, and an increase in marijuana use emerged as positive correlates for certain positive experiences, while participants with chronic illness, and a positive anxiety or depression screen, were negatively associated with most positive experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the negative consequences of the COVID19 pandemic, several positives were highlighted in this study. These findings have implications for social policies toward building resilience within the community.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Vida Independiente , Pandemias , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
12.
J Fam Violence ; : 1-12, 2022 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530540

RESUMEN

Purpose: While there is available scholarship in the Global North on DV victimization and perpetration during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a dearth of similar scholarship in the Global South. With this in mind, the Trinidad and Tobago COVID-19 Domestic Violence Victimization and Perpetration study was conducted in an attempt to fill that void. Method: An online questionnaire containing a qualitative component was used to gather data aimed at determining whether DV victimization and perpetration had increased during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as possible contributory factors. Participants were 602 married or cohabiting adult citizens in Trinidad and Tobago. Results: The results indicated that overall there was an increase in DV perpetration (13%) as well as an increase in DV victimization (16%) among the sampled population. The results also indicated that males (17%) and females (13%) in the sample engaged in increased levels of DV perpetration, while males (25%) and females (12%) were victims of increased DV victimization. Six themes emanated from the qualitative component of the study, namely: isolation/Covid-19 restrictions, lack of assistance for victims, male fear of reporting DV, work as a safe space, mental health effects and job loss. Conclusion: The findings revealed increased DV perpetration and victimization among the study's participants. These findings have implications for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago.

13.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30503, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415368

RESUMEN

The rapid spread of the deadly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fundamentally affected healthcare delivery globally. As governments struggled to preserve life, several approaches to healthcare delivery have emerged. Central to limiting viral transmission is the separation of patients based on their COVID-19 status. Studies have shown that a geographically separate dual-site service is preferable, contingent upon the local infrastructure and circumstances. Despite the restrictions on free movement, most studies indicate that low-energy hip fractures in elderly patients have remained relatively constant throughout the pandemic. Arguably these patients represent the most vulnerable subgroup in society and are susceptible to developing severe COVID-19 respiratory disease. In keeping with global recommendations, the government of Trinidad and Tobago devised a parallel healthcare system to limit the spread of disease. All regional health authorities under the Ministry of Health were at liberty to implement the system in a manner best suited for their particular infrastructure leading to highly variable practices among institutions. This report describes the clinical course of two hip fracture patients treated within the parallel healthcare system at different regional health authorities. Analysis of these cases provides an understanding of the potential risks to patients entering the parallel healthcare system and an insight into preventative measures to improve clinical outcomes.

14.
Port-of-Spain; PAHO; 2022-11-14. (PAHO/TTO/22-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56359

RESUMEN

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Urgencias Médicas , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Equidad , Equidad de Género , Diversidad Cultural , Cooperación Técnica , Región del Caribe , Trinidad y Tobago
15.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5031202, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120151

RESUMEN

Background: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance is important in ensuring the widespread vaccination of the population to achieve herd immunity. Establishing the acceptance of vaccines among healthcare workers, who play a vital role in an immunization program's success, is important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of social trust and demographic factors on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey utilizing an electronic questionnaire inquiring about COVID-19 vaccine uptake, preferences, and concerns was distributed via e-mail to 1,351 North Central Regional Health Authority (NCRHA) healthcare workers of the following categories: medical practitioners, nursing personnel, veterinary surgeons, medical interns, dental interns, paramedics, and pharmacists. These professions were selected as they were granted power to administer COVID-19 vaccines during the period of public emergency by the President of Trinidad and Tobago and were therefore likely to be NCRHA healthcare workers directly involved in vaccine administration services. Bivariate analysis using Chi-squared analysis of association was used to determine the association between the respondents' characteristics and the acceptance of the vaccine and the association between vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers and trust. The association between the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines and healthcare workers' characteristics and trust was established using multinomial logistic regression. Results: A total of 584 healthcare workers took part in the study, and 1.4% showed unwillingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The study indicates that age, profession, trust in international public health organizations, and trust in other healthcare providers predict the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers, with younger age groups and the nursing profession associated with an unwillingness to accept the vaccine. Gender of the healthcare workers does not predict vaccine acceptance. Conclusions and relevance: efforts towards enhanced vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers should take into consideration age, profession, and the trust in international organizations and other healthcare providers. Sensitization programs aimed at informing and creating awareness among healthcare workers about the COVID-19 vaccines should be age-specific as well as occupation-based.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Trinidad y Tobago
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56429

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. This article describes the introduction of the Pan American Health Organization’s HEARTS in the Americas program in Trinidad and Tobago and the successful experiences and challenges encountered in introducing and scaling it up as a strategy for strengthening the health system’s response to cardiovascular diseases. Evidence about implementation of the HEARTS program in the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas was reviewed to identify the progress made, barriers, success factors and lessons learned. In 2019, the Ministry of Health commenced implementation of the program in 5 (4.9%) of the 102 primary health care centers, and by the end of 2021, it had been scaled up to 46 (45.0%) centers. The HEARTS program ensures that patients’ cardiovascular health is managed in a comprehensive way through providing counseling about a healthy lifestyle, using evidence-based treatment protocols, ensuring access to essential medicines and technologies, and using a risk-based team approach, a monitoring and evaluation system and also a teambased approach to care delivery. The barriers encountered during implementation included the fragmentation of the existing health care system, the paternalistic role assumed by health care professionals, the resistance of some health care workers to change and a lack of team-based approaches to providing care. Successful implementation of the program was enabled through ensuring high-level political commitment, establishing the national HEARTS Oversight Committee, ensuring stakeholder involvement throughout all phases and implementing standardized approaches to care. When implemented in the context of existing primary health care settings, the HEARTS program provides an exceptionally well integrated and comprehensive model of care that embodies the principles of universal health care while ensuring the health of both populations and individuals. Thus, it enables and promotes a strengthened primary health care system and services that are responsive and resilient.


[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se describe la introducción del programa HEARTS en las Américas de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en Trinidad y Tabago y las experiencias satisfactorias y los desafíos encontrados con su ejecución y ampliación como estrategia para fortalecer la respuesta del sistema de salud a las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se reunieron datos sobre la ejecución del programa HEARTS en la Región de las Américas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud con el fin de determinar cuáles han sido los avances, los obstáculos, los factores de éxito y las enseñanzas extraídas. En el año 2019, el Ministerio de Salud inició la ejecución del programa en cinco (4,9%) de los 102 centros de atención primaria de salud, y para fines del 2021, se había ampliado a 46 (45,0%). El programa HEARTS garantiza el manejo integral de la salud cardiovascular de los pacientes mediante la prestación de asesoramiento sobre hábitos saludables, la aplicación de protocolos de tratamiento basados en la evidencia, la garantía de acceso a medicamentos y tecnologías esenciales, así como el uso de un enfoque de trabajo en equipo basado en el riesgo, un sistema de monitoreo y evaluación, y un enfoque basado en el equipo para abordar la prestación de la atención. Entre los obstáculos para su ejecución se encontraron la fragmentación del sistema de atención médica, el papel paternalista asumido por los profesionales de la salud, la resistencia al cambio de algunos trabajadores de salud y la falta de enfoques de trabajo en equipo para la prestación de la atención. La ejecución satisfactoria del programa fue posible gracias a un compromiso político de alto nivel, la creación de un comité nacional de supervisión de HEARTS, la participación de las partes interesadas en todas las fases del programa y la aplicación de enfoques estandarizados para la atención. En su ejecución en el contexto de los entornos de atención primaria de salud existentes, el programa HEARTS proporciona un modelo de atención excepcionalmente bien integrado y exhaustivo que encarna los principios de acceso universal a la atención de salud al tiempo que garantiza la salud individual y poblacional. De este modo, este modelo fomenta un sistema de atención primaria de salud fortalecido y unos servicios receptivos y resilientes.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo descreve a introdução do programa HEARTS nas Américas da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde em Trinidad e Tobago e as experiências bem-sucedidas e os desafios encontrados durante a introdução e expansão do programa como estratégia para fortalecer a resposta do sistema de saúde às doenças cardiovasculares. Analisaram-se evidências sobre a implementação do programa HEARTS na Região das Américas da Organização Mundial da Saúde para identificar os avanços obtidos, os obstáculos, os fatores de sucesso e as lições aprendidas. Em 2019, o Ministério da Saúde iniciou a implementação do programa em 5 (4,9%) dos 102 centros de atenção primária à saúde; no final de 2021, o programa havia sido ampliado para 46 (45,0%) centros. O programa HEARTS assegura que a saúde cardiovascular dos pacientes seja manejada de uma forma abrangente por meio de aconselhamento sobre estilo de vida saudável, uso de protocolos de tratamento baseados em evidências, garantia de acesso a medicamentos e tecnologias essenciais e utilização de uma estratégia de equipe baseada no risco, de um sistema de monitoramento e avaliação e de uma abordagem de atendimento baseado em equipe. Os obstáculos encontrados durante a implementação incluíam a fragmentação do sistema de saúde existente, o papel paternalista assumido pelos profissionais de saúde, a resistência de alguns profissionais de saúde a mudanças e a falta de abordagens baseadas em equipe na prestação do atendimento. Para permitir que a implementação do programa fosse bem-sucedida, obteve-se compromisso político de alto nível, criou-se o Comitê de Supervisão do HEARTS nacional, assegurou-se o envolvimento de interessados diretos em todas as fases e implementaram-se abordagens padronizadas de atendimento. Quando implementado no contexto dos ambientes existentes de atenção primária à saúde, o programa HEARTS oferece um modelo de atenção excepcionalmente bem integrado e abrangente que incorpora os princípios de atenção universal à saúde, ao mesmo tempo em que garante a saúde das populações e dos indivíduos. Dessa forma, viabiliza e promove um sistema de atenção primária à saúde fortalecido e serviços responsivos e resilientes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Atención Primaria de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Trinidad y Tobago , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Atención Primaria de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Trinidad y Tobago , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Atención Primaria de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Trinidad y Tobago , COVID-19
17.
PeerJ ; 10: e13334, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694382

RESUMEN

Background: The increase in online learning during the pandemic has been linked to various ocular complaints. This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with ocular complaints among schoolchildren aged 12-19 years during the COVID-19 lockdown in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May 2021, during the COVID-19 lockdown in T&T among secondary school students studying remotely. A two-stage cluster sampling method was employed. A modified web-based Computer Vision Syndrome questionnaire was administered to students. Data on demography, duration of digital device use, and ocular complaints were collected, and multilevel logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with ocular complaints among school children, 12-19 years of age in T&T. Results: A total of 435 schoolchildren (mean age, standard deviation, 15.2 ± 1.9 years range 12-19 years) responded to the questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of headache, blurred vision, dry eyes, itchy eyes, and double vision were 75.0%, 65.1%; 56.8%; 46.4%; and 33.5%, respectively. Schoolchildren aged 18-19 years, those that used spectacles for correction of their refractive errors, and spent more than 6 h on average on digital devices, reported a high prevalence of any ocular complaints. Analysis also revealed that age (14-15 years) was associated with dry eyes, blurred vision, and headaches, while gender (more prevalently females) was associated with blurred vision and headache. Those that had an eye examination in the last year and schoolchildren that took action to resolve ocular complaints were more likely to experience nearly all ocular complaints. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 lockdown, over three in four students in T&T reported ocular complaints from digital devices for online learning. Tailored interventional messages to reduce all forms of ocular complaints should target older students, particularly females, those who laid down when learning online via their devices and people who regularly examine their eyes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Instrucción por Computador , Educación a Distancia , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Trastornos de la Visión/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402062

RESUMEN

Problem: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Severe illness requires intensive care facilities, which are limited in smaller, resource-constrained settings. Context: Maldives and Trinidad and Tobago are small island developing states with comparable climates. Similar to island nations in the Western Pacific Region, they are prone to natural disasters and so engage in planning and preparedness activities on an ongoing basis. This paper describes the initial measures taken by both countries during the first wave of COVID-19, from March to May 2020. Action: In both countries, multisectoral high-level leadership allowed for timely and decisive actions. Early school closures, early border closures and early lockdowns were enforced. Mandatory mask wearing and physical distancing were instituted. Cases and contacts were isolated in facilities away from public sector hospitals, and isolation was implemented at the government's expense. Volunteers were trained to manage dedicated hotlines. Additionally, the governments held daily press briefings. Outcome: During the first wave, Maldives contained its epidemic to one geographical cluster; Trinidad and Tobago successfully avoided community spread, thus averting an overwhelmed health system. Discussion: Diligent contact tracing with quarantine implemented at the government's expense successfully minimized spread in both countries. Small countries need volunteers to help with activities such as contact tracing, and recruiting and training volunteers before a health emergency occurs is key. Lessons learned from the experience of Maldives and Trinidad and Tobago could serve as a model for other small island developing states, including those in the Western Pacific Region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335098

RESUMEN

Vaccine hesitancy due to safety concerns is a hindrance to the success of vaccination campaigns. In February 2021, Trinidad and Tobago commenced its National COVID-19 Vaccination Program. Healthcare workers were among the first group to receive the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford−AstraZeneca (Covishield, Serum Institute of India, Pune, India), the first COVID-19 vaccine available nationally. This study examined the safety of this vaccine in terms of the systemic and local adverse events following immunization reported by healthcare worker recipients. A cross-sectional study was conducted via a telephone questionnaire. Data concerning demographics, medical and COVID-19-related anamneses, and local and systemic side effects experienced within the first 48 h after receiving the first and second dose of this vaccine, respectively, were gathered. Among the 687 participants (male = 275; female = 412), prevalence of fever, body pain, chills, nausea, myalgia, headache, malaise, fatigue, and other systemic symptoms declined significantly 48 h after administration of the second dose compared to the first dose. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression demonstrated the greater likelihood of younger recipients to report systemic symptoms compared to older recipients. Multiple logistic regression indicated that females were more likely to report headache, fatigue, and discomfort, and were less likely to report no symptoms, compared to males, after both doses. On average, recipients reported less local and systemic side effects 48 h after receiving the second dose compared to the first dose. The reported rate of occurrence of side effects was <50% for most adverse events, which is consistent with the manufacturer's claims that the vaccine is safe. This study adds data on the safety of this vaccine in a population that has not been previously studied. The findings can inform public health policy efforts to lower vaccine hesitancy based on safety concerns surrounding the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine across various groups in society, including healthcare workers.

20.
Dialogues Health ; 1: 100022, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36785629

RESUMEN

Understanding symptoms associated with COVID-19 cases requiring intensive care unit(ICU) attention is important in management of the life-threatening cases of the disease. This study aimed to determine laboratory indicators of ICU admission for COVID-19 patients. For this retrospective chart review study, data from 116 patients(ICU, n = 18, Non-ICU, n = 98) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2, managed at two hospitals in Trinidad and Tobago, from March 12th to April 12th 2020, were analyzed. The median age of non-ICU patients was 59.0(IQR = 23.5) years; ICU patients had a median age of 62.5(IR = 17.5). From univariate analysis, laboratory indicators significantly associated with ICU admission included WBC(P = 0.037), lymphocyte(P = 0.016), LDH(P = 0.002), AST(P = 0.005) and CRP(P = 0.0001). However, multivariate analysis including WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, PLT, AST, LDH, ALT and CRP indicated that only AST was associated with high odds of ICU admission(OR 0.002, 95% CI 0.000-0.004, P = 0.017). Statistically significant AUC were obtained for neutrophil(AUC = 0.704, P = 0.007), CRP (AUC = 0.81, p = 0.00) and LDH(AUC = 0.766, P = 0.00) and AST (AUC = 0.729, P = 0.003). The findings indicate that neutrophils, AST and LDH's ROC curves are good tests, CRP curve is a very good test, but lymphocyte curve is a poor test, in determining COVID-19 patients for ICU admission. Neutrophil, AST, LDH and CRP are suitable predictors of COVID-19 patients that should receive intensive unit care. The study provides significant insights into laboratory parameters that can be used to predict COVID-19 severity and important considerations for healthcare providers in making evidence-based decisions regarding COVID-19 patient management, especially in the context of limited ICU facilities. This study was not funded.

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