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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 220: 12-21, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390470

RESUMEN

Community sanitation interventions increasingly leverage presumed innate human disgust emotions and desire for social acceptance to change hygiene norms. While often effective at reducing open defecation and encouraging handwashing, there are growing indications from ethnographic studies that this strategy might create collateral damage, such as reinforcing stigmatized identities in ways that can drive social or economic marginalization. To test fundamental ethnographic propositions regarding the connections between hygiene norm violations and stigmatized social identities, we conducted 267 interviews in four distinct global sites (in Guatemala, Fiji, New Zealand, USA) between May 2015 and March 2016. Based on 148 initial codes applied to 23,278 interview segments, text-based analyses show that stigmatizing labels and other indices of contempt readily and immediately attach to imagined hygiene violators in these diverse social settings. Moral concerns are much more salient at all sites than disease/contagion ones, and hygiene violators are extended little empathy. Contrary to statistical predictions, however, non-empathetic moral reactions to women hygiene violators are no harsher than those of male violators. This improved evidentiary base illuminates why disgust- and shame-based sanitation interventions can so easily create unintended social damage: hygiene norm violations and stigmatizing social devaluations are consistently cognitively connected.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Estereotipo , Antropología Cultural , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Fiji , Salud Global , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Población Rural , Normas Sociales
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(3): 407-418, jul.-sep. 2015. mapas, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-765469

RESUMEN

Introducción. El Salvador no cuenta con datos actualizados de prevalencia en menores de 15 años de la infección por helmintos transmitidos por contacto con el suelo. Además, al ser uno de los países en las Américas que reporta un número bajo de casos de malaria, se considera que su eliminación allí es factible. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y la intensidad de la infección por geohelmintos y la prevalencia de Plasmodium spp. en escolares de 8 a 10 años de El Salvador. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de corte transversal en las cinco zonas eco-epidemiológicas del país (planicie costera, depresión central, cadena volcánica, cadena costera y zona montañosa). La presencia de geohelmintiasis se estudió en 1.325 estudiantes y, la de malaria, en 152. Se utilizó la técnica de Kato-Katz para la detección de geohelmintos, y para el diagnóstico de la malaria, una prueba rápida, el estudio mediante microscopía y la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. La prevalencia total de geohelmintiasis fue de 7,9 % (IC 95% 6,6-9,5). En la planicie costera fue de 14,9 % (IC 95% 10,9-19,7); en la depresión central, de 9,4 % (IC 95% 6,5-13,3); en la cadena volcánica, de 6,6 % (IC 95% 4,2-10,5); en la cadena costera, de 5,9 % (IC 95% 3,8-9,4), y en la cadena montañosa, de 2,6 % (IC 95% 1,4-5,7). La proporción de infección de gran intensidad debida a cualquiera de las especies de geohelmintos fue de 0,3 %. No se encontraron escolares infectados con Plasmodium spp. Conclusión. La prevalencia de geohelmintos fue baja y la especie más prevalente fue Trichuris trichiura . La intensidad de la infección debida a cualquiera de las especies de geohelmintos fue leve (<1 %). Los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por geohelmintos fueron la defecación al aire libre, no usar calzado y vivir en la planicie costera.


Introduction: El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Results: The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Conclusion: Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (<1%). The risk factors associated with infection by soil-transmitted helminths were defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.

3.
Parasitology ; 142(12): 1543-54, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302902

RESUMEN

This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Perros , Ambiente , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Higiene , Larva , Masculino , Panamá/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología
4.
Biomedica ; 35(3): 407-18, 2015.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849702

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (<1%). The risk factors associated with infection by soil-transmitted helminths were defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Coinfección , Estudios Transversales , El Salvador/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Geografía Médica , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/transmisión , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Suelo/parasitología
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