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1.
J Helminthol ; 94: e179, 2020 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778183

RESUMEN

Taenia solium is the most common parasite infection of the brain, causing neurocysticercosis and typically found in rural communities with free-ranging pigs. Identification of transmission in rural areas is essential for its control. Risk factors and transmission of the parasite were evaluated in three rural Venezuelan communities (Valle del Rio and Potrero Largo, Cojedes state; and Palmarito, Portuguesa state) by a questionnaire (112 households) and coprological (492 samples) and serological (433 human and 230 porcine sera) analysis, respectively. Typical risk factors were found in all three communities: free-foraging pig husbandry, deficient sanitary conditions, high open defecation and ignorance of the parasite life cycle. Coprological examinations revealed a high level of soil-transmitted parasites. Importantly, two T. solium adult worm carriers were identified in each of the three communities. Anti-metacestode antibodies and the HP10 secreted metacestode glycoprotein were detected at significant levels in human and porcine sera in Valle del Rio, Potrero Largo and Palmarito. In conclusion, these communities may be considered to be endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis, and the instigation of an appropriate control programme is recommended.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 90, 2019 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660198

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Although latrines are integral for reducing enteric pathogen transmission, several studies have shown no evidence that latrine ownership improved child health. There are a number of explanations for these results. One explanation is that latrine access does not equate to latrine use. Latrine use, however, is difficult to accurately ascertain, as defecation behavior is often stigmatized. To address this measurement issue, we measure latrine use as a latent variable, indicated by a suite of psychosocial variables. METHODS: We administered a survey of 16 defecation-related psychosocial questions to 251 individuals living in rural Ecuador. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to these data to model the probability of latrine use as a latent variable. To account for uncertainty in predicted latent class membership, we used a pseudo-class approach to impute five different probabilities of latrine use for each respondent. Via regression modeling, we tested the association between household sanitation and each imputed latrine use variable. RESULTS: The optimal model presented strong evidence of two latent classes (entropy = 0.86): consistent users (78%) and inconsistent users (22%), predicted by 5 of our 16 psychosocial variables. There was no evidence of an association between the probability of latrine use, predicted from the LCA, and household access to basic sanitation (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-2.1). This suggests that home access to a sanitation facility may not ensure the use of the facility for every family member at all times. CONCLUSION: Effective implementation and evaluation of sanitation programs requires accurate measurement of latrine use. Psychosocial variables, such as norms, perceptions, and attitudes may provide robust proxy-measures. Future longitudinal studies will help to strengthen the use of these surrogate measures, as many of these factors may be subject to secular trends. Additionally, subgroup analyses will elucidate how our  proxy indicators of latrine defecation vary by individual-level characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Clases Latentes , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Niño , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Defecación , Ecuador , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Estereotipo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(3): 733-741, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675841

RESUMEN

There is increasing appreciation that latrine access does not imply use-many individuals who own latrines do not consistently use them. Little is known, however, about the determinants of latrine use, particularly among those with variable defecation behaviors. Using the integrated behavior model of water, sanitation, and hygiene framework, we sought to characterize determinants of latrine use in rural Ecuador. We interviewed 197 adults living in three communities with a survey consisting of 70 psychosocial defecation-related questions. Questions were excluded from analysis if responses lacked variability or at least 10% of respondents did not provide a definitive answer. All interviewed individuals had access to a privately owned or shared latrine. We then applied adaptive elastic nets (ENET) and supervised principal component analysis (SPCA) to a reduced dataset of 45 questions among 154 individuals with complete data to select determinants that predict self-reported latrine use. Latrine use was common, but not universal, in the sample (76%). The SPCA model identified six determinants and adaptive ENET selected five determinants. Three indicators were represented in both models-latrine users were more likely to report that their latrine is clean enough to use and also more likely to report daily latrine use; while those reporting that elderly men were not latrine users were less likely to use latrines themselves. Our findings suggest that social norms are important predictors of latrine use, whereas knowledge of the health benefits of sanitation may not be as important. These determinants are informative for promotion of latrine adoption.


Asunto(s)
Defecación , Higiene , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Recolección de Datos , Ecuador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 114-9, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841049

RESUMEN

This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.


Asunto(s)
ADN Protozoario/análisis , Agua Potable/parasitología , Entamoeba , Entamebiasis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Tipificación Molecular/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Sequías , Entamoeba/clasificación , Entamoeba/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Pozos de Agua , Adulto Joven
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 114-119, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-772617

RESUMEN

This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , ADN Protozoario/análisis , Agua Potable/parasitología , Entamoeba , Entamebiasis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Tipificación Molecular/métodos , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Sequías , Entamoeba/clasificación , Entamoeba/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Pozos de Agua
6.
s.l; s.n; mar. 1986. <63> p. mapas, tab.
Tesis en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-67459

RESUMEN

Com o objetivo principal de estudar a ancilostomíase enquanto problema atual/potencial de saúde coletiva para uma populaçäo urbana, foi desenvolvido estudo epidemiológico do tipo transversal, em 1984, numa amostra de 1701 crianças de 13/14 anos de idade, representando a totalidade de indivíduos nesta faixa etária, residentes em S. Antonio de Jesus, Bahia, Brasil. Foram aplicados questionários a todos os domicílios da cidade, identificando os indivíduos e colhendo dados sócio-econômicos, ambientais e demográficos das respectivas unidades familiares. Procedeu-se à contagem de ovos de ancilostomídeos nas fezes de tôdas as crianças. Foi estudada a prevalência da ancilostomíase de acôrdo com a intensidade da infestaçäo, a distribuiçäo segundo as características dos grupos populacionais e no espaço urbano geográfico. Pôde ser caracterizada uma parasitose endêmica, afetando a mais de 60% da populaçäo, atingindo níveis de parasitismo de moderado a intenso para 22,6% das crianças examinadas. Estuda-se ainda a infestaçäo intensa. Predominava no segmento mais pobre da populaçäo, em áreas urbanas periféricas (um total de 91 crianças, correspondendo a 5,4% da populaçäo examinada). Dêste estudo também resultou o seguinte PERFIL DAS CRIANÇAS ANCILOSTOMOTICAS INTENSAMENTE PARASITADAS -Crianças principalmente do sexo masculino, procedentes de área rural, residindo há pouco tempo na cidade e no atual domicílio; -Moraram em áreas urbanas periféricas, ruas sem pavimentaçäo, domicílios sem água corrente, sem sanitários; Trabalhavam, eram analfabetas, tinham hábito de defecaçäo ao ar livre, nunca tinham feito um exame parasitológico de fezes ou o tratamento da ancilostomíase. Eliminavam de 10 000 até mais de 70 000 ovos de ancilostomídeos por g de fezes ao exame;...


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Humanos , Anquilostomiasis/epidemiología , Salud Urbana , Brasil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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