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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39036365

RESUMO

Introduction: In 2021, Jamaica's maternal mortality ratio doubled as a result of COVID-19-related deaths. Yet, COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant Jamaican women remained low. In the United States, COVID-19 vaccination is lower among pregnant women who have had multiple pregnancies (multigravidas) versus women who were pregnant for the first time (primigravidas). We examined whether this pattern exists in Jamaica. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 79 pregnant Jamaican women recruited from a teaching hospital (May-July 2022) was used to assess self-reported COVID-19 vaccination and medical mistrust beliefs-operationalized as low vaccine confidence, government mistrust, and race-based mistrust-by gravidity. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccination by gravidity, adjusting for age, education, and comorbidities. Results: Thirty-nine (49%) of the participants were multigravidas. Socioeconomic status was similar between multigravidas and primigravidas. COVID-19 vaccination was lower in multigravidas (46%) than primigravidas (75%) after adjusting for age, education, and comorbidities (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.99; p = 0.044). Vaccine confidence was lower in multigravidas (p = 0.044). Government mistrust and race-based mistrust did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion: In Jamaica, multigravidas may have lower COVID-19 vaccine uptake and lower vaccine confidence compared with primigravidas. Understanding the distinct needs of pregnant subpopulations is essential for crafting effective maternal vaccination campaigns.

2.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 33(4): 1698-1717, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573244

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the communicative participation and functional speech intelligibility (i.e., how children use communication and how well they are understood across everyday life) of typically developing (TD) bilingual Jamaican preschoolers and those with functionally defined speech sound disorders (fSSDs) in the COVID-19 milieu. Findings were also compared to an existing corpus of baseline data to document and explore differences in children's speech-language outcomes secondary to pandemic-related social restrictions. METHOD: Thirty bilingual Jamaican preschoolers, 21 TD and nine with fSSDs, were assessed during the pandemic via telepractice. Association and univariate mean testing were completed to characterize children's communicative participation and functional speech intelligibility. Data were then compared to an existing corpus of baseline data (collected in person between 2013 and 2019), which included direct child assessment and parent reports and consisted of TD (n = 226) Jamaican Creole-English-speaking preschoolers and those with fSSDs (n = 39) to compare performance profiles across data sets. All participants attended schools in Kingston, Jamaica. RESULTS: Measures of communicative participation remained stable in the context of the COVID-19 milieu for children in the TD and fSSD groups, but functional speech intelligibility outcomes for children with fSSDs deviated between in-person findings collected from children pre-pandemic. Between-groups differences were also found on measures of speech production accuracy but were no longer significant when considering telepractice as a covariate. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this investigation serve to characterize the communicative participation and functional speech intelligibility of TD bilingual Jamaican preschoolers and those with fSSDs in the COVID-19 milieu. By extension, the results comparing data from preschoolers collected during the pandemic to an existing corpus of baseline data from a different group of preschoolers provide critical insights about multilingual children's speech-language outcomes in the context of acutely changing environmental circumstances. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.25461505.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Multilinguismo , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Jamaica , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Linguagem Infantil , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(6): 1198-1200, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653217

RESUMO

Approximately 3% of pregnant women have sickle cell disease (SCD). COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a global pandemic in March 2020, resulting in more than 3,500 deaths in Jamaica by April 2023. Sickle cell disease is an immunocompromised state; therefore, contracting COVID-19 may result in adverse maternal/neonatal outcomes. Current literature focusing on individuals of Afro-Caribbean descent is limited. Our objective was to describe the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with SCD who contracted COVID-19. A retrospective case series was conducted at the University Hospital of the West Indies (Jamaica) from 2020 to 2022. We describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes of three patients with COVID-19 and SCD (including two with hemoglobin SC disease and one with hemoglobin SS disease), with complications including the demise of a mother and a newborn. Vaso-occlusive crisis was the more common presentation. Two patients required ventilatory support. Although previous reports have shown similar clinical sequelae in pregnant and nonpregnant patients with SCD and COVID-19, maternal and neonatal deaths remain possible.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado da Gravidez
4.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59400

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases in Jamaica and to explore the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 from 9 March to 31 December 2020. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of national surveillance data was conducted using confirmed COVID-19 cases in Jamaica. Definitions of a confirmed case, disease severity, and death were based on World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to determine association with outcomes. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of severe COVID-19. Results. This analysis included 12 169 cases of COVID-19 (median age, 36 years; 6 744 females [ 55.4%]) of which 512 cases (4.2%) presented with severe disease, and of those, 318 patients (62.1%) died (median age at death, 71.5 years). Severe disease was associated with being male (OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) and 40 years or older (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.1-8.2). COVID-19 death was also associated with being male (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), age 40 years or older (OR, 17.9; 95% CI, 11.6-27.7), and in the Western versus South East Health Region (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). Conclusions. The findings of this cross-sectional analysis indicate that confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Jamaica were more likely to be female and younger individuals, whereas COVID-19 deaths occurred more frequently in males and older individuals. There is increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes beginning at age 40, with males disproportionately affected. COVID-19 death also varied by geographic region. This evidence could be useful to other countries with similar settings and to policymakers charged with managing outbreaks and health.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Describir las características y los resultados de los casos de COVID-19 en Jamaica y explorar los factores de riesgo asociados a la COVID-19 grave desde el 9 de marzo hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2020. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis transversal de datos nacionales de vigilancia a partir de los casos confirma- dos de COVID-19 en Jamaica. Las definiciones de caso confirmado, gravedad de la enfermedad y muerte se basaron en las directrices de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Para determinar la asociación con los criterios de valoración se utilizó la prueba de χ2 y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Se usaron modelos de regresión logística para determinar los factores predictivos de la COVID-19 grave. Resultados. Se incluyeron en el análisis 12 169 casos de COVID-19 (mediana de edad, 36 años; 6 744 mujeres [55,4%]), de los que 512 (4,2%) fueron de enfermedad grave. De estos pacientes, 318 (62,1%) fall- ecieron (mediana de edad al morir, 71,5 años). Se observó una asociación de la enfermedad grave con el sexo masculino (OR de 1,4; IC del 95 %, 1,2-1,7) y con la edad igual o superior a 40 años (OR de 6,5; IC del 95 %, 5,1-8,2). La muerte por COVID-19 también mostró una asociación con el sexo masculino (OR de 1,4; IC del 95%, 1,1-1,7), con la edad igual o superior a 40 años (OR de 17,9; IC del 95%, 11,6-27,7) y con la Región de Atención de Salud Occidental en comparación con la Sudoriental (OR de 1,7; IC del 95%, 1,2-2,3). Conclusiones. Los resultados de este análisis transversal indican que los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en Jamaica correspondieron una mayor probabilidad a mujeres y personas más jóvenes, mientras que las muertes por COVID-19 fueron más frecuentes en varones y personas de mayor edad. Hay un mayor riesgo de evolución desfavorable de la COVID-19 a partir de los 40 años, que afecta de manera desproporcionada a los varones. Las muertes por COVID-19 también variaron según la región geográfica. Esta evidencia podría ser de utilidad para otros países con entornos similares y para los responsables de la formulación de políticas en materia de gestión de brotes y salud.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Descrever as características e os desfechos dos casos de COVID-19 na Jamaica e explorar os fatores de risco associados à COVID-19 grave de 9 de março a 31 de dezembro de 2020. Métodos. Análise transversal de dados de vigilância nacional usando casos confirmados de COVID-19 na Jamaica. As definições de caso confirmado, gravidade da doença e morte foram baseadas nas recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram usados testes de qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para determinar a associação com os desfechos. Modelos de regressão logística foram usados para deter- minar os preditores de COVID-19 grave. Resultados. Esta análise incluiu 12.169 casos de COVID-19 (idade mediana: 36 anos; 6 744 do sexo feminino [55,4%]), dos quais 512 casos (4,2%) apresentaram doença grave; desses, 318 pacientes (62,1%) morreram (idade mediana ao morrer: 71,5 anos). A doença grave estava associada a ser do sexo masculino (razão de chances [RC]: 1,4; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,2–1,7) e ter 40 anos ou mais de idade (RC: 6,5; IC 95%: 5,1–8,2). A morte por COVID-19 também estava associada a ser sexo masculino (RC: 1,4; IC 95%: 1,1–1,7), ter 40 anos ou mais (RC: 17,9; IC 95%: 11,6–27,7) e estar na Região Sanitária Oeste em comparação com a Região Sanitária Sudeste (RC: 1,7; IC 95%: 1,2–2,3). Conclusões. Os achados desta análise transversal indicam que a probabilidade de casos confirmados de COVID-19 na Jamaica era maior em indivíduos do sexo feminino e mais jovens, ao passo que as mortes por COVID-19 ocorreram com mais frequência em indivíduos do sexo masculino e mais velhos. Há um risco maior de resultados desfavoráveis em relação à COVID-19 a partir dos 40 anos, e indivíduos do sexo masculino são desproporcionalmente mais afetados. A morte por COVID-19 também variou de acordo com a região geográ- fica. Essas evidências podem ser úteis para outros países com cenários semelhantes e para os formuladores de políticas encarregados de manejar surtos e gerenciar a saúde.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde , Região do Caribe , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde , Região do Caribe , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde , Região do Caribe
5.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 48: e36, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576843

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases in Jamaica and to explore the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 from 9 March to 31 December 2020. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveillance data was conducted using confirmed COVID-19 cases in Jamaica. Definitions of a confirmed case, disease severity, and death were based on World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to determine association with outcomes. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of severe COVID-19. Results: This analysis included 12 169 cases of COVID-19 (median age, 36 years; 6 744 females [ 55.4%]) of which 512 cases (4.2%) presented with severe disease, and of those, 318 patients (62.1%) died (median age at death, 71.5 years). Severe disease was associated with being male (OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) and 40 years or older (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.1-8.2). COVID-19 death was also associated with being male (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), age 40 years or older (OR, 17.9; 95% CI, 11.6-27.7), and in the Western versus South East Health Region (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). Conclusions: The findings of this cross-sectional analysis indicate that confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Jamaica were more likely to be female and younger individuals, whereas COVID-19 deaths occurred more frequently in males and older individuals. There is increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes beginning at age 40, with males disproportionately affected. COVID-19 death also varied by geographic region. This evidence could be useful to other countries with similar settings and to policymakers charged with managing outbreaks and health.

6.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585840

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 vaccination and shielding targeted hypertensive patients in low and middle income countries. We describe the COVID-19 experiences of hypertensive patients in Colombia and Jamaica and discuss factors associated with vaccine acceptance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2021 and February 2022 in 4 randomly selected primary care clinics in Colombia and 10 primary care clinics in Jamaica. Participants in Colombia were randomly selected from an electronic medical record. In Jamaica consecutive participants were selected on clinic days for non-communicable diseases. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted by telephone. Results: 576 participants were recruited (50% Jamaica; 68.5% female). Jamaica's participants were younger (36% vs 23% <60 years) and had a lower proportion of persons with "more than high school" education (17.2% vs 30.3%, p=0.011). Colombia's participants more commonly tested positive for COVID-19 (24.2% vs 6.3%, p<0.001), had a family member or close friend test positive for COVID-19 (54.5% vs, 21.6%; p<0.001), experienced loss of a family member or friend due to COVID-19 (21.5% vs 7.8%, p<0.001) and had vaccination against COVID-19 (90.6% vs 46.7%, p<0.001). Fear of COVID-19 (AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.20-6.13) and residence in Colombia (AOR 5.88 (95% CI 2.38-14.56) were associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Disruption in health services affecting prescription of medication or access to doctors was low (<10%) for both countries. Conclusion: Health services disruption was low but COVID-19 experiences such as fear of COVID-19 and vaccine acceptance differed significantly between Colombia and Jamaica. Addressing reasons for these differences are important for future pandemic responses.

7.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 48: e36, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560367

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases in Jamaica and to explore the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 from 9 March to 31 December 2020. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of national surveillance data was conducted using confirmed COVID-19 cases in Jamaica. Definitions of a confirmed case, disease severity, and death were based on World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to determine association with outcomes. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of severe COVID-19. Results. This analysis included 12 169 cases of COVID-19 (median age, 36 years; 6 744 females [ 55.4%]) of which 512 cases (4.2%) presented with severe disease, and of those, 318 patients (62.1%) died (median age at death, 71.5 years). Severe disease was associated with being male (OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) and 40 years or older (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.1-8.2). COVID-19 death was also associated with being male (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), age 40 years or older (OR, 17.9; 95% CI, 11.6-27.7), and in the Western versus South East Health Region (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). Conclusions. The findings of this cross-sectional analysis indicate that confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Jamaica were more likely to be female and younger individuals, whereas COVID-19 deaths occurred more frequently in males and older individuals. There is increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes beginning at age 40, with males disproportionately affected. COVID-19 death also varied by geographic region. This evidence could be useful to other countries with similar settings and to policymakers charged with managing outbreaks and health.


RESUMEN Objetivos. Describir las características y los resultados de los casos de COVID-19 en Jamaica y explorar los factores de riesgo asociados a la COVID-19 grave desde el 9 de marzo hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2020. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis transversal de datos nacionales de vigilancia a partir de los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en Jamaica. Las definiciones de caso confirmado, gravedad de la enfermedad y muerte se basaron en las directrices de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Para determinar la asociación con los criterios de valoración se utilizó la prueba de χ2 y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Se usaron modelos de regresión logística para determinar los factores predictivos de la COVID-19 grave. Resultados. Se incluyeron en el análisis 12 169 casos de COVID-19 (mediana de edad, 36 años; 6 744 mujeres [55,4%]), de los que 512 (4,2%) fueron de enfermedad grave. De estos pacientes, 318 (62,1%) fallecieron (mediana de edad al morir, 71,5 años). Se observó una asociación de la enfermedad grave con el sexo masculino (OR de 1,4; IC del 95 %, 1,2-1,7) y con la edad igual o superior a 40 años (OR de 6,5; IC del 95 %, 5,1-8,2). La muerte por COVID-19 también mostró una asociación con el sexo masculino (OR de 1,4; IC del 95%, 1,1-1,7), con la edad igual o superior a 40 años (OR de 17,9; IC del 95%, 11,6-27,7) y con la Región de Atención de Salud Occidental en comparación con la Sudoriental (OR de 1,7; IC del 95%, 1,2-2,3). Conclusiones. Los resultados de este análisis transversal indican que los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en Jamaica correspondieron una mayor probabilidad a mujeres y personas más jóvenes, mientras que las muertes por COVID-19 fueron más frecuentes en varones y personas de mayor edad. Hay un mayor riesgo de evolución desfavorable de la COVID-19 a partir de los 40 años, que afecta de manera desproporcionada a los varones. Las muertes por COVID-19 también variaron según la región geográfica. Esta evidencia podría ser de utilidad para otros países con entornos similares y para los responsables de la formulación de políticas en materia de gestión de brotes y salud.


RESUMO Objetivos. Descrever as características e os desfechos dos casos de COVID-19 na Jamaica e explorar os fatores de risco associados à COVID-19 grave de 9 de março a 31 de dezembro de 2020. Métodos. Análise transversal de dados de vigilância nacional usando casos confirmados de COVID-19 na Jamaica. As definições de caso confirmado, gravidade da doença e morte foram baseadas nas recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram usados testes de qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para determinar a associação com os desfechos. Modelos de regressão logística foram usados para determinar os preditores de COVID-19 grave. Resultados. Esta análise incluiu 12.169 casos de COVID-19 (idade mediana: 36 anos; 6 744 do sexo feminino [55,4%]), dos quais 512 casos (4,2%) apresentaram doença grave; desses, 318 pacientes (62,1%) morreram (idade mediana ao morrer: 71,5 anos). A doença grave estava associada a ser do sexo masculino (razão de chances [RC]: 1,4; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,2-1,7) e ter 40 anos ou mais de idade (RC: 6,5; IC 95%: 5,1-8,2). A morte por COVID-19 também estava associada a ser sexo masculino (RC: 1,4; IC 95%: 1,1-1,7), ter 40 anos ou mais (RC: 17,9; IC 95%: 11,6-27,7) e estar na Região Sanitária Oeste em comparação com a Região Sanitária Sudeste (RC: 1,7; IC 95%: 1,2-2,3). Conclusões. Os achados desta análise transversal indicam que a probabilidade de casos confirmados de COVID-19 na Jamaica era maior em indivíduos do sexo feminino e mais jovens, ao passo que as mortes por COVID-19 ocorreram com mais frequência em indivíduos do sexo masculino e mais velhos. Há um risco maior de resultados desfavoráveis em relação à COVID-19 a partir dos 40 anos, e indivíduos do sexo masculino são desproporcionalmente mais afetados. A morte por COVID-19 também variou de acordo com a região geográfica. Essas evidências podem ser úteis para outros países com cenários semelhantes e para os formuladores de políticas encarregados de manejar surtos e gerenciar a saúde.

8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6882, 2023 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898615

RESUMO

Bats are natural reservoirs for several zoonotic viruses, potentially due to an enhanced capacity to control viral infection. However, the mechanisms of antiviral responses in bats are poorly defined. Here we established a Jamaican fruit bat (JFB, Artibeus jamaicensis) intestinal organoid model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Upon infection with SARS-CoV-2, increased viral RNA and subgenomic RNA was detected, but no infectious virus was released, indicating that JFB organoids support only limited viral replication but not viral reproduction. SARS-CoV-2 replication was associated with significantly increased gene expression of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 also caused enhanced formation and growth of JFB organoids. Proteomics revealed an increase in inflammatory signaling, cell turnover, cell repair, and SARS-CoV-2 infection pathways. Collectively, our findings suggest that primary JFB intestinal epithelial cells mount successful antiviral interferon responses and that SARS-CoV-2 infection in JFB cells induces protective regenerative pathways.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Interferon Tipo I , Vírus , Animais , SARS-CoV-2 , Jamaica , Antivirais , Organoides
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(10): e1011728, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37856551

RESUMO

Insectivorous Old World horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.) are the likely source of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 prior to its spillover into humans and causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Natural coronavirus infections of bats appear to be principally confined to the intestines, suggesting fecal-oral transmission; however, little is known about the biology of SARS-related coronaviruses in bats. Previous experimental challenges of Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) resulted in limited infection restricted to the respiratory tract, whereas insectivorous North American big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) showed no evidence of infection. In the present study, we challenged Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) with SARS-CoV-2 to determine their susceptibility. Infection was confined to the intestine for only a few days with prominent viral nucleocapsid antigen in epithelial cells, and mononuclear cells of the lamina propria and Peyer's patches, but with no evidence of infection of other tissues; none of the bats showed visible signs of disease or seroconverted. Expression levels of ACE2 were low in the lungs, which may account for the lack of pulmonary infection. Bats were then intranasally inoculated with a replication-defective adenovirus encoding human ACE2 and 5 days later challenged with SARS-CoV-2. Viral antigen was prominent in lungs for up to 14 days, with loss of pulmonary cellularity during this time; however, the bats did not exhibit weight loss or visible signs of disease. From day 7, bats had low to moderate IgG antibody titers to spike protein by ELISA, and one bat on day 10 had low-titer neutralizing antibodies. CD4+ helper T cells became activated upon ex vivo recall stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid peptide library and exhibited elevated mRNA expression of the regulatory T cell cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-ß, which may have limited inflammatory pathology. Collectively, these data show that Jamaican fruit bats are poorly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 but that expression of human ACE2 in their lungs leads to robust infection and an adaptive immune response with low-titer antibodies and a regulatory T cell-like response that may explain the lack of prominent inflammation in the lungs. This model will allow for insight of how SARS-CoV-2 infects bats and how bat innate and adaptive immune responses engage the virus without overt clinical disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Pandemias , Jamaica , Linfócitos T Reguladores
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(5): ofad201, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37234512

RESUMO

Background: Despite high rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related maternal mortality, Jamaica currently has little data on COVID-19 vaccine uptake among pregnant women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey of 192 reproductive-aged women in Jamaica from February 1 to 8, 2022. Participants were recruited from a convenience sample of patients, providers, and staff at a teaching hospital. We assessed self-reported COVID-19 vaccination status and COVID-19-related medical mistrust (operationalized as vaccine confidence, government mistrust, and race-based mistrust). We used multivariable modified Poisson regression to test the association between vaccine uptake and pregnancy. Results: Of 192 respondents, 72 (38%) were pregnant. Most (93%) were Black. Vaccine uptake was 35% in pregnant women versus 75% in nonpregnant women. Pregnant women were more likely to cite healthcare providers versus the government as trustworthy sources of COVID-19 vaccine information (65% vs 28%). Pregnancy, low vaccine confidence, and government mistrust were associated with a lower likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.68 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .49-.95], aPR = 0.61 [95% CI, .40-.95], and aPR = 0.68 [95% CI, .52-.89], respectively). Race-based mistrust was not associated with COVID-19 vaccination in the final model. Conclusions: Pregnancy, low vaccine confidence, and government mistrust were associated with a lower likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination among reproductive-aged women in Jamaica. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of strategies proven to improve maternal vaccination coverage, including standing "opt-out" vaccination orders and collaborative provider and patient-led educational videos tailored for pregnant individuals. Strategies that decouple vaccine messaging from government agencies also warrant evaluation.

11.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824814

RESUMO

Insectivorous Old World horseshoe bats ( Rhinolophus spp.) are the likely source of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 prior to its spillover into humans and causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Natural coronavirus infections of bats appear to be principally confined to the intestines, suggesting fecal-oral transmission; however, little is known about the biology of SARS-related coronaviruses in bats. Previous experimental challenges of Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) resulted in limited infection restricted to the respiratory tract, whereas insectivorous North American big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) showed no evidence of infection. In the present study, we challenged Jamaican fruit bats ( Artibeus jamaicensis ) with SARS-CoV-2 to determine their susceptibility. Infection was confined to the intestine for only a few days with prominent viral nucleocapsid antigen in epithelial cells, and mononuclear cells of the lamina propria and Peyer's patches, but with no evidence of infection of other tissues; none of the bats showed visible signs of disease or seroconverted. Expression levels of ACE2 were low in the lungs, which may account for the lack of pulmonary infection. Bats were then intranasally inoculated with a replication-defective adenovirus encoding human ACE2 and 5 days later challenged with SARS-CoV-2. Viral antigen was prominent in lungs for up to 14 days, with loss of pulmonary cellularity during this time; however, the bats did not exhibit weight loss or visible signs of disease. From day 7, bats had low to moderate IgG antibody titers to spike protein by ELISA, and one bat on day 10 had low-titer neutralizing antibodies. CD4 + helper T cells became activated upon ex vivo recall stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid peptide library and exhibited elevated mRNA expression of the regulatory T cell cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-ß, which may have limited inflammatory pathology. Collectively, these data show that Jamaican fruit bats are poorly susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 but that expression of human ACE2 in their lungs leads to robust infection and an adaptive immune response with low-titer antibodies and a regulatory T cell-like response that may explain the lack of prominent inflammation in the lungs. This model will allow for insight of how SARS-CoV-2 infects bats and how bat innate and adaptive immune responses engage the virus without overt clinical disease. Author Summary: Bats are reservoir hosts of many viruses that infect humans, yet little is known about how they host these viruses, principally because of a lack of relevant and susceptible bat experimental infection models. Although SARS-CoV-2 originated in bats, no robust infection models of bats have been established. We determined that Jamaican fruit bats are poorly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2; however, their lungs can be transduced with human ACE2, which renders them susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Despite robust infection of the lungs and diminishment of pulmonary cellularity, the bats showed no overt signs of disease and cleared the infection after two weeks. Despite clearance of infection, only low-titer antibody responses occurred and only a single bat made neutralizing antibody. Assessment of the CD4 + helper T cell response showed that activated cells expressed the regulatory T cell cytokines IL-10 and TGFß that may have tempered pulmonary inflammation.

12.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 32(2): 658-674, 2023 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36827540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study characterized communicative participation and related aspects of functional communication for Jamaican Creole (JC)-English-speaking preschoolers with and without functionally defined speech sound disorders (fSSDs). This study included parent reports and direct assessment measures from an existing corpus of baseline data collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The communicative participation of typically developing (TD; n = 226) bilingual JC-English-speaking preschoolers and those with fSSDs (n = 39) was documented using the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS). Functional speech intelligibility was recorded using the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) in English and JC (ICS-JC). Objective measures of speech production were collected through direct child assessment in both languages and then transcribed and calculated for percent of consonants (PCC), vowels (PVC), and phonemes correct (PPC). Within-group relationships were explored using association testing, and differences between groups were explored through multivariate analyses. RESULTS: FOCUS scores and ICS and ICS-JC scores were found to be minimally to moderately related for Jamaican preschoolers in the TD group (r = .28-.34, p < .002) and strongly related in the fSSD group (r = .56-.60, p < .002). No relations were observed between the FOCUS scores and PCC/PVC/PPC in either language. There was a statistically significant difference between all FOCUS scores for Jamaican preschoolers in the TD and fSSD groups (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide additional evidence for using the FOCUS beyond documenting change in communicative participation to support clinical decision-making in planning and developing speech-language interventions. This study also documents an important characterization of JC-English-speaking children with and without fSSDs, offering data on children's abilities that can be used in future comparisons of communicative participation and speech functioning observed during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala
13.
EJHaem ; 4(1): 37-44, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36819174

RESUMO

Despite a high occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) with COVID-19 infection, there are no data on its incidence in sickle cell disease (SCD). We performed a single-center retrospective chart review of persons aged >1 year with SCD, COVID-19 infection and no prior dialysis requirement hospitalized from June 1, 2020 to May 31, 2022. Demographics, clinical, laboratory characteristics and outcomes were abstracted. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Of 38 patients meeting study criteria (60.6% female, mean age ± SD 38.6 ± 15.9 years), 3 (7.9%) were COVID vaccinated. Fifty-five percent (55%) developed AKI with 7.9% (n = 3) requiring dialysis. Participants with AKI were older (44.9 versus 30.8 years, p = 0.005), with a higher proportion having baseline chronic kidney disease (52% versus 0%, p = 0.001). Severe COVID infection [age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 8.93, 95%CI: 1.73-45.99, p = 0.033], red cell transfusion (aOR 7.92, 1.47-42.69) and decrease in hemoglobin per unit from baseline (aOR 2.85, 1.24-2.28) were associated with AKI. Five persons died in hospital, with AKI resulting in higher median length of stay (12 versus 5 days, p = 0.007). Targeted COVID-19 preventative measures and multinational longitudinal studies to ascertain the impact of AKI and COVID-19 infection in SCD are needed.

14.
Res Sq ; 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561186

RESUMO

Bats are natural reservoirs for several zoonotic viruses, potentially due to an enhanced capacity to control viral infection. However, the mechanisms of antiviral responses in bats are poorly defined. Here we established a Jamaican fruit bat (JFB) intestinal organoid model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. JFB organoids were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with increased viral RNA and subgenomic RNA detected in cell lysates and supernatants. Gene expression of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines was induced in response to SARS-CoV-2 but not in response to TLR agonists. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 did not lead to cytopathic effects in JFB organoids but caused enhanced organoid growth. Proteomic analyses revealed an increase in inflammatory signaling, cell turnover, cell repair, and SARS-CoV-2 infection pathways. Collectively, our findings suggest that primary JFB intestinal epithelial cells can mount a successful antiviral interferon response and that SARS-CoV-2 infection in JFB cells induces protective regenerative pathways.

15.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(4): 100124, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415687

RESUMO

A cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey was conducted after the Omicron surge in Jamaica using 1,540 samples collected during March - May 2022 from persons attending antenatal, STI and non-communicable diseases clinics in Kingston, Jamaica. SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) and/or nucleocapsid IgG antibodies were detected for 88.4% of the study population, with 77.0% showing evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and/or with COVID-19 vaccination, 9.6% were negative for spike RBD IgG, most of which were unvaccinated previously infected persons. Amongst unvaccinated previously infected people, age was associated with testing spike RBD IgG negative. When considering all samples, median spike RBD IgG levels were 131.6 BAU/mL for unvaccinated persons with serological evidence of past infection, 90.3 BAU/mL for vaccinated persons without serological evidence of past infection, and 896.1 BAU/mL for vaccinated persons with serological evidence of past infection. Our study of the first reported SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Jamaica shows extensive SARS-CoV-2 population immunity, identifies a substantial portion of the population lacking spike RBD IgG, and provides additional evidence for increasing COVID-19 vaccine coverage in Jamaica.

16.
Kingston; PAHO; 2022-11-23. (PAHO/JAM/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56352

RESUMO

This Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Annual Report outlines contributions and achievements in Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Cayman Islands in the year 2021. The report also reinforces PAHO/WHO's core mission, through focus on the country level, recognizing that progress toward sustainable development hinges on improved health at the local and national levels. In 2021, PAHO/WHO supported Jamaica, Bermuda and the Cayman Islands on their path toward disaster risk reduction as well as the ongoing implementation of Phase II of the Smart Health Care Facilities in the Caribbean Project. This project, which aims to enhance the resilience of health facilities to ensure continuity of service delivery before, during and after hazards, such as hurricanes, has led to the upgrade of nine facilities so far. Working toward the upcoming restructuring of the Jamaican Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) and Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and health care reform in Jamaica, the country signed a technical cooperation agreement with PAHO to provide a national voluntary contribution, with projects developed to strengthen public financial management and results-based management, as well as a strategic plan for health information systems and a concept note for policy on health research. PAHO supported Jamaica’s efforts as the pandemic impact underscored the need to include mental health in emergency and disaster management, as well as activities that contributed to achieving milestones in tobacco control and road safety. Furthermore, PAHO assisted with initiatives to tackle the high prevalence of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the population and promote better nutrition, such as the National Infant and Young Child Feeding Policy and Strategic Plan and front-of-package labelling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , Região do Caribe , Jamaica , Bermudas , Índias Ocidentais
17.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 904788, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36160776

RESUMO

Objectives: COVID-19 in children was initially mild until the emergence of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We describe pediatric COVID-19 in a developing country within the Caribbean. Methods: Jamaican children who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in one Caribbean regional academic referral center from April 2020 through June 2021 were included. Prospective surveillance and pediatric infectious disease consultations were performed using the CDC's MIS-C case definition. Data were extracted from patients' hospital charts using WHO's reporting form, entered into the RedCap database, and SPSS 28 was used for analysis. MIS-C and non-MIS-C patients were compared using independent sample t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, p values < 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: Seventy-nine children with COVID-19 with/without MIS-C presented to UHWI. Thirty-eight (48%) were mild ambulatory cases. Hospitalizations occurred in 41 (52%) children, with median age of 10 1 2 years. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity was present in 26 (63%), Immunoglobulin M, or Immunoglobulin G (IgM/IgG) positivity in 8 (20%), with community exposures in 7 (17%). Eighteen (44%) MIS-C positive patients were significantly more likely than 23 MIS-C negative patients (56%) to present with fever (94% vs. 30%; p < 0.001), fatigue/lethargy (41% vs. 4%; p = 0.006), lymphadenopathy (33% vs. 0%; p = 0.003), elevated neutrophils (100% vs. 87%; p = 0.024), and ESR (78% vs. 9%; p = 0.002). Involvement of > two organ systems occurred more frequently in MIS-C positive cases (100% vs. 34%; p < 0.001), including gastrointestinal (72% vs. 17%; p < 0.001); vomiting/nausea (39% vs. 9%; p < 0.028); hematological/coagulopathic (67% vs. 4%; p < 0.001); dermatologic involvement (56% vs. 0%; p < 0.001); and mucositis (28% vs. 0%; p = 0.001). MIS-C patients had Kawasaki syndrome (44%), cardiac involvement (17%), and pleural effusions (17%). MIS-C patients had >4 abnormal inflammatory biomarkers including D-dimers, C-reactive protein, ESR, ferritin, troponins, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophils, platelets, lymphocytes, and albumen (72%). MIS-C patients were treated with intravenous immune gamma globulin (78%), aspirin (68%), steroids (50%), and non-invasive ventilation (11%). None required inotropes/vasopressors. MIS-C negative patients received standard care. All recovered except one child who was receiving renal replacement therapy and developed myocardial complications. Conclusions: In this first report of COVID-19 from the Caribbean, children and adolescents with and without MIS-C were not very severe. Critical care interventions were minimal and outcomes were excellent.

18.
medRxiv ; 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172133

RESUMO

A cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey was conducted after the Omicron surge in Jamaica using 1,540 samples collected during March â€" May 2022 from persons attending antenatal, STI and non-communicable diseases clinics in Kingston, Jamaica. SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) and/or nucleocapsid IgG antibodies were detected for 88.4% of the study population, with 77.0% showing evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and/or with COVID-19 vaccination, 9.6% were negative for spike RBD IgG, most of which were unvaccinated previously infected persons. Amongst unvaccinated previously infected people, age was associated with testing spike RBD IgG negative. When considering all samples, median spike RBD IgG levels were 131.6 BAU/mL for unvaccinated persons with serological evidence of past infection, 90.3 BAU/mL for vaccinated persons without serological evidence of past infection, and 896.1 BAU/mL for vaccinated persons with serological evidence of past infection. Our study of the first reported SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Jamaica shows extensive SARS-CoV-2 population immunity, identifies a substantial portion of the population lacking spike RBD IgG, and provides additional evidence for increasing COVID-19 vaccine coverage in Jamaica.

19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-15. (PAHO/CRB/COVID-19/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56262

RESUMO

Health workers are crucial in the preparedness and response to COVID-19, but the pandemic has evidenced the shortage of human resources for health (HRH) in certain countries, reduced or lack of protective equipment, and timely protocols to address occupational, health and safety issues. Health workers have been infected by the virus with consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, available staff workload is expected to increase. While the COVID-19 pandemic has stressed health workforce shortages in countries, it has also led to identifying ways to rapidly hire and train the health workforce. The recognition and understanding of the mechanisms used by countries (such as recruitment processes, type of redeployment, incentives) will provide evidence on ways to address health worker shortages during such outbreaks and therefore implementation gaps will be reduced. This report informs and analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on health workers' occupational health and safety concerns, working conditions, as well as policy responses to address these issues and to increase HRH surge capacity in Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica. The report also describes elements related to HRH and COVID-19 vaccination in selected countries and shares the experiences from Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica (members of CARICOM), which represent different areas of the Caribbean. The report will also inform the HRH Action Task Force and its contribution to technical cooperation and HRH management support. The target audience includes policy-makers, academics, and researchers on addressing health worker issues during health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos , Saúde Ocupacional , Belize , Granada , Jamaica
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320778

RESUMO

The Caribbean region is lacking an assessment of the antibody response and side effects experienced after AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination (AZD1222). We examined severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG levels and report the side effects noted in a Jamaican population after AZD1222 vaccination. Median RBD IgG levels for persons without evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were 43.1 binding international units (bIU)/mL 3 to 7 weeks after the first dose, increasing to 100.1 bIU/mL 3 to 7 weeks after the second dose, and decreasing to 46.9 bIU/mL 16 to 22 weeks after the second dose. The median RBD IgG level 2 to 8 weeks after symptom onset for unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected persons of all disease severities was 411.6 bIU/mL. Common AZD1222 side effects after the first dose were injection site pain, headache, and chills. Most people reported no side effects after the second dose. AZD1222 is widely used across the English-speaking Caribbean, and our study provides evidence for its continued safe and effective use in vaccination programs.

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