Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 528
Filtrar
1.
Psychol Trauma ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has required important changes in the lifestyles and quality of life of higher education students, generating emotional distress. This study sought to evaluate a predictive model of emotional distress and positive mental health through measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in Chilean higher education students during the pandemic. METHOD: To this end, 502 students (67.8% female), aged 18-44 years, were surveyed at two time points during the pandemic, separated by 6 months. Potential predictors included emotional regulation strategies, perceived social support, sociodemographic characteristics, factors related to the pandemic, and students' experiences related to online classes. RESULTS: Findings indicated that PTSS levels were generally stable across the two time points, but PTG levels increased. In addition, emotional regulation strategies (suppression, cognitive reappraisal), perceived social support, and female gender predicted both PTSS and PTG 6 months later; students' number of hours of screen time for school also influenced PTG. CONCLUSIONS: Findings enhance understanding of the processes contributing to PTSS and PTG in higher education students. The need to improve quality of life and mental health in higher education students, including individual- and institutional-level strategies, is discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 988054, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046402

RESUMO

Heteronormativity comprises essentialist, binary beliefs about sex and gender, and normative behaviors derived from those beliefs. There is scarce literature on how heteronormative attitudes and well-being variables are concurrent among individuals who are heterosexual or gay, lesbian, bisexual, and of other queer sexual identities (LGBQ). The objective of this study was to distinguish profiles of university students based on essentialism and normative behavior, two dimensions of heteronormativity, and to characterize these groups by sexual orientation and gender, perceived social support, physical and mental health, and life satisfaction. A sample of 552 university students in Temuco, Chile, responded to an online questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions, the Scale of Heteronormative Attitudes and Beliefs, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Health-Related Quality of Life Index, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. We used Latent profile analysis to distinguish profiles based on significant score differences in Essentialism and Normative behavior. We identified four heteronormativity profiles: High heteronormativity (34.85%), with a significant proportion of heterosexuals and men; Low heteronormativity (25.59%), comprising a significant proportion of students who were non-binary, and LGBQ; Heteronormativity focused on normative behavior (20.42%), with a significant proportion students who were men or non-binary, and who were lesbian, gay or bisexual or preferred not to disclose their sexual orientation; and Heteronormativity focused on essentialism (19.14%), with a significant proportion of heterosexuals and women, and individuals who preferred not to disclose their sexual orientation. The four profiles differed in the proportions of students by faculty and area of residence (urban/rural), and by life satisfaction, self-perceived mental health, and perceived social support. These results show that patterns of association between heteronormativity and subjective well-being are heterogeneous among heterosexual and non-heterosexual individuals. Some of these patterns may respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disrupted daily life and social dynamics. These findings expand our understanding of advantageous and disadvantageous conditions associated with maintaining heteronormativity attitudes, particularly among non-heterosexual individuals.

3.
Trials ; 23(1): 751, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial data from high-income countries support early interventions in the form of evidence-based Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) for people experiencing First Episode Psychosis (FEP) to ameliorate symptoms and minimize disability. Chile is unique among Latin American countries in providing universal access to FEP services through a national FEP policy that mandates the identification of FEP individuals in primary care and guarantees delivery of community-based FEP treatments within a public health care system. Nonetheless, previous research has documented that FEP services currently provided at mental health clinics do not provide evidence-based approaches. This proposal aims to address this shortfall by first adapting OnTrackNY (OTNY), a CSC program currently being implemented across the USA, into OnTrackChile (OTCH), and then examine its effectiveness and implementation in Chile. METHODS: The Dynamic Adaptation Process will be used first to inform the adaptation and implementation of OTCH to the Chilean context. Then, a Hybrid Type 1 trial design will test its effectiveness and cost and evaluate its implementation using a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) (N = 300 from 21 outpatient clinics). The OTCH program will be offered in half of these outpatient clinics to individuals ages 15-35. Usual care services will continue to be offered at the other clinics. Given the current COVID-19 pandemic, most research and intervention procedures will be conducted remotely. The study will engage participants over the course of 2 years, with assessments administered at enrollment, 12 months, and 24 months. Primary outcomes include implementation (fidelity, acceptability, and uptake) and service outcomes (person-centeredness, adherence, and retention). Secondary outcomes comprise participant-level outcomes such as symptoms, functioning, and recovery orientation. Over the course of the study, interviews and focus groups with stakeholders will be conducted to better understand the implementation of OTCH. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will help determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost for delivering CSC services in Chile. Lessons learned about facilitators and barriers related to the implementation of the model could help inform the approach needed for these services to be further expanded throughout Latin America. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT04247711 . Registered 30 January 2020. TRIAL STATUS: The OTCH trial is currently recruiting participants. Recruitment started on March 1, 2021, and is expected to be completed by December 1, 2022. This is the first version of this protocol (5/12/2021).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e126, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071920

RESUMO

Hypertension (arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, with the greatest burden of attributable deaths in Chile, having a national prevalence of 27.6%. In 2018, the implementation of HEARTS begun in primary health care centers of the Public Health System, with the aim of achieving increase in control rates, by raising the proportion of hypertensive individuals who meet blood pressure goals (< 140/90 mmHg for individuals 15-79 years old and of 150/90 mmHg for individuals 80 years and older), and thus contributing to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. This is a descriptive study that follows average treatment and control rates from the Public Health System between 2017-2021 obtained from health centers statistics reports during HEARTS implementation. Treatment and control rates remained at 57% and 39% respectively between 2017-2019. Between 2020 and 2021, in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, treatment and control rates decreased very significantly, reaching 46% and 26%, respectively, in December 2021, even though the number of centers reporting the implementation of HEARTS increased from 227 to 387 in this same period. Prior to the pandemic, during the last quarter of 2019, a decrease in cardiovascular health controls was already observed as a result of social protests. In light of the results, the technical pillars of the HEARTS Initiative have an important role in helping to recover the population control rates reached in 2019 and increasing the speed to achieve better hypertension control rates.


La hipertensión arterial (presión arterial ≥ 140/90 mmHg) es un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares, que tienen la mayor carga de muertes atribuibles en Chile. En este país, la hipertensión tiene una prevalencia nacional del 27,6%. En el 2018 se inició la aplicación del paquete técnico HEARTS en los centros de atención primaria de salud del sistema público de salud de Chile, con el objetivo de lograr un aumento de las tasas de control, al elevar la proporción de personas hipertensas que cumplen con las metas de presión arterial (< 140/90 mmHg para personas de 15 a 79 años y de 150/90 mmHg para personas de 80 años o más) y así contribuir a reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad cardiovascular asociadas a esta enfermedad. En este estudio descriptivo se realiza un seguimiento de las tasas promedio de tratamiento y control del sistema público de salud entre el 2017 y el 2021 obtenidas de los informes estadísticos de los centros de salud durante la aplicación de la iniciativa HEARTS. Las tasas de tratamiento y control se mantuvieron en 57% y 39%, respectivamente, en el período entre el 2017 y el 2019. Entre el 2020 y el 2021, en el contexto de la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2, las tasas de tratamiento y control disminuyeron de manera muy significativa, y se ubicaron en 46% y 26%, respectivamente, en diciembre del 2021, a pesar de que el número de centros que notificaron la aplicación de HEARTS aumentó de 227 a 387 en el mismo período. Antes de la pandemia, en el último trimestre del 2019, ya se había observado una disminución en los controles de salud cardiovascular debido a las protestas sociales. En vista de estos resultados, los pilares técnicos de la iniciativa HEARTS desempeñan un papel importante para ayudar a recuperar las tasas de control que se habían alcanzado en el 2019 y acelerar la consecución de mejores tasas de control de la hipertensión.


A hipertensão (pressão arterial ≥ 140/90 mmHg) é um fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, com a maior carga de mortes atribuíveis no Chile, onde a prevalência nacional é de 27,6%. Em 2018, teve início a implementação da iniciativa HEARTS em centros de atenção primária à saúde do sistema de saúde pública, com o objetivo de elevar as taxas de controle, pelo aumento da proporção de indivíduos hipertensos que alcançam as metas de pressão arterial (< 140/90 mmHg para pessoas de 15-79 anos e de 150/90 mmHg para pessoas a partir de 80 anos), e, assim, contribuir para a redução da morbimortalidade cardiovascular associada a essa condição. Este é um estudo descritivo que acompanha as taxas médias de tratamento e controle no sistema de saúde pública entre 2017 e 2021, obtidas de relatórios estatísticos dos centros de saúde durante a implementação da iniciativa HEARTS. Entre 2017 e 2019, as taxas de tratamento e de controle foram, respectivamente, de 57% e 39%. Entre 2020 e 2021, no contexto da pandemia causada pelo SARS-CoV-2, houve uma diminuição muito significativa das taxas de tratamento e de controle, que chegaram, respectivamente, a 46% e 26% em dezembro de 2021, embora o número de centros que informaram ter implementado o pacote HEARTS tenha aumentado de 227 para 387 no mesmo período. Antes da pandemia, durante o último trimestre de 2019, já se observava uma diminuição dos controles da saúde cardiovascular em consequência de uma onda de protestos sociais. Os resultados mostram que os pilares técnicos da iniciativa HEARTS são importantes para ajudar a recuperar as taxas de controle na população alcançadas em 2019 e aumentar a velocidade para atingir melhores taxas de controle da hipertensão.

6.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 39(3): 287-293, 2022 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156690

RESUMO

Since the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, countless consequences have been described regarding HIV infection in Chile, both in its diagnosis and prevention, mainly manifested in the decrease in serological tests, the interruption of care, the delay in starting antiretroviral therapy, and the lack of access to preventive methods. Added to this is the deterioration in some conditions related to social aspects and mental health. All this implies, among other consequences, a probable worsening in the epidemiological situation of HIV infection in Chile. Some of the designated impacts are reviewed in this article, and some challenges are raised to confront this problem.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Chile/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
7.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36177409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that has modified all social and, especially, learning instances. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of final-year nursing students at a university in southern Chile regarding the impact of the pandemic on their learning, and consequently on their quality of life, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a qualitative study. The research was conducted on 14 nursing students who were selected from a university located in the province of Talca, Maule Region, Chile. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews conducted during July and September 2021. The data were analyzed using the inductive logic of theoretical categorization; this process was assisted by the Nvivo 10 program. RESULTS: Two mega categories were generated that accounted for the nursing students' experience during the COVID-19 pandemic: objective factors category and subjective factors category. Six subcategories were derived from these two categories: free time, social relationships, learning from practice, physical exercise, eating habits, and emotional state. CONCLUSION: The research findings indicate that the students, in addition to feeling upset about not being able to do the internship, also feel that they have not been able to acquire all the knowledge necessary for their training and professional development, since the virtual classes fail to deliver adequate learning as they lack the practical component that is so important in their careers. This has repercussions in the physical, social, and psychological areas, affecting their quality of life.

8.
Infect Dis Model ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124082

RESUMO

Background: With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, all existing health protocols were tested under the worst health crisis humanity has experienced since the Black Death in the 14th century. Countries in Latin America have been the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, with more than 1.5 million people killed. Worldwide health measures have included quarantines, border closures, social distancing, and mask use, among others. In particular, Chile implemented total or partial quarantine measures depending on the number of infections in each region of the country. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of these quarantines in relation to the public health measures implemented by government entities at the national level. Objective: The main objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of national- and region-level quarantines in Chile during the pandemic based on information published by the Chilean Ministry of Health, and answers to the following question are sought: Were quarantine measures in Chile effective during the COVID-19 pandemic? Methods: The causal effect between the rates of COVID-19 infections and the population rates in Phase 1 and Phase 2 quarantines in the period from March 2020 to March 2021 in different regions of Chile were evaluated using intervention analyses obtained through Bayesian structural time series models. In addition, the Kendall correlation coefficient obtained through the copula approach was used to evaluate the comovement between these rates. Results: In 75% of the Chilean regions under study (12 regions out of a total of 16), an effective Phase 1 quarantine, which was implemented to control and reduce the number of cases of COVID-19 infection, was observed. The main regions that experienced a decrease in cases were those located in the north and center of Chile. Regarding Phase 2, the COVID-19 pandemic was effectively managed in 31% (5 out of 16) of the regions. In the south-central and extreme southern regions of Chile, the effectiveness of these phases was null. Conclusion: The findings indicate that in the northern and central regions of Chile, the Phase 1 quarantine application period was an effective strategy to prevent an increase in COVID-19 infections. The same observation was made with respect to Phase 2, which was effective in five regions of northern Chile; in the rest of the regions, the effectiveness of these phases was weak or null.

9.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 39(3): 294-303, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165650

RESUMO

The COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. To date, more than 500 million people have been infected and it has caused over 6 million deaths worldwide. People that belong to the most vulnerable risk groups, such as those at the extremes of life, patients with chronic comorbidities and those with severe immunosuppression, are especially susceptible to developing a severe form of COVID-19 infection and death. Subjects living with HIV, especially those in precarious immunological conditions or those in whom antiretroviral therapy is yet to be started, may be at risk of developing complications related to COVID-19, as observed with other infectious diseases. This review aims to determine the magnitude of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on people living with HIV in Chile.

10.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(9)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135686

RESUMO

Penicillium digitatum is one of the most important phytopathogens. It causes deterioration and rotting of citrus fruits, generating significant economic losses worldwide. As a human pathogen, it is extremely rare. We present a case of pulmonary co-infection in a patient diagnosed with pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2. A 20-year-old female patient, primigravid, 36 weeks of gestation, without comorbidities, and diagnosed with severe pneumonia due to the SARS-CoV-2, showed rapid lung deterioration for which their pregnancy was interrupted by surgery. The patient was hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), connected to mechanical ventilation and receiving corticosteroids and antibiotics. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infection was made through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture, and the species identification was performed by sequencing of ß-tubulin. Phylogenetic analysis with related species was performed for the confirmation of species identification. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed for itraconazole (4 µg/mL), voriconazole (2 µg/mL), and amphotericin B (2 µg/mL). The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole. This is the second worldwide report of pulmonary infection by P. digitatum and the first in Chile. Although it is a fungus that rarely infects humans, it could represent an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen, with associated risk factors that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Penicillium species isolated from infections in humans.

11.
Children (Basel) ; 9(9)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138624

RESUMO

Lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the social, psychological, and physical well-being of the world population. In the case of people with intellectual disabilities, the impact of lockdown on their physical condition and functionality is not completely clear. This study aimed to determine the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on the anthropometric indicators of cardiometabolic risk, muscle strength, and functionality on schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. The sample was composed of 132 students of both sexes (n = 74 pre-lockdown; n = 58 lockdown) belonging to two special education centers from the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Our results showed significant reductions (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative handgrip strength, as well as in functionality, when comparing pre-lockdown and lockdown measurements, with a greater loss in girls than boys. The design and implementation of physical exercise programs centered on strength training are necessary for the physical and functional reconditioning of this population. These programs need to be implemented in special education centers considering the general well-being, quality of life and work needs of people with intellectual disabilities.

12.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 130, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178593

RESUMO

The study analyzes whether the COVID-19 pandemic affects annual hip fractures (HF) rates and weekly emergency department (ED) consultations and hospitalizations due to trauma in older people. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HF rates and ED consultation and hospitalization rates due to trauma decreased. PURPOSE: To describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on annual HF rates and weekly ED consultation and hospitalization rates due to trauma in Chile in 2020, compared to 2016-2019. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted based on data from Chile's Department of Statistics and Health Information. Annual HF admissions, weekly ED consultations and hospitalizations due to trauma were described for the years 2016-2020, grouping the years 2016-2019 to compare them with 2020. Rates were calculated per 100.000 inhabitants. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2020, a total of 35.050 patients aged ≥ 65 years were hospitalized in Chile with a diagnosis of HF, with the lowest number of admissions in 2020 (6.423). During 2020, annual HF rate was 273.6/100.000, representing a decrease of 18.5% compared to the average annual HF rate of 2016-2019 (335.7/100.000). In 2020, the weekly consultation rate due to trauma in older adults decreased by 20.8% and the weekly hospitalization rate due to trauma in older adults decreased by 18.5%. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, osteoporotic HF rates decreased, along with ED consultation and hospitalization rates due to trauma in older adults. This could be a result of mobility restrictions and a significant increase in the proportion of self-reliant older adults in the Chilean population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between social determinants of health (SDH) and resilience in older people during the first period of confinement in the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study with a cross-sectional design was conducted using a nationally representative survey data-set. In this survey, using a systematic randomization process, a subsample of people aged ≥60 years from the community were interviewed by telephone during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. Resilience was assessed using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) and depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale. The SDH considered were: age, sex, educational level, employment status, social isolation, loneliness, discontent with housing and health care needs. RESULTS: A total sample of 582 persons was obtained. The mean age was 71 years (SD: 7.64; 69% women). A significant association was obtained between low resilience and the following conditions: loneliness (OR: 1.776 [95% CI: 1.146-2.751]), high risk of social isolation (OR: 1.667 [95% CI: 1.149-2.419]), and depressive symptoms (OR: 2.602 [95% CI: 1.795-3.774]). Female gender was a protective factor (OR: 0.589 [95% CI: 0.406-0.855]). CONCLUSION: The SDH, such as loneliness and social isolation, are factors associated with low resilience in older people during the COVID-19 pandemic and may be taken into account in planning public health intervention strategies.

14.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(4): 465-472, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic posed a great strain in health services. AIM: To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to a regional hospital in southern Chile between April and August 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical records of all hospitalized patients with RT-PCR (+) for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period 226 patients aged 55 ± 18 years (55% men) were admitted. The main comorbidities were high blood pressure in 45%, diabetes in 31% and obesity in 21%. The main symptoms were dyspnea in 70%, cough in 69%, fever in 62% and myalgia in 47%. Pneumonia was the main cause of admission in 66%. Images on admission were compatible with pneumonia in 81%, and with a typical COVID-19 pattern in 84%. In 76% there was five-lobe involvement. Eighty-seven cases (39%) were admitted to critical care, with an APACHE score of 10.9 ± 7.1. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 16%, 30% required prone position and 13%, a high-flow nasal cannula. The mean stay in critical care was 13.3 days. The mean duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was 14.1 days. Antimicrobials were used in 55% and dexamethasone in 36%. Twenty-two (9.7%) patients aged 71.7 ± 14 died. A Charlson comorbidity index > 3, heart failure and connection to invasive mechanical ventilation were independent risk factors for death. An age > 65 years alone and other comorbidities were not risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Viral pneumonia is the main cause of hospitalization for COVID-19, usually extensive and bilateral. The greater severity and poor prognosis of these patients are mainly related to comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Dexametasona , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(4): 483-492, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Confinement is an effective measure to control COVID-19, but it can have repercussions on lifestyle-related behaviors, especially among adolescents. Poor quality diet and low physical activity could trigger weight gain and the appearance of chronic non-communicable diseases at an early age. AIM: To investigate the changes in eating and physical activity patterns before and during the first COVID-19 confinement in Chilean adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chilean adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years were invited to answer an online survey with 47 questions about dietary habits and physical activity. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 420 participants and only four adolescents declined to answer it. Changes in eating patterns were evidenced, such as an increase in lunch consumption from 54.1 to 83%, and a decrease in the consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Also, significant changes were observed in physical activity patterns, and an increase in the time spent sitting, from 4.7 to 5.8 hours during confinement. CONCLUSIONS: The first confinement for COVID-19 modified eating and physical activity patterns in Chilean adolescents towards unhealthy habits, which if maintained, could negatively affect their health and quality of life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(4): 532-540, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155762

RESUMO

This article briefly discloses what home hospitalization consists of, its different models of care, and the benefits and difficulties associated with it. We also describe the operation of the home hospitalization unit of the Padre Hurtado Hospital in Santiago de Chile and the role it took in the context of the first wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic, specifically between March and August of the year 2020. We aim to share our experience with this emerging form of hospitalization that is already working in Chilean public hospitals. We also hope that this hospitalization modality will continue to grow over the years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Chile/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos
17.
mSystems ; : e0149621, 2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173132

RESUMO

Among countries in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Chile stands out as having important inequalities in income distribution, dietary quality, access to urban green spaces, and health outcomes. People in lower socioeconomic groups consistently show higher rates of noncommunicable chronic diseases and are being hit the hardest by the COVID-19 pandemic. These chronic conditions are increasingly considered to be shaped, or affected by, the human gut microbiome. Moreover, inequity as an overarching concept might also be associated with microbial patterns and if so, this may represent a novel pathway through which to address health and other disparities. Focusing on the case of Chile, our goal is to contribute to a critical discussion and motivate researchers and policymakers to consider the role of the microbiome in social equity in future endeavors.

18.
Front Psychol ; 13: 887891, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967724

RESUMO

Student satisfaction is a crucial determinant of success in online education, but studies on satisfaction with virtual classes during the COVID-19 outbreak are still scarce. This research contributes empirical evidence regarding the determinants of overall satisfaction with online classes and academic performance through the domain satisfaction approach. Additionally, we introduce to the psychological literature the two-layer model, a well-known econometric methodology, to estimate the effect of domain satisfaction while controlling the impact of unobserved individual differences. Our analyses are based on a cross-sectional sample of n = 648 Chilean university students (53.4% female) surveyed at the end of the first academic semester of 2021, during the lockdown mandated by the Chilean government due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results show that satisfaction with the support provided by the university, satisfaction with learning, and satisfaction with the perceived quality of the online classes significantly explain the 68% of the variance of satisfaction with the virtual classes experience. Furthermore, satisfaction with academic performance is significantly explained by satisfaction with grades, learning, and the perceived quality of the online classes (R2 = .65). We also explore heterogeneous effects, separating them by gender and geographic area, and find that domains that systematically impact students' satisfaction with online education are satisfaction with grades, learning, and the quality of classes.

19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 815036, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968462

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess the impact of the initial two-dose-schedule mass vaccination campaign in Chile toward reducing adverse epidemiological outcomes due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Publicly available epidemiological data ranging from 3 February 2021 to 30 September 2021 were used to construct GAMLSS models that explain the beneficial effect of up to two doses of vaccination on the following COVID-19-related outcomes: new cases per day, daily active cases, daily occupied ICU beds and daily deaths. Results: Administered first and second vaccine doses, and the statistical interaction between the two, are strong, statistically significant predictors for COVID-19-related new cases per day (R2 = 0.847), daily active cases (R2 = 0.903), ICU hospitalizations (R2 = 0.767), and deaths (R2 = 0.827). Conclusion: Our models stress the importance of completing vaccination schedules to reduce the adverse outcomes during the pandemic. Future work will continue to assess the influence of vaccines, including booster doses, as the pandemic progresses, and new variants emerge. Policy Implications: This work highlights the importance of attaining full (two-dose) vaccination status and reinforces the notion that a second dose provides increased non-additive protection. The trends we observed may also support the inclusion of booster doses in vaccination plans. These insights could contribute to guiding other countries in their vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chile/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e77, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35990523

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on cancer care access in Chile, analyzing differential effects by insurance type, gender, and age. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study using interrupted time series analysis. We used multiple data sources for a broad evaluation of cancer-related health care utilization from January 2017 to December 2020. We fit negative binomial models by population groups for a range of services and diagnoses. Results: A sharp drop in oncology health care utilization in March was followed by a slow, incomplete recovery over 2020. Cumulative cancer-related services, diagnostic confirmations, and sick leaves were reduced by one third in 2020; the decrease was more pronounced among women and the publicly insured. Early diagnosis was missed in 5132 persons with 4 common cancers. Conclusions: The pandemic stressed the Chilean health system, decreasing access to essential services, with a profound impact on cancer care. Oncology service reductions preceded large-scale lockdowns and supply-side disruptions. Importantly, not all population groups were equally affected, with patterns suggesting that gender and socioeconomic inequalities were exacerbated.


Objetivos: Examinar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 no acesso a tratamento de câncer no Chile, analisando efeitos diferenciais por tipo de cobertura de assistência à saúde, gênero e idade. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo quase-experimental utilizando análise de séries temporais interrompidas. A partir de várias fontes de dados, efetuamos uma avaliação abrangente da utilização de atenção à saúde relacionada ao câncer, de janeiro de 2017 a dezembro de 2020. Ajustamos modelos binomiais negativos por grupos populacionais a vários tipos de serviços e diagnósticos. Resultados: Uma queda acentuada no uso da assistência médica oncológica em março foi seguida por uma recuperação lenta e incompleta ao longo de 2020. Cumulativamente, a utilização de serviços oncológicos, as confirmações de diagnóstico e os afastamentos do trabalho por doença foram reduzidos em um terço em 2020. Essa redução foi mais pronunciada em mulheres e usuários do sistema público de saúde. No total, 5132 pessoas com 4 cânceres comuns não foram diagnosticadas precocemente. Conclusões: A pandemia impôs pressão sobre o sistema de saúde chileno, reduzindo o acesso a serviços essenciais e causando um profundo impacto no tratamento do câncer. As reduções na prestação de serviços de oncologia precederam os lockdowns em larga escala e as interrupções na oferta de suprimentos. É importante ressaltar que nem todos os grupos populacionais foram igualmente afetados e os padrões observados sugerem que as desigualdades de gênero e socioeconômicas foram exacerbadas.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...