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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Saúde , Emoções , Felicidade , Hostilidade
2.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): D16-D27, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553971

RESUMO

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la calidad de los servicios de cuidado de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en los atributos de la calidad en salud de los servicios de atención de enfermedades diferentes a la COVID-19 en Colombia, durante el periodo 2020-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 24 artículos de alcance nacional y otros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander y Cundinamarca. Resultados: La pandemia por COVID-19 impactó la calidad de los servicios en la atención de enfermedades como cáncer, accidentes cerebrovasculares y de eventos como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Conclusión: La calidad de la salud se vio afectada en todas sus dimensiones durante las fases de la pandemia, especialmente en la población con enfermedades crónicas y relacionadas con la salud infantil y materna. Además, se destacaron respuestas como el uso de la telemedicina y de la atención domiciliaria para contribuir a la calidad de la salud en Colombia.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the quality of health care services. Objective: To analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the quality of health care services focused on treating diseases other than COVID-19 in Colombia during the 2020-2022 period. Materials and methods: 24 articles were analyzed, which included some studies focused on national issues and others specific to the departments of Antioquia, Cordoba, Santander, and Cundinamarca. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the quality of health services caring for diseases such as cancer, strokes, and critical circumstances like voluntary termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: All dimensions of health care were affected during the pandemic, especially impacting populations with chronic diseases and diseases related to child and maternal health. It is important to highlight that telemedicine and home care contributed to improving the quality of health in Colombia.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou significativamente a qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 nos atributos de qualidade em saúde dos serviços de atenção a outras doenças além da COVID-19 na Colômbia, durante o período 2020-2022. Materiais e métodos: foram analisados 24 artigos de âmbito nacional e outros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander e Cundinamarca. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou a qualidade dos serviços no cuidado de doenças como câncer, acidente vascular cerebral e eventos como a interrupção voluntária da gravidez. Conclusão: A qualidade da saúde foi afetada em todas as suas dimensões durante as fases da pandemia, especialmente na população com doenças crônicas e doenças relacionadas à saúde infantil e materna. Além disso, foram destacadas respostas como o uso da telemedicina e do atendimento domiciliar para contribuir para a qualidade da saúde na Colômbia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção à Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
3.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 33: e2023830, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden associated with COVID-19 in Córdoba, Colombia, 2020 and 2021. METHODS: Economic burden study. Direct costs were analyzed from the third-party payer perspective using healthcare administrative databases and interviews from a cohort of confirmed COVID-19 cases from Córdoba. Costing aggregation was performed by the bottom-up method. Indirect costs were estimated using the productivity loss approach. Contrast tests and statistical models were estimated at 5% significance. RESULTS: We studied 1,800 COVID-19 cases. The average economic cost of COVID-19 per episode was estimated at US$ 2,519 (95%CI 1,980;3,047). The direct medical cost component accounted for 92.9% of the total; out-of-pocket and indirect costs accounted for 2% and 5.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 economic cost was mainly due to direct medical costs. This study provided evidence of the economic burden faced by households due to COVID-19, with the most vulnerable households bearing much of the burden on their income.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adolescente
5.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606689, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38939517

RESUMO

Objetives: The adoption of vaccines was a crucial factor in overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic. However, vaccination rates between rural and urban areas varied greatly. In this paper, our objective is to understand the individual and institutional factors associated with the uptake of vaccines in remote rural areas in Colombia. Methods: We interviewed a random sample of 800 households (1,592 individuals) in remote rural areas of Antioquia (Colombia) during February 2022 when vaccinations were available. Then, we use a linear probability model to explain the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Results: The results indicate that the probability of having at least the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is positively associated with access to information, trust in police and army, and the perceived risk of contracting COVID-19. Trust in the church is negatively related to vaccination. Conclusion: Institutions can play a critical role in the management of pandemics. Timely information on the risks associated with the disease and perceived riskiness are key factors that mobilize the population to take the COVID-19 vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , População Rural , Humanos , Colômbia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Confiança
6.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30182, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707376

RESUMO

Introduction: The pandemic had a profound impact on the provision of health services in Cúcuta, Colombia where the neighbourhood-level risk of Covid-19 has not been investigated. Identifying the sociodemographic and environmental risk factors of Covid-19 in large cities is key to better estimate its morbidity risk and support health strategies targeting specific suburban areas. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with the risk of Covid-19 in Cúcuta considering inter -spatial and temporal variations of the disease in the city's neighbourhoods between 2020 and 2022. Methods: Age-adjusted rate of Covid-19 were calculated in each Cúcuta neighbourhood and each quarter between 2020 and 2022. A hierarchical spatial Bayesian model was used to estimate the risk of Covid-19 adjusting for socioenvironmental factors per neighbourhood across the study period. Two spatiotemporal specifications were compared (a nonparametric temporal trend; with and without space-time interaction). The posterior mean of the spatial and spatiotemporal effects was used to map the Covid-19 risk. Results: There were 65,949 Covid-19 cases in the study period with a varying standardized Covid-19 rate that peaked in October-December 2020 and April-June 2021. Both models identified an association of the poverty and stringency indexes, education level and PM10 with Covid-19 although the best fit model with a space-time interaction estimated a strong association with the number of high-traffic roads only. The highest risk of Covid-19 was found in neighbourhoods in west, central, and east Cúcuta. Conclusions: The number of high-traffic roads is the most important risk factor of Covid-19 infection in Cucuta. This indicator of mobility and connectivity overrules other socioenvironmental factors when Bayesian models include a space-time interaction. Bayesian spatial models are important tools to identify significant determinants of Covid-19 and identifying at-risk neighbourhoods in large cities. Further research is needed to establish causal links between these factors and Covid-19.

7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2024-05-15.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59607

RESUMO

Esta publicación analiza el grado de alineamiento entre la necesidad de priorizar el primer nivel de atención con el desempeño presupuestario en salud y la capacidad de absorción del sector salud del incremento de los recursos financieros en el periodo 2019 a 2021. La Estrategia de OPS/OMS para el Establecimiento de Sistemas de Salud Resilientes enfatiza la necesidad de priorizar las inversiones en el primer nivel de atención por su incidencia en los niveles de acceso y cobertura. En este ámbito, los presupuestos públicos sirven como el mecanismo por excelencia de revisión de políticas públicas donde se plasman las prioridades de los gobiernos y los diferentes actores del sistema de salud, se articula el modelo de atención y se reasignan recursos ante eventos de emergencia sanitaria. La relevancia del presupuesto público se manifiesta también en la propuesta de incrementar la inversión en salud proveniente de recursos públicos, principalmente ingresos generales (o impuestos) acercándose al 6% del PIB incluido en la estrategia de Salud Universal de la OPS/OMS. El periodo de análisis de esta publicación se caracterizó por un incremento sin precedentes en el flujo de recursos financieros hacia el sector salud para asegurar la capacidad de respuesta del sistema de salud frente a la emergencia sanitaria originada por la pandemia de la Covid-19. La mayor priorización de recursos públicos para salud se viabilizó a través de la implementación de diferentes mecanismos de expansión fiscal, y la utilización de recursos de emergencia; así como a través de las innovaciones en las reglas de gestión financiera pública. Del análisis en este documento elaborado para ocho países de la región utilizando información presupuestaria de acceso público se obtienen varias lecciones que relevan la importancia de fortalecer capacidades de gestión para una asignación más rápida, eficaz y equitativa que se traduzca a la vez en una ejecución presupuestaria más eficiente y equitativa de acuerdo con los objetivos sanitarios. Queda asimismo como tarea pendiente, el relacionar la asignación y uso de estos recursos con las barreras de acceso no-financieras y la interrupción de los servicios esenciales durante el mismo periodo.


Assuntos
Financiamento dos Sistemas de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Gastos Públicos com Saúde
8.
Glob Ment Health (Camb) ; 11: e61, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774886

RESUMO

Background: Community-based psychosocial support (CB-PSS) interventions utilizing task sharing and varied (in-person, remote) modalities are essential strategies to meet mental health needs, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, knowledge gaps remain regarding feasibility and effectiveness. Methods: This study assesses feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of a CB-PSS intervention for conflict-affected adults in Colombia through parallel randomized controlled trials, one delivered in-person (n = 165) and the other remotely (n = 103), implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic and national protests. Interventions were facilitated by nonspecialist community members and consisted of eight problem-solving and expressive group sessions. Findings: Attendance was moderate and fidelity was high in both modalities. Participants in both modalities reported high levels of satisfaction, with in-person participants reporting increased comfort expressing emotions and more positive experiences with research protocols. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder improved among in-person participants, but there were no significant changes for remote participants in comparison to waitlist controls. Implications: This CB-PSS intervention appears feasible and acceptable in both in-person and remote modalities and associated with reduction in some forms of distress when conducted in-person but not when conducted remotely. Methodological limitations and potential explanations and areas for future research are discussed, drawing from related studies.

9.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4601, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753982

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to identify predominant problematizations in Colombian feminist Instagram accounts regarding gender-based violence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a qualitative approach, a digital ethnography based on the principles of netnography was conducted as an alternative to detail the social worlds constructed from online groups. Fifty pieces of content from @lainsumisa and twenty pieces of content from @feministasenconstrucción, published between March 2020 and March 2021, were selected based on observations made within the online fieldwork framework. These were analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The findings discuss the following emerging categories: unpaid household work, romanticized harassment, fatphobia, and the violation of Black and racialized women's rights. In this context, cyberactivism is presented as an opportunity for the emergence of collectives and support networks for women advocating for gender equality and their rights, towards questioning patriarchal ideas that jeopardize their well-being.


El propósito de esta investigación es identificar las problematizaciones predominantes en cuentas feministas colombianas de Instagram, sobre las violencias basadas en género durante el primer año de la pandemia de covid-19. Desde un enfoque cualitativo, se realizó una etnografía digital basada en los preceptos de la netnografía, como alternativa para detallar los mundos sociales construidos a partir de los grupos en línea. A partir de las observaciones realizadas en el marco del trabajo de campo en línea se seleccionaron 50 contenidos de @lainsumisa y 20 contenidos de @feministasenconstrucción, publicados entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021, los cuales se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis del discurso. Entre los hallazgos se discuten las siguientes categorías emergentes: el trabajo no remunerado en el hogar, el acoso romantizado, la gordofobia y la vulneración a las mujeres negras y racializadas. Al respecto, se plantea el ciberactivismo como una oportunidad para el surgimiento de colectivos y redes de apoyo para las mujeres que luchan por la equidad de género y por sus derechos, hacia el cuestionamiento de ideas patriarcales que atentan contra su bienestar.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Colômbia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Direitos da Mulher , Pandemias , Feminismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Masculino , Antropologia Cultural
10.
Infect Dis Now ; 54(5): 104921, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: External validation of the 4C and NEWS2 scores for the prediction of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, and evaluation of its operational performance in two time periods: before and after the start of the vaccination program in Colombia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort in three high complexity hospitals in the city of Medellín, Colombia, between June 2020 and April 2022. RESULTS: The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) for the 4C mortality risk score and the NEWS2 were 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.78) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.66-0.71), respectively. For the 4C score, the AUC for the first and second periods was 0.77 (95% CI 0.74-0.80) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.78); whilst for the NEWS2 score, it was 0.68 (95% CI 0.65-0.71) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.64-0.73). The calibration for both scores was adequate, albeit with reduced performance during the second period. CONCLUSIONS: The 4C mortality risk score proved to be the more adequate predictor of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients in this Latin American population. The operational performance during both time periods remained similar, which shows its utility notwithstanding major changes, including vaccination, as the pandemic evolved.

11.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558093

RESUMO

Se desconoce el impacto que produjo la pandemia por el COVID-19 en la prestación y en la consulta de los servicios odontológicos y analizados según el sistema integrado de protección social o SISPRO en Colombia. El objetivo fue Determinar los cambios en la cobertura y los patrones de atención odontológica, entre los años pre pandemia (2017-2019) y los años de pandemia (2020-2021). Se analizaron los registros de las atenciones odontológicas reportadas en el sistema SISPRO del Ministerio de Salud de Colombia en periodos prepandemia y postpandemia por el COVID-19. En el año 2019 la tasa de cobertura por cada 100 habitantes en el estudio era de 31,14; sin embargo, la cobertura de atención odontológica se redujo al 17% en el 2020 y al 9% en el 2021 y las atenciones de urgencias disminuyeron drásticamente en los años 2020 y en el 2021. Se requiere que los tomadores de decisión promuevan los servicios de odontología para recuperar los niveles de cobertura previos a la pandemia. Se identificó una disminución en la cobertura odontológica asociada a la pandemia de la COVID-19 en los años 2020 y 2021 y desconocen cuales son los posibles efectos en la morbilidad bucal de los Colombianos.


Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic affected Colombian dental services from March 2019 to now, but its magnitude is unknown. Objective. To determine dental care coverage in Colombia during the pandemic period and compare these data with the pre-pandemic period 2017-2019. Methods. Dental coverage and consultation services registered in the "Sistema Integrado de Protección Social" or SISPRO from 2017 to 2021 were analyzed. Results. The whole dental service coverage rate was nearly 20% before Covid-19 pandemic and even registered a slight increase from 2017 to 2018 at national and at department levels. This dental national coverage was 31,14% for every 100 habitants in 2019. However, there was a sharp reduction to 17% in 2020 and to 9% in 2021, revealing a clear and negative impact of the pandemic in dental coverage services and in dental emergency services. Conclusion. A decrease in dental coverage during to the COVID-19 pandemic is revealed, with a concomitant reduction in dental emergency consultations during 2020 and 2021 at country level. The consequences of this disruption on the oral and dental epidemiological profile of Colombians is still unknown and might require urgent preventive, promotional and curative care actions to recover the pre-pandemic dental coverage levels.

12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examines the financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Colombian Health System, focusing on the adequacy of reimbursement rates for inpatient stays. The study, based on a cost of illness analysis, aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the reimbursement scheme and identify potential economic losses within the health system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study protocol outlines the inclusion criteria for patients >18 years with confirmed COVID-19 infection and moderate to critical disease. Patients hospitalised between June 2020 and June 2021 for at least 24 hours were included. Exclusion criteria involved pregnant patients and those initially hospitalised for non-COVID-19. RESULTS: The study included 781 patients contributing to 790 hospitalisations. Demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed, with critical illness being the most prevalent category (61%). The overall mortality rate was 20.3%, primarily observed in critically ill patients. In the general ward for moderate cases, the reimbursement rate saw a substantial increase from US$3237 in 2020 to US$6760 in 2021, surpassing median resource utilisation. However, for severe cases in the intermediate care unit, reimbursement rates decreased, indicating potential insufficiency in covering costs. In the intensive care unit for critical cases, despite improved reimbursement rates, median resource utilisation still exceeds the 2021 rate, suggesting financial insufficiency in reimbursement rates. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the inadequacies of the previous reimbursement system in addressing the varying resource utilisation and costs associated with COVID-19 inpatient care. Our analysis reveals substantial discrepancies between estimated costs and actual resource utilisation, particularly for severe and critical cases. We advocate for government flexibility in revising reimbursement baskets, supported by pilot studies to assess effectiveness. The use of real-world evidence forms a crucial basis for informed adjustments to reimbursement levels in preparation for future pandemics. This proactive approach ensures alignment between reimbursement policies and the actual costs associated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
13.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e29028, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601541

RESUMO

Background: Cytokine dysregulation in COVID-19 patients aged over 60 has been associated to adverse outcomes. While serum levels have been studied, cellular expression, particularly in Afro-Colombians, remains understudied. This research aims to describe cytokine expression in peripheral blood leukocytes and its association with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients aged over 60 at Cartagena's referral hospital. Methods: A cohort study was conducted, encompassing severe and critical cases of COVID-19 between November 2021 and February 2022. At baseline, the cellular expression level of cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ was assessed using flow cytometry. Additionally, various biochemical, hematological, and coagulation markers were evaluated. The main outcome was time to death. Results: Among the 50 enrolled participants, the median age was 76.5 years, 60% were male, 60% were admitted to the ICU, and 42% died. Lactate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin were the only markers that differed between fatal and surviving cases. Regarding cytokines, the level of IL-6 expression was associated with an increased risk of death. Specifically, a one percent increase in the expression was associated with a 7.3% increase in the risk of death. Stratifying the analysis by death and ICU admission, the median expression level remained high in fatal cases who were admitted to the ICU. Conclusions: Our findings revealed a significant association between high cellular expression levels of IL-6 and an increased risk of mortality. These results provide valuable scientific insights that could inform the prioritization of case management, providing especially advantageous for the vulnerable Afro-Colombian group.

14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8497, 2024 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605121

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was considered a major public health burden worldwide. Multiple studies have shown that susceptibility to severe infections and the development of long-term symptoms is significantly influenced by viral and host factors. These findings have highlighted the potential of host genetic markers to identify high-risk individuals and develop target interventions to reduce morbimortality. Despite its importance, genetic host factors remain largely understudied in Latin-American populations. Using a case-control design and a custom next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel encompassing 81 genetic variants and 74 genes previously associated with COVID-19 severity and long-COVID, we analyzed 56 individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 and 56 severe and critical cases. In agreement with previous studies, our results support the association between several clinical variables, including male sex, obesity and common symptoms like cough and dyspnea, and severe COVID-19. Remarkably, thirteen genetic variants showed an association with COVID-19 severity. Among these variants, rs11385942 (p < 0.01; OR = 10.88; 95% CI = 1.36-86.51) located in the LZTFL1 gene, and rs35775079 (p = 0.02; OR = 8.53; 95% CI = 1.05-69.45) located in CCR3 showed the strongest associations. Various respiratory and systemic symptoms, along with the rs8178521 variant (p < 0.01; OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.27-4.94) in the IL10RB gene, were significantly associated with the presence of long-COVID. The results of the predictive model comparison showed that the mixed model, which incorporates genetic and non-genetic variables, outperforms clinical and genetic models. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Colombia and Latin-America proposing a predictive model for COVID-19 severity and long-COVID based on genomic analysis. Our study highlights the usefulness of genomic approaches to studying host genetic risk factors in specific populations. The methodology used allowed us to validate several genetic variants previously associated with COVID-19 severity and long-COVID. Finally, the integrated model illustrates the importance of considering genetic factors in precision medicine of infectious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/genética , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fatores de Risco
15.
Microorganisms ; 12(4)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased antimicrobial use during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about the spread of resistant bacteria. This study analyzed the frequency of device-associated infections (DAI) caused by resistant bacteria, the predictors of these infections, and 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on DAI patients admitted to the ICU (intensive care unit) in 20 hospitals in Medellin, Colombia (2020-2021). The exposure assessed was the COVID-19 diagnosis, and outcomes analyzed were resistant bacterial infections and 30-day mortality. Clinical and microbiological information was collected from surveillance databases. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Of the 1521 patients included, 1033 (67.9%) were COVID-19-positive and 1665 DAI were presented. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections predominated during the study (n = 98; 9.9%). The patients with COVID-19 had a higher frequency of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing CRE infections (n = 15; 33.3%) compared to patients without the disease (n = 3; 13.0%). Long-stay in the ICU (RR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.39-3.16), diabetes (RR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.21-2.49), and mechanical ventilation (RR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.01-4.51) were CRE infection predictors in COVID-19 patients, with a mortality rate of 60.3%. CONCLUSION: CRE infections were predominant in COVID-19 patients. In pandemic situations, the strategies to control DAI should be maintained to avoid infections caused by resistant bacteria, such as length of stay in the ICU and duration of mechanical ventilation.

16.
Vet Res Commun ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598117

RESUMO

The global presence of SARS-CoV-2 in household pets is acknowledged, yet documentation remains scarce, leaving many regions unexplored. Thus, our study sought to fill this gap by investigating SARS-CoV-2 presence in dogs visiting veterinary clinics during the third pandemic peak in eastern Colombia. We collected and analyzed 43 oropharyngeal and rectal swabs using real-time PCR assays targeting the Envelope Gene of SARS-CoV-2. Out of these, two dogs tested positive, indicating an infection rate of 4.7%. Further examination through complete sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the lineage B.1.621 for the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Consequently, our study unveils the first documented cases of Canis lupus familiaris infected with the Mu variant of SARS-CoV-2, the variant with the most death burden during the whole pandemic in Colombia. Remarkably, these cases presented mild and reversible respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, or no clinical manifestations at all. This sheds light on the virus's interaction with our four-legged companions, offering valuable insights into its transmission dynamics and potential effects on animal health.

17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301552, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573958

RESUMO

This study investigates the intricate relationship between Venezuelan migration and urban growth in Colombia from 2018 to 2021. The study employs remote sensing data and social network metrics to uncover migration patterns and their impact on urban expansion. The methodology consists of three stages. Firstly, nighttime satellite imagery is used to analyze year-over-year urban growth in Colombia. Secondly, social network data estimates Venezuelan migration, overcoming challenges of underreporting and informal border crossings. Lastly, an econometric analysis explores the quantitative link between Venezuelan migration and urban growth, integrating socioeconomic variables to address endogeneity. The findings reveal the complex interplay of Venezuelan migration, socioeconomic factors, and urban growth. The study outlines remote sensing analysis, introducing the Anthropogenic Footprint Expansion Index (AFEI) to quantify urban growth. Facebook API data estimates migration trends and explores socioeconomic impacts on urban expansion. The analysis uncovers migration, poverty, aging, and urban population proportion as key factors affecting Colombia's urban landscape. Furthermore, the research underscores how Venezuelan migration affected short-term urban expansion pre- and post-COVID-19. Migration had a notable effect before the pandemic, but this influence waned afterward. The study highlights migration's short-term nature and emphasizes age demographics' role in medium-term dynamics.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Demografia , Incidência , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
18.
Biomedica ; 44(1): 54-66, 2024 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648352

RESUMO

Introduction. During the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Antioquia, we experienced epidemiological peaks related to the α, É£, ß, ƛ, and δ variants. δ had the highest incidence and prevalence. This lineage is of concern due to its clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics. A total of 253 δ sublineages have been reported in the PANGOLIN database. The sublineage identification through genomic analysis has made it possible to trace their evolution and propagation. Objective. To characterize the genetic diversity of the different SARS-CoV-2 δ sublineages in Antioquia and to describe its prevalence. Materials and methods. We collected sociodemographic information from 2,675 samples, and obtained 1,115 genomes from the GISAID database between July 12th, 2021, and January 18th, 2022. From the analyzed genomes, 515 were selected because of their high coverage values (>90%) to perform phylogenetic analysis and to infer allele frequencies of mutations of interest. Results. We characterized 24 sublineages. The most prevalent was AY.25. Mutations of interest as L452R, P681R, and P681H were identified in this sublineage, comprising a frequency close to 0.99. Conclusions. This study identified that the AY.25 sublineage has a transmission advantage compared to the other δ sublineages. This attribute may be related to the presence of the L452R and P681R mutations associated in other studies with higher evasion of the immune system and less efficacy of drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Introducción. Durante el desarrollo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en Antioquia se presentaron picos epidemiológicos relacionados con las variantes α, É£, ß, ƛ y δ, donde δ tuvo la mayor incidencia y prevalencia. Este linaje se considera una variante de preocupación dadas las manifestaciones clínicas que desencadena y sus características epidemiológicas. Se han informado 253 sublinajes δ en la base de datos PANGOLIN. La identificación de estos sublinajes mediante análisis genómico ha permitido rastrear su evolución y propagación. Objetivo. Caracterizar la diversidad genética de los diferentes sublinajes δ de SARSCoV-2 en Antioquia y determinar su prevalencia. Materiales y métodos. Se recopiló información sociodemográfica de 2.675 muestras y de 1.115 genomas del repositorio GISAID entre el 12 de julio de 2021 y el 18 de enero de 2022. Se seleccionaron 501 por su alto porcentaje de cobertura (>90 %) para realizar análisis filogenéticos e inferencia de frecuencias alélicas de mutaciones de interés. Resultados. Se caracterizaron 24 sublinajes donde el más prevalente fue AY.25. En este sublinaje se identificaron mutaciones de interés como L452R, P681R y P681H, que comprendían una frecuencia cercana a 0,99. Conclusiones. Este estudio permitió identificar que el sublinaje AY.25 tiene una ventaja de transmisión en comparación con los otros sublinajes δ. Esto puede estar relacionado con la presencia de las mutaciones L452R y P681R que en otros estudios se han visto asociadas con una mayor transmisibilidad, evasión del sistema inmunitario y menor eficacia de los medicamentos contra SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Colômbia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Mutação , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adolescente , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética
19.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585840

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 vaccination and shielding targeted hypertensive patients in low and middle income countries. We describe the COVID-19 experiences of hypertensive patients in Colombia and Jamaica and discuss factors associated with vaccine acceptance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2021 and February 2022 in 4 randomly selected primary care clinics in Colombia and 10 primary care clinics in Jamaica. Participants in Colombia were randomly selected from an electronic medical record. In Jamaica consecutive participants were selected on clinic days for non-communicable diseases. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted by telephone. Results: 576 participants were recruited (50% Jamaica; 68.5% female). Jamaica's participants were younger (36% vs 23% <60 years) and had a lower proportion of persons with "more than high school" education (17.2% vs 30.3%, p=0.011). Colombia's participants more commonly tested positive for COVID-19 (24.2% vs 6.3%, p<0.001), had a family member or close friend test positive for COVID-19 (54.5% vs, 21.6%; p<0.001), experienced loss of a family member or friend due to COVID-19 (21.5% vs 7.8%, p<0.001) and had vaccination against COVID-19 (90.6% vs 46.7%, p<0.001). Fear of COVID-19 (AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.20-6.13) and residence in Colombia (AOR 5.88 (95% CI 2.38-14.56) were associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Disruption in health services affecting prescription of medication or access to doctors was low (<10%) for both countries. Conclusion: Health services disruption was low but COVID-19 experiences such as fear of COVID-19 and vaccine acceptance differed significantly between Colombia and Jamaica. Addressing reasons for these differences are important for future pandemic responses.

20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1323490, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605871

RESUMO

Introduction: The different strategies used worldwide to curb the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 and 2021 had a negative psychosocial impact, which was disproportionately higher for socially and economically vulnerable groups. This article seeks to identify the psychosocial impact of the confinement period during the COVID-19 pandemic for the Colombian population by identifying profiles that predict the levels of different mental health indicators (feelings of fear, positive emotions or feelings during free time, and work impact) and based on them, characterize the risk factors and protection that allows us to propose guidelines for prevention or recovery from future health emergencies. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective ex post facto study. Multistage cluster probabilistic sampling and binary logistic regression analysis were used to predict extreme levels of various mental health indicators based on psychosocial indicators of the COVID-19 confinement period and to identify risk and protection factors. Results: A relationship was established between the combination of some of the different psychosocial factors evaluated (this combination being the predictive profile identified) with each of the three main variables: feeling of fear (n = 8,247; R = 0.32; p = 0.00; Poverall = 62.4%; 𝜔overall = 0.25; 1-𝛽overall = 1.00), positive emotions or feelings during free time (n = 6,853; R = 0.25; p = 0.00; Poverall = 59.1%; 𝜔overall = 0.18; 1-𝛽overall = 1.00) and labour impact (n = 4,573; R = 0.47; p = 0.63; Poverall = 70.4%; 𝜔overall = 0.41; 1-𝛽overall = 1.00), with social vulnerability determined by sociodemographic factors that were common in all profiles (sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic level) and conditions associated with job insecurity (unemployed, loss of health insurance and significant changes to job's requirements) and place of residence (city). Conclusion: For future health emergencies, it is necessary to (i) mitigate the socio-employment impact from emergency containment measures in a scaled and differentiated manner at the local level, (ii) propose prevention and recovery actions through psychosocial and mental health care accessible to the entire population, especially vulnerable groups, (iii) Design and implement work, educational and recreational adaptation programs that can be integrated into confinement processes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Emergências , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
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