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1.
Tegucigalpa; OPS; 2021-09-16. (OPS/HND/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54846

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , Administração em Saúde Pública , América Central , Honduras
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

4.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Ferramenta de Busca , Argentina , Bolívia , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Equador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Pandemias , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113933, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873009

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. METHODS: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. The total sample size consisted of 1559 respondents from Honduras (34%), Chile (29%), Costa Rica (17%), Mexico (11%), and Spain (9%). RESULTS: The most common stress domains correspond to family (22.97%), financial (22.53%), academic (16.47%), leisure time constraints (14.23%), health (12.48%), peer group (7.63%), and religious concerns (3.69%). These domains are significantly associated with the respondent's country, sex, employment status, and being or not a health worker. Respondents who reported confinement stress also reported higher scores in anxiety, depression, and somatization. The Global Severity Index was significantly predicted by confinement stress, health, academic, and leisure time-related stress, sex, age, being a health worker, COVID-19 Personal Concern, and Perceived Seriousness. Non-significant predictors were employment status, the number of people at home, presence of older adults and children at home, financial, peer group, family, and religious concerns; the regression model had an R2 of 0.26. Similar analyses were conducted for somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on the mental health of the general population, particularly regarding anxiety, depression, and somatization. Specific populations, such as women and healthcare workers, are at particular risk of suffering a deterioration in mental wellbeing. The implications of the study for public policy are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Chile , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e358-e359, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693878

RESUMO

A recent correspondence discussed that in trying times, technology can help be applied toward epidemiology to benefit communities by building a basic surveillance system. This suggested development in Honduras can be utilized in the Philippines to improve the State's handling of health emergencies. With this, this paper accentuates the importance of prevention and planning to ensure public health in the Philippines, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Dengue , Honduras , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 97-107, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533501

RESUMO

We conducted a study to document the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on cancer screening continuum in selected low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). LMICs having an operational cancer control plan committed to screen eligible individuals were selected. Managers/supervisors of cancer screening programs were invited to participate in an online survey and subsequent in-depth interview. Managers/supervisors from 18 programs in 17 countries participated. Lockdown was imposed in all countries except Brazil. Screening was suspended for at least 30 days in 13 countries, while diagnostic-services for screen-positives were suspended in 9 countries. All countries except Cameroon, Bangladesh, India, Honduras and China managed to continue with cancer treatment throughout the outbreak. The participants rated service availability compared to pre-COVID days on a scale of 0 (no activities) to 100 (same as before). A rating of ≤50 was given for screening services by 61.1%, diagnostic services by 44.4% and treatment services by 22.2% participants. At least 70% participants strongly agreed that increased noncompliance of screen-positive individuals and staff being overloaded or overwhelmed with backlogs would deeply impact screening programs in the next 6 months at least. Although many of the LMICs were deficient in following the "best practices" to minimize service disruptions, at least some of them made significant efforts to improve screening participation, treatment compliance and program organization. A well-coordinated effort is needed to reinitiate screening services in the LMICs, starting with a situational analysis. Innovative strategies adopted by the programs to keep services on-track should be mutually shared.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Bangladesh , Brasil , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camarões , China , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Honduras , Humanos , Índia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245025, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted presentations with rising evidence of immune-mediated mechanisms underplay. We sought to explore the outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients treated with a multi-mechanism approach (MMA) in addition to standard-of-care (SC) versus patients who only received SC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This observational cohort study was performed at five institutions, 3 in the United States and 2 in Honduras. Patients were stratified for MMA vs. SC treatment during ICU stay. MMA treatment consists of widely available medications started immediately upon hospitalization. These interventions target immunomodulation, anticoagulation, viral suppression, and oxygenation. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) for the index hospitalization and were measured using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 86 patients admitted, 65 (76%) who had severe COVID-19 were included in the study; 30 (46%) patients were in SC group, compared with 35 (54%) patients treated with MMA group. Twelve (40%) patients in the SC group died, compared with 5 (14%) in the MMA group (p-value = 0.01, Chi squared test). After adjustment for gender, age, treatment group, Q-SOFA score, the MMA group had a mean length of stay 8.15 days, when compared with SC group with 13.55 days. ICU length of stay was reduced by a mean of 5.4 days (adjusted for a mean age of 54 years, p-value 0.03) and up to 9 days (unadjusted for mean age), with no significant reduction in overall adjusted mortality rate, where the strongest predictor of mortality was the use of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The finding that MMA decreases the average ICU length of stay by 5.4 days and up to 9 days in older patients suggests that implementation of this treatment protocol could allow a healthcare system to manage 60% more COVID-19 patients with the same number of ICU beds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e297-e298, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512491

RESUMO

A recently published article of this journal stated that informatics solutions can guide better public health decision-making during the COVID 19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic. Honduras is a country facing the COVID-19 pandemic with a weak health surveillance system while also fighting a dengue epidemic and the aftermath of two hurricanes that struck its territory in November 2020. In response, we as academics started a COVID-19 and Dengue Observatory combining several technological platforms and developing multidisciplinary research to help the country navigate the crisis. Mapping the pandemic and the natural disasters showed us that technology can be applied toward epidemiology to benefit communities in a time of need by quickly building a basic digital health surveillance system for Honduras.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Dengue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e476-e483, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Few reports exist in Latin America, a current epicenter of transmission. Here, we aim to describe the epidemiology and outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Honduras. METHODS: Baseline clinical and epidemiological information of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases detected between 17 March-4 May in the San Pedro Sula Metropolitan area was collected; for hospitalized cases, clinical data were abstracted. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the factors associated with hospitalization. RESULTS: We identified 877 COVID-19 cases, of which 25% (n = 220) were hospitalized. The 19-44-year age group (57.8%) and males (61.3%) were predominant in overall COVID-19 cases. Of the cases, 34% (n = 299) had at least 1 preexisting medical condition. Individuals aged 45-69 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.85-5.76) or ≥70 years (aOR = 9.12; 95% CI, 5.24-15.86), of male sex (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.44), and those with a preexisting condition (aOR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.43-3.14) had higher odds of hospitalization. Of inpatients, 50% were hospitalized more than 7 days. The median length of hospitalization was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8-29) among individuals aged 19-44 years, and 17 days (IQR, 11-24.6) among those aged 45-69. Of the fatal cases, 42% occurred among adults under 60 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a high proportion of COVID-19 cases in Honduras occurred among younger adults, who also constituted a significant proportion of severe and fatal cases. Preexisting conditions were associated with severe outcomes independently from age and were highly prevalent in Honduran COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Honduras/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 63-67, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283030

RESUMO

Honduras se encuentra en el puesto 56 a nivel mundial con 4,151 muertes reportadas y 170,304 casos confirmados de COVID-19 hasta el 1 de marzo del 2021. Esta revisión bibliográfica se llevó a cabo con el propósito de brindar una perspectiva científica sobre el uso del protocolo MAIZ (Microdacyn, Azitromicina, Ivermectina y Zinc) propuesto para uso terapéutico y profiláctico durante la fase de infección precoz/respuesta viral y contactos asintomáticos de COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre los lineamientos de instituciones gubernamentales y organismos internacionales, artículos y estudios científicos en PubMed, The Lancet, SciELO. La búsqueda se limitó a los artículos en español e inglés publicados entre el año 2010 y el 1 de marzo del 2021 concluyendo que el protocolo MAIZ carece de evidencia científica que respalde su efectividad contra el COVID-19 y es necesario realizar ensayos clínicos para respaldar su uso de manera responsable...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Protocolos Clínicos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
18.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 7(1): 50-58, 2021. tab, graf.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1284618

RESUMO

Justificación: los centros penales constituyen escenarios donde confluyen una serie de determinantes para la aparición de enfermedades de interés en salud pública, dada la vulnerabilidad imperante y el riesgo exponencial de propagación. En el mes de junio del año 2020 el personal de salud del municipio de Gracias, departamento de Lempira, al occidente de Honduras, observó un incremento en el número de enfermedades respiratorias agudas a expensas de las atenciones brindadas en el centro penal ubicado en esta ciudad. Metodología: se integró un equipo de investigación coordinado por la Unidad de Epidemiologia del Sistema Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos para realizar un estudio de casos. Resultados: se encontraron 63 casos de COVID-19, distribuidos entre personal penitenciario y privados de libertad; el 97% eran hombres, entre 40 y 59 años de edad, que presentaron un cuadro clínico de leve a moderado, siendo los síntomas más frecuentemente observados: fiebre, anosmia y tos persistente. Se inició manejo y tratamiento normado, ninguno de los casos requirió hospitalización. Discusión: de acuerdo al tiempo de incubación descrito para la COVID-19 y los resultados de las pruebas serológicas, se dedujo que el ingreso de la enfermedad al centro penitenciario fue a través del personal de seguridad, identificando el caso índice probable en un guardia penitenciarios que realizó un traslado hacia otro centro penal. Este reporte describe las acciones realizadas para la investigación y control del primer brote de la COVID-19 documentado en un centro penitenciario de Honduras...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estabelecimentos Correcionais/legislação & jurisprudência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações
19.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(2): 70-76, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, map
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152089

RESUMO

Antecedentes. Cobertura Universal en Salud es uno de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Las personas con dis-capacidad suelen tener mayores dificultades de acceso a la salud que el resto de la población. Factores del entorno como el diseño y las construcciones pueden ser una barrera o un facilitador. Ob-jetivo. Evaluar lascaracterísticas de accesibilidad en el diseño y las ayudas técnicas para la movilidad en los establecimientos de salud en zonas de realización del servicio médico social, Carre-ra de Medicina UNAH, cohorte 2013-2014. Métodos. En base a principios de diseño universal se evaluaron barreras y facilitado-res para el acceso a la salud en establecimientos de salud, inclu-yendo centros de atención primaria y hospitales. Resultados. Se evaluaron 176 establecimientos en 17 departamentos, 154 uni-dades de atención primaria (UAP) y 22 hospitales. Las mayores barreras fueron la señalización inadecuada de rutas: 150 (97.4%) UAP y 20 (90.9%) hospitales; la carencia de soportes en los ba-ños: 152 (98.7%) UAP y 20 (90.9%) hospitales; la inaccesibilidad a personas en sillas de ruedas: 129 (83.8%) UAP y 9 (40.9%) hospitales. Discusión. Mejorar el acceso y la calidad de los ser-vicios de salud para las personas con discapacidad es impres-cindible para reducir las inequidades. Nuestro estudio indica que el diseño de los establecimientos de salud en Honduras supone una barrera para el acceso y calidad de salud de las personas con discapacidad. Se exhorta al Estado a regular y supervisar el diseño y construcción de edificios accesibles para todos, a fin de reducir las brechas en salud...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Serviços de Saúde para Pessoas com Deficiência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cobertura Universal de Saúde
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