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5.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(12): e672-e684, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797794

RESUMO

Childhood cancers caused an estimated 75 000 deaths in children aged 0-14 years in 2018, of which 90% were in low-income and middle-income countries, and yet this group is missing from global health agendas. We examined global patterns in public and philanthropic funding for childhood cancer research-a proxy for global research activity-to address the critical gaps in knowledge. We used data from the Dimensions database to systematically search for and analyse 3414 grants from 115 funders across 35 countries between 2008 and 2016, organised by funding source, recipient, tumour type, research focus, and pipeline categories, to investigate trends over time. During this period, global funding for childhood cancer research was US$2 billion, of which $772 million (37·9%) was for general childhood cancer, $449 million (22·0%) was for leukaemias, and $330 million (16·2%) was for CNS tumours. $1·6 billion (77·7%) of funding was awarded from, and to, institutions based in the USA. Preclinical research received $1·2 billion (59·3%), and around $525 million (25·7%) included support for clinical trials, but only $113 million (5·5%) supported health-care delivery research. Overall, funding was inadequate and geographically inequitable, and new commitments to funding have declined since 2011.

6.
Health Policy Plan ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800054

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases and disabilities, with severe implications on morbidity and mortality among older adults. With an increasing prevalence of obesity among older adults in Ghana, it has become necessary to develop cost-effective strategies for its management and prevention. However, developing such strategies is challenging as body mass index (BMI)-specific utilization and costs required for cost-effectiveness analysis are not available in this population. Therefore, this study examines the associations between health services utilization as well as direct healthcare costs and overweight (BMI ≥25.00 and <30.00 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30.00 kg/m2) among older adults in Ghana. Data were used from a nationally representative, multistage sample of 3350 people aged 50+ years from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE; 2014/15). Health service utilization was measured by the number of health facility visits over a 12-month period. Direct costs (2017 US dollars) included out-of-pocket payments and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) claims. Associations between utilization and BMI were examined using multivariable zero-inflated negative binomial regressions; and between costs and BMI using multivariable two-part regressions. Twenty-three percent were overweight and 13% were obese. Compared with normal-weight participants, overweight and obesity were associated with 75% and 159% more inpatient admissions, respectively. Obesity was also associated with 53% additional outpatient visits. One in five of the overweight and obese population had at least one chronic disease, and having chronic disease was associated with increased outpatient utilization. The average per person total costs for overweight was $78 and obesity was $132 compared with $35 for normal weight. The NHIS bore approximately 60% of the average total costs per person expended in 2014/15. Overweight and obese groups had significantly higher total direct healthcare costs burden of $121 million compared with $64 million for normal weight in the entire older adult Ghanaian population. Compared with normal weight, the total costs per person associated with overweight increased by 73% and more than doubled for obesity. Even though the total prevalence of overweight and obesity was about half of that of normal weight, the sum of their cost burden was almost doubled. Implementing weight reduction measures could reduce health service utilization and costs in this population.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796865

RESUMO

Effectively responding to global health emergencies requires substantial financial commitment from many stakeholders, including governments, multilateral agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. A major current policy challenge needs attention: how to better coordinate investment among actors aiming to address a common problem, disease outbreaks. For donors who commit colossal sums of money to outbreak response, the current model is neither efficient nor transparent. Innovative approaches to coordinate financing have recently been tested as part of a broader development agenda for humanitarian response. Adopting a system that enables donors to invest in disease outbreaks rather than actors represents an opportunity to deliver a more cost-effective, transparent, and unified global response to infectious disease outbreaks. Achieving this will be challenging, but the World Health Organization (WHO) must play a vital role. New thinking is required to improve emergency response in an increasingly crowded and financially convoluted global health arena.

8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 923-934, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047679

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta um trabalho que consistiu no levantamento quantitativo das publicações sobre a Agenda 2030 de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na América Latina, ou que foram escritas por autores afiliados às instituições da região, focando no tema saúde. Foram realizadas buscas em bancos de dados, para o período entre janeiro de 2009 e maio de 2017, e encontradas 127 publicações voltadas para o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 ­ Boa Saúde e Bem-Estar. A maior parcela dos resultados (92%) é constituída de artigos científicos que foram descritos segundo o ano e veículo de publicação, instituições de filiação dos autores e sua localização. Quase a metade das publicações (47%) foi feita sem a participação de organizações latino-americanas e em apenas 30% dos casos o primeiro autor pertence a uma organização latino-americana. Esse quadro se torna mais nítido quando se observa a concentração da produção latinoamericana em torno de organizações brasileiras: a produção científica sobre as resoluções da Agenda 2030 em relação à saúde ainda está ausente em grande parte do território latino-americano.


This article presents a work that consisted of a quantitative research about publications on Agenda 2030 on Sustainable Development in Latin America, or written by authors affiliated with institutions in the region, focusing on health. A search using databases on the subject for the period between January 2009 and May 2017 was made, and 127 publications focusing on Sustainable Development Goal 3 ­ Good Health and Well-Being. The majority (92%) of the publications were scientific articles and were described in relation to the year and vehicle of publication, authors' affiliation institutions and their location. Almost half of the publications (47%) were made without the participation of Latin American organizations and only 30% of cases have the first author who belongs to a Latin American organization. This picture becomes clearer when we see the concentration of Latin American production at Brazilian organizations: scientific production onAgenda 2030 regarding health is still absent in much of the Latin American territory.


Este artículo presenta un trabajo que ha consistido en el levantamiento cuantitativo de las publicaciones sobre la Agenda 2030 en América Latina o que fueron escritas por autores afiliados a instituciones de la región con el foco en salud. Se realizaron búsquedas en bancos de datos para el período entre 2009 y mayo de 2017. Se encontraron 127 publicaciones sobre el Objetivos de desarrollo sostenible 3 ­ Salud y Bienestar. Constituyen la mayoría (92%) artículos científicos que fueron descritos según el año y el vehículo de publicación, las instituciones de filiación de los autores y su ubicación. En casi la mitad de las publicaciones (47%) no hubo participación de organizaciones latinoamericanas y solamente en 30% de los casos el primer autor pertenece a una organización latinoamericana. Este cuadro es más nítido cuando observada la concentración de la producción latinoamericana en organizaciones brasileñas: La producción científica sobrela Agenda 2030 en el área de la salud todavía está ausente en gran parte de la América Latina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Ambiental , Base de Dados , Governança , América Latina , Nações Unidas , Revisão , Artigo de Revista , Academias e Institutos , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Comunicação Acadêmica , Política de Saúde
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 196, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kenya is experiencing persistently high levels of inequity in health and access to care services. In 2018, decades of sustained policy efforts to promote equitable, affordable and quality health services have culminated in the launch of a universal health coverage scheme, initially piloted in four Kenyan counties and planned for national rollout by 2022. Our study aims to contribute to monitoring and evaluation efforts alongside policy implementation, by establishing a detailed, baseline assessment of socio-economic inequality and inequity in health care utilization in Kenya shortly before the policy launch. METHODS: We use concentration curves and corrected concentration indexes to measure socio-economic inequality in care use and the horizontal inequity index as a measure of inequity in care utilization for three types of care services: outpatient care, inpatient care and preventive and promotive care. Further insights into the individual and household level characteristics that determine observed inequality are derived through decomposition analysis. RESULTS: We find significant inequality and inequity in the use of all types of care services favouring richer population groups, with particularly pronounced levels for preventive and inpatient care services. These are driven primarily by differences in living standards and educational achievement, while the region of residence is a key driver for inequality in preventive care use only. Pro-rich inequalities are particularly pronounced for care provided in privately owned facilities, while public providers serve a much larger share of individuals from lower socio-economic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Through its focus on increasing affordability of care for all Kenyans, the newly launched universal health coverage scheme represents a crucial step towards reducing disparities in health care utilization. However in order to achieve equity in health and access to care such efforts must be paralleled by multi-sectoral approaches to address all key drivers of inequity: persistent poverty, disparities in living standards and educational achievement, as well as regional differences in availability and accessibility of care.

10.
Health Syst Reform ; 5(4): 334-349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860402

RESUMO

"Global functions" of health cooperation refer to those activities that go beyond the boundaries of individual nations to address transnational issues. This paper begins by presenting a taxonomy of global functions and laying out the key value propositions of investing in such functions. Next, it examines the current funding flows to global functions and the estimated price tag, which is large. Given that existing financing mechanisms have not closed the gap, it then proposes a suite of options for directing additional funding to global functions and discusses the governance of this additional funding. These options are organized into resource mobilization mechanisms, pooling approaches, and strategic purchasing of global functions. Given its legitimacy, convening power, and role in setting global norms and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) is uniquely placed among global health organizations to provide the overarching governance of global functions. Therefore, the paper includes an assessment of WHO's financial situation. Finally, the paper concludes with reflections on the future of aid for health and its role in supporting global functions. The concluding section also summarizes a set of key priorities in financing global functions for health.

11.
Global Health ; 15(1): 64, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847852

RESUMO

The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region is endowed with deep intellectual tradition, interesting cultural diversity, and a strong societal fabric; components of a vibrant platform for promoting health and wellbeing. Health has a central place in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for at least three reasons: Firstly, health is shaped by factors outside of the health sector. Secondly, health can be singled out among several SDGs as it provides a clear lens for examining the progress of the entire development process. Thirdly, in addition to being an outcome, health is also a contributor to achieving sustainable development. Realizing this central role of health in SDGs and the significance of collaboration among diverse sectors, the WHO is taking action. In its most recent General Program of Work 2019-2023 (GPW 13), the WHO has set a target of promoting the health of one billion more people by addressing social and other determinants of health through multi-sectoral collaboration. The WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, through Vision 2023, aims at addressing these determinants by adopting an equity-driven, leaving no one behind approach. Advocating for Health in All Policies, multi-sectoral action, community engagement, and strategic partnerships are the cornerstone for this approach. The focus areas include addressing the social and economic determinants of health across the life course, especially maternal and child health, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and injuries. The aspirations are noteworthy - however, recent work in progress in countries has also highlighted some areas for improvement. Joint work among different ministries and departments at country level is essential to achieve the agenda of sustainable development. For collaboration, not only the ministries and departments need to be engaged, but the partnerships with other stakeholders such as civil society and private sector are a necessity and not a choice to effectively pursue achievement of SDGs.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
12.
Global Health ; 15(1): 65, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The circular economy framework for human production and consumption is an alternative to the traditional, linear concept of 'take, make, and dispose'. Circular economy (CE) principles comprise of 'design out waste and pollution', 'retain products and materials in use', and 'regenerate natural systems'. This commentary considers the risks and opportunities of the CE for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), acknowledging that LMICs must identify their own opportunities, while recognising the potential positive and negative environmental health impacts. MAIN BODY: The implementation of the CE in LMICs is mostly undertaken informally, driven by poverty and unemployment. Activities being employed towards extracting value from waste in LMICs are imposing environmental health risks including exposure to hazardous and toxic working environments, emissions and materials, and infectious diseases. The CE has the potential to aid towards the achievement of the SDGs, in particular SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production) and SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities). However, since SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-Being) is critical in the pursuit of all SDGs, the negative implications of the CE should be well understood and addressed. We call on policy makers, industry, the health sector, and health-determining sectors to address these issues by defining mechanisms to protect vulnerable populations from the negative health impacts that may arise in LMICs as these countries domesticate the CE. CONCLUSION: Striving towards a better understanding of risks should not undermine support for the CE, which requires the full agency of the public and policy communities to realise the potential to accelerate LMICs towards sustainable production and consumption, with positive synergies for several SDGs.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
13.
Global Health ; 15(1): 87, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cities are an important driving force to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the New Urban Agenda. The SDGs provide an operational framework to consider urbanization globally, while providing local mechanisms for action and careful attention to closing the gaps in the distribution of health gains. While health and well-being are explicitly addressed in SDG 3, health is also present as a pre condition of SDG 11, that aims at inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Health in All Policies (HiAP) is an approach to public policy across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies, and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. HiAP is key for local decision-making processes in the context of urban policies to promote public health interventions aimed at achieving SDG targets. HiAPs relies heavily on the use of scientific evidence and evaluation tools, such as health impact assessments (HIAs). HIAs may include city-level quantitative burden of disease, health economic assessments, and citizen and other stakeholders' involvement to inform the integration of health recommendations in urban policies. The Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal)'s Urban Planning, Environment and Health Initiative provides an example of a successful model of translating scientific evidence into policy and practice with regards to sustainable and healthy urban development. The experiences collected through ISGlobal's participation implementing HIAs in several cities worldwide as a way to promote HiAP are the basis for this analysis. AIM: The aim of this article is threefold: to understand the links between social determinants of health, environmental exposures, behaviour, health outcomes and urban policies within the SDGs, following a HiAP rationale; to review and analyze the key elements of a HiAP approach as an accelerator of the SDGs in the context of urban and transport planning; and to describe lessons learnt from practical implementation of HIAs in cities across Europe, Africa and Latin-America. METHODS: We create a comprehensive, urban health related SDGs conceptual framework, by linking already described urban health dimensions to existing SDGs, targets and indicators. We discuss, taking into account the necessary conditions and steps to conduct HiAP, the main barriers and opportunities within the SDGs framework. We conclude by reviewing HIAs in a number of cities worldwide (based on the experiences collected by co-authors of this publication), including city-level quantitative burden of disease and health economic assessments, as practical tools to inform the integration of health recommendations in urban policies. RESULTS: A conceptual framework linking SDGs and urban and transportplanning, environmental exposures, behaviour and health outcomes, following a HiAP rationale, is designed. We found at least 38 SDG targets relevant to urban health, corresponding to 15 SDGs, while 4 important aspects contained in our proposed framework were not present in the SDGs (physical activity, noise, quality of life or social capital). Thus, a more comprehensive HiAP vision within the SDGs could be beneficial. Our analysis confirmed that the SDGs framework provides an opportunity to formulate and implement policies with a HiAP approach. Three important aspects are highlighted: 1) the importance of the intersectoral work and health equity as a cross-cutting issue in sustainable development endeavors; 2) policy coherence, health governance, and stakeholders' participation as key issues; and 3) the need for high quality data. HIAs are a practical tool to implement HiAP. Opportunities and barriers related to the political, legal and health governance context, the capacity to inform policies in other sectors, the involvement of different stakeholders, and the availability of quality data are discussed based on our experience. Quantitative assessments can provide powerful data such as: estimates of annual preventable morbidity and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity, exposure to air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces; the associated economic impacts in health care costs per year; and the number of preventable premature deaths when improvements in urban and transport planning are implemented. This information has been used to support the design of policies that promote cycling, walking, public, zero and low-emitting modes of transport, and the provision of urban greening or healthy public open spaces in Barcelona (e.g. Urban Mobility, Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plans, or the Superblocks's model), the Bus Rapid Transit and Open Streets initiatives in several Latin American cities or targeted SDGs assessments in Morocco. CONCLUSIONS: By applying tools such as HIA, HiAP can be implemented to inform and improve transport and urban planning to achieve the 2030 SDG Agenda. Such a framework could be potentially used in cities worldwide, including those of less developed regions or countries. Data availability, taking into account equity issues, strenghtening the communication between experts, decision makers and citizens, and the involvement of all major stakeholders are crucial elements for the HiAP approach to translate knowledge into SDG implementation.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde da População Urbana , Saúde Global , Equidade em Saúde , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847367

RESUMO

National and global health policies are increasingly recognizing the key role of the environment in human health development, which is related to its economic and social determinants, such as income level, technical progress, education, quality of jobs, inequality, education or lifestyle. Research has shown that the increase of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita can provide additional funds for health but also for environmental protection. However, often, economic growth is associated with the accelerated degradation of the environment, and this in turn will result in an exponential increase in harmful emissions and will implicitly determine the increasing occurrence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), mainly cardiovascular diseases, cancers and respiratory diseases. In this paper, we investigate the role and effects of economic growth, environmental pollution and non-communicable diseases on health expenditures, for the case of EU (European Union) countries during 2000-2014. In order to investigate the long-term and the short-term relationship between them, we have employed the Panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) method. Using the Pedroni-Johansen cointegration methods, we found that the variables are cointegrated. The findings of this study show that economic growth is one of the most important factors influencing the health expenditures both in the long- and short-run in all the 28 EU countries. With regards to the influence of CO2 emissions on health expenditure, we have found a negative impact in the short-run and a positive impact on the long-run. We have also introduced an interaction between NCDs and environmental expenditure as independent variable, a product variable. Finally, we have found that in all the three estimated models, the variation in environmental expenditure produces changes in NCDs' effect on health expenditure.

15.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46896

RESUMO

Plataforma com dados indicadores sobre a taxa de mortalidade por acidente de trânsito 2000 a 2015. Brasil Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
16.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46897

RESUMO

Plataforma do IBGE com dados indicadores sobre a proporção de pessoas em famílias com grandes gastos em saúde em relação ao total de despesas familiares. Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Gastos em Saúde , Relações Familiares
17.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46898

RESUMO

Plataforma com dados indicadores sobre a Taxa de mortalidade atribuída a fontes de água inseguras, saneamento inseguro e falta de higiene. Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saneamento Básico/políticas
19.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46891

RESUMO

Plataforma com dados indicadores sobre a mortalidade neonatal de 2000 a 2015. Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
20.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46892

RESUMO

Plataforma com dados indicadores sobre a taxa de incidência de tuberculose no Brasil Agenda 2030 - objetivo 3 - Saúde e bem estar


Assuntos
Tuberculose/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
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