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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(6): 1981-1996, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952678

RESUMEN

Resumo A Constituição de 1988 representou importantes conquistas de direitos em torno de um projeto de país com um modelo de desenvolvimento socioeconômico orientado para a redução de risco de doenças e agravos e um meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado. Estas conquistas se manifestaram nas políticas, na institucionalização e na criação de espaços institucionais de participação da sociedade. O objetivo deste artigo é situar as conquistas e também os limites e obstáculos na agenda de saúde e ambiente expressos nestes 30 anos do Sistema Único de Saúde. As conquistas são situadas a partir da ampliação dos espaços institucionais de participação da sociedade e institucionalização no Sistema Único de Saúde dos temas relacionados aos riscos ambientais. Os limites são situados a partir da relação entre desenvolvimento e padrões de riscos ambientais presentes nos níveis global, regional, local e comunitário. Por fim são apontados os obstáculos que, a partir do golpe parlamentar de 2016, não só acentuaram os limites já existentes, como vem produzindo retrocessos em diversas áreas relacionadas à saúde ambiental.


Abstract The 1988 Constitution represents an important achievement in terms of rights and an important pact sealed around a long-term strategy for the nation's future based on a social development model oriented towards reducing the risk of disease and injuries and an ecologically balanced environment. These achievements manifested themselves in policies, institutionalization and the creation of spaces for public participation. The article outlines the main achievements, limits and obstacles that have affected the environmental and health agendas in the last 30 years since the creation of the Unified Health System . The achievements are framed within the broadening of political space for public participation and the institutionalization of the theme of environmental risks within the SUS, while the limits are framed in the relationship between development and trends of environmental risk at global/regional, local and community scale. Finally, obstacles are outlined showing that the parliamentary coup of 2016 not only accentuated existing limits, but also represents a giant represent a giant step backward in various areas related to environmental health.

2.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 23(2): 355-362, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-891647

RESUMEN

RESUMO Preocupações ambientais e econômicas resultantes da demanda por combustíveis fósseis corroboram a necessidade de alternativas para redução dos impactos ambientais e econômicos advindos da crescente utilização de veículos e máquinas movidas a diesel. A diversificação das matérias-primas para produção do biodiesel pode possibilitar a melhoria da qualidade do combustível e das emissões resultantes de sua utilização nos motores. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a emissão de material particulado (MP) utilizando biodiesel de soja e de mamona em misturas diesel/biodiesel, bem como sua viscosidade e estabilidade à oxidação (pré-requisitos de qualidade). Para isso, testaram-se diferentes proporções de biodiesel de soja e de mamona (SyMx), em que y e x representam os percentuais de biodiesel de soja e de mamona, respectivamente: S100M0, S75M25, S50M50, S25M75 e S0M100, em mistura ao diesel (BX), nos seguintes percentuais: 7 (diesel B7), 25 (B25), 40 (B40), 50 (B50), 75 (B75) e 100% (B100). A opacidade da fumaça, a viscosidade e a estabilidade à oxidação foram determinadas conforme as normas NBR 13037, NBR 10441 e EN 14112, respectivamente. Entre as misturas analisadas, o diesel comercial (B7) emitiu maior quantidade de MP, ao passo que as demais misturas, que atenderam aos pré-requisitos de qualidade (B25 e B40), emitiram menos MP, conforme aumento do percentual de biodiesel de mamona nas misturas SyMx, bem como com o aumento de biodiesel na mistura BX. Também foram obtidos ganhos relativos à qualidade em função das diferentes composições SyMx.


ABSTRACT Environmental and economic concerns resulting from demand for fossil fuels corroborate the need for alternatives to reduce environmental and economic impacts arising from the increasing use of diesel-powered vehicles and machines. The diversification of raw materials used to produce biodiesel can allow the improvement of fuel quality and of emissions resulting from their use in engines. This study evaluated the emission of particulate matter (PM) using biodiesel from soybean and castor bean in diesel/biodiesel mixtures, as well as its viscosity and oxidation stability (prerequisites for quality). For this purpose, biodiesel with different proportions of soybean and castor bean (SyMx) were evaluated, where y and x represent soybean and castor bean biodiesel percentages, respectively: S100M0, S75M25, S50M50, S25M75 and S0M100, mixed with diesel (BX), in the following percentages: 7 (diesel B7), 25 (B25), 40 (B40), 50 (B50), 75 (B75) and 100% (B100). The smoke opacity, viscosity and oxidation stability were determined according to NBR 13037, NBR 10441 and EN 14112, respectively. Among the analyzed mixtures, the commercial diesel (B7) emitted higher amounts of PM, whereas other mixtures, which met the prerequisites for quality (B25 and B40), emitted smaller amounts of PM as increased castor bean biodiesel percentage in mixtures SyMx, as well as with the increase of biodiesel in the mixtures BX. They were also achieved gains in quality as a function of the different compositions SyMx.

3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): 6982, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-889095

RESUMEN

Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate. We evaluated autonomic nerve activity in BAT and its function in adult rats that were exposed to tobacco smoke during lactation. At birth, litters were adjusted to 3 male and 3 female pups/litter. From postnatal day (PND) 3 to 21, Wistar lactating rats and their pups were divided into SE group, smoke-exposed in a cigarette smoking machine (4 times/day) and C group, exposed to filtered air. Offspring were sacrificed at PND180. Adult SE rats of both genders had lower interscapular BAT autonomic nervous system activity, with higher BAT mass but no change in morphology. BAT UCP1 and CPT1a protein levels were decreased in the SE groups of both genders. Male SE rats had lower β3-AR, TRα1, and TRβ1 expression while females showed lower PGC1α expression. BAT Dio2 mRNA and hypothalamic POMC and MC4R levels were similar between groups. Hypothalamic pAMPK level was higher in SE males and lower in SE females. Thus, neonatal cigarette smoke exposure induces lower BAT thermogenic capacity, which can be obesogenic at adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Ratas , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/fisiopatología , Biomarcadores/análisis , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/fisiopatología , Termogénesis/fisiología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Animales Recién Nacidos , Western Blotting , Inmunohistoquímica , Ratas Wistar , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/análisis
5.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 130(1): 21-22, mar. 2017.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-973064

RESUMEN

Se explica qué es el humo de segunda y de tercera mano, y cómo persiste en el tiempo. Se detalla cómo afecta a los no fumadores y a los niños. Se describen los síntomas y signos de la intoxicación por tabaco.


It explains what is second-hand and third-hand smoke and how it persists over time. It is detailed how it affects non-smokers and the children. Symptoms and signs of tobacco poisoning are described.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Fumar/efectos adversos , Tabaquismo , Tiempo de Permanencia , Pediatría
6.
Rev. ADM ; 74(1): 6-10, ene.-feb. 2017. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-869346

RESUMEN

Las medidas de bioseguridad están predestinadas a reducir el riesgo de transmisión de microorganismos a partir de fuentes de infección reconocidas o no reconocidas en clínicas dentales vinculadas con lacontaminación de los materiales, aparatos y/o instrumentos. Un microorganismo reemergente es el Mycobacterium abscessus, que es unabacteria ambiental que puede ocasionar problemas de salud muy serios, por lo que debe ser controlada y prevenida su transmisión.


Biosafety measures are designed to reduce the risk of transmission ofmicroorganisms from recognized or unrecognized sources of infectionin dental procedures associated with the contamination of materials,apparatus, and/or instruments. One reemerging microorganism isMycobacterium abscessus, which is an environmental bacterium thatcan cause serious health problems and therefore needs to be controlledand prevented.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Consultorios Odontológicos/normas , Control de Infección Dental/métodos , Infecciones por Mycobacterium/clasificación , Infecciones por Mycobacterium/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycobacterium/transmisión , Desinfección/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/clasificación , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/transmisión , Mycobacterium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana/métodos
7.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(4): 288-294, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-876642

RESUMEN

Introduction: As technology advances, society must reflect on the destination of materials which are no longer needed. Hospital waste requires special attention due to the associated risk of disease transmission and biological accidents. Also, it tends to increase proportionally to the economic development and is associated with increased use of disposable material. The purpose of this study is to analyze the management of hospital waste at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) and to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the measures adopted by the institution to mitigate the impact of its waste on the environment. Methods: Observational study with field research. Hospital waste management is divided into generation, disposal, storage and final destination. Results: Between 2010 and 2015, the HCPA produced 21.4 tons of biological and sharps waste, 23,000 liters of chemical waste and 113,9 tons of solid waste per month. The main improvements include the implementation of a inspection of the hospital's waste bins every 2 months, a reduction from 29.42% to 2.79% in the rate of inappropriate disposal of hazardous waste, a 313% increase in investments in staff training, the expansion and adaptation of external areas for temporary storage of hospital waste and the collection of more than 1 ton of waste generated by the local community (sharps, X-ray films, kitchen oil, batteries), as well as the establishment of contracts which will guarantee the appropriate treatment of all types of health care waste. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that mitigating the impact of hospital waste on the environment is possible and should encourage the adoption of similar measures at other institutions (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Ambiente/prevención & control , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Gestión Ambiental/métodos , Hospitales Generales/normas , Residuos/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 39(6): 378-386, Jun. 2016. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-795364

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective To identify interventions that 1) facilitate sustainable development by preventing toxic exposure to chemicals, including pesticides, and 2) have a positive impact on health. Methods This overview utilized systematic review methods to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted based on a predefined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. To be classified as “sustainable” interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly) to 1) have a positive impact on at least two key dimensions of the United Nations integrated framework for sustainable development and 2) include measures of health impact. Results Thirteen systematic reviews and two economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. The interventions that were most likely to have a positive impact on health included 1) legislation to ban Endosulfan pesticide to prevent fatal poisonings; 2) testing of drinking water for contamination with arsenic, and dissemination of the results to households; and 3) implementation of organic farming / diet to reduce exposure to pesticides. However, the cost-effectiveness of these three interventions and their impact(s) on health inequalities is not known. Strict enforcement of interventions to reduce lead in houses with children was cost-beneficial. Education and dust control interventions performed by cleaning professionals to reduce blood lead levels in children were ineffective. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of the interventions whose impacts are likely to be positive. Ineffective interventions need to be replaced with more effective and cost-effective interventions. Finally, more and better-quality research on the prevention of toxic exposure to chemicals is needed to better support policy development.


RESUMEN Objetivo Señalar aquellas intervenciones que: 1) faciliten el desarrollo sostenible al prevenir la exposición tóxica a los productos químicos, incluidos los plaguicidas; y 2) tengan una repercusión positiva sobre la salud. Métodos Mediante la metodología de revisión sistemática se sintetizaron los datos probatorios de varias revisiones sistemáticas y evaluaciones económicas. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva siguiendo un protocolo predefinido con criterios de inclusión concretos. Para considerarse “sostenibles”, las intervenciones debían perseguir los siguientes objetivos (explícitos o implícitos): 1) influir de forma positiva sobre al menos dos dimensiones clave del marco integrado de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo Sostenible; y 2) incluir medidas que repercutan en la salud. Resultados Cumplieron los criterios de inclusión 13 revisiones sistemáticas y dos evaluaciones económicas. Las intervenciones con mayores probabilidades de influir positivamente en la salud son: 1) la prohibición por ley de los plaguicidas de endosulfán para prevenir las muertes por intoxicación; 2) los análisis del agua potable para detectar la contaminación por arsénico y la comunicación de los resultados a los hogares; y 3) la implantación de la agricultura o la alimentación orgánicas para reducir la exposición a los plaguicidas. Sin embargo, no se conoce la rentabilidad de estas tres intervenciones ni su repercusión sobre las desigualdades en la salud. La aplicación estricta de las intervenciones para reducir el plomo en los hogares con niños resultó rentable. Por el contrario, fueron ineficaces las intervenciones educativas y de desempolvado, a cargo de profesionales de la limpieza, para reducir los niveles de plomo en la sangre de los niños. Conclusiones Es conveniente aplicar correctamente las intervenciones que tienen mayor probabilidad de generar repercusiones positivas, en tanto que las intervenciones ineficaces deben sustituirse por otras más eficaces y rentables. Se necesitan más investigaciones y de mejor calidad sobre la prevención de la exposición tóxica a los productos químicos, para mejorar las bases sobre las cuales sustentar las correspondientes políticas.


Asunto(s)
Uso de Plaguicidas , Exposición a Compuestos Químicos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Américas
9.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 24(1): 77-83, jan.-mar. 2016. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-781537

RESUMEN

Resumo A leptospirose é uma doença comum em locais urbanizados sem saneamento básico. A bactéria causadora é transmitida pelos roedores e pode contaminar os cães e estes, as pessoas, sendo a enfermidade considerada zoonótica. O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer os riscos ambientais à saúde dos moradores de um novo reassentamento urbano, identificando problemas e construindo possíveis soluções, concretizadas em um material de educação ambiental com as demandas específicas encontradas nessa comunidade. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares com perguntas sobre os hábitos e costumes das pessoas com relação aos cuidados com os animais de estimação, presença de animais sinantrópicos nos domicílios e manejo dos resíduos sólidos domésticos. Também foram efetuadas 142 coletas de amostras de sangue nos cães destes domicílios, para sorologia anti-leptospira, das quais 26 (18,3%) foram soropositivas; as sorovariedades mais frequentes foram Icterohaemoragiae (46%) e Canicola (26,9%). A partir dos dados obtidos nas entrevistas domiciliares e dos resultados das análises sanguíneas dos cães, foi possível perceber os principais problemas ambientais e os riscos à saúde a que essa comunidade estava exposta. Foi então elaborado um material educativo para dar respostas e orientações aos problemas ambientais específicos observados e apontados pela comunidade.


Abstract Leptospirosis is a common disease in urbanized locations without basic sanitation. The bacteria is transmitted by rodents and can infect dogs that in turn can transmit the disease to people, with the disease being classified as zoonotic. This study aimed to discover what were the environmental health risks for residents of a new urban resettlement, identifying problems and building possible solutions that were implemented into an environmental education material meeting the specific demands encountered in this community. Home interviews were performed, with questions about habits and behavior of the community related to petcare, presence of synanthropic animals in the household and management of solid waste. The group collected 142 blood samples of dogs belonging to these households, for anti-Leptospiral serology. The results were 26 (18.3%) positive, and the most frequent serovars were Icterohaemoragiae (46%) and Canicola (26.9%). From the data obtained from household interviews and blood tests results from dogs, it was possible to observe the main environmental problems and health risks that this community was subject to. It was then developed an educational material to provide answers and guidance to specific environmental problems observed and raised by the community.

10.
São Paulo; SMS; 2016. 132 p. tab.
Monografía en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-870480

RESUMEN

O centro de controle de zoonoses (CCZ) de São Paulo é o órgão responsável por desenvolver trabalhos de prevenção, proteção á saúde pública, por meio de vigilância e controle de animais domésticos (cães, gatos e animais de grande porte), de animais sinantrópicos (morcegos, pombos, ratos, mosquitos, abelhas entre outros), saneamento ambiental e educação em saúde...


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Riesgos Ambientales , Programa de Prevención de Riesgos en el Ambiente de Trabajo , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Medicina del Trabajo , Condiciones de Trabajo
11.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046227

RESUMEN

Suele decirse que la salud es un derecho humano y se reclama atención médica para su satisfacción. Desde una perspectiva no liberal, cabe decir que se trata de un derecho a la atención de la salud y no de un derecho a la salud. A su vez, la atención de de la salud excede la asistencia médica. Los determinantes de la salud yacen en el plano sociocultural más que en el biológico. No obstante, el reclamo de tecnología médica es cada vez mayor. Sus éxitos asociados al pensamiento mágico presente todavía en la medicina son una causa importante de esa demanda. Queda abierto el interrogante sobre otras motivaciones más profundas


It is often said that health is a human right and medical care is necessary for its satisfaction. From a non-liberal perspective, that this is a right to health care and not a right to health. In turn, health care is beyond medical care. Determinants of health lie in socio-cultural levels rather than biological spheres. However, the demand for medical technology is growing. Successes associated with the magical thought still present in medicine, are a major cause of that demand. The question about other deeper motivations remains open


Diz-se frequentemente que a saúde é um direito humano e os cuidados para a sua satisfação é reivindicada. A partir de uma perspectiva não-liberal, é para dizer que é um direito aos cuidados de saúde e não um direito à saúde. Por sua vez, os cuidados de saúde além da assistência médica. Os determinantes da saúde estão no nível sócio-cultural e não biológica. No entanto, a demanda por tecnologia médica está crescendo. Seus sucessos associados a este pensamento mágico ainda na medicina são uma das principais causas de a demanda. A questão de outras motivações mais profundas está aberta


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Tecnología Biomédica , Derecho Sanitario , Ambiente , Derechos Humanos
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 77, 2016. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962240

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the contributions of the socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation improvements in reducing the prevalence of diarrhea in a city of the Amazon. METHODS In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from surveys conducted in the city of Jordão, Acre. In 2005 and 2012, these surveys evaluated, respectively, 466 and 826 children under five years old. Questionnaires were applied on the socioeconomic conditions, construction of houses, food and hygienic habits, and environmental sanitation. We applied Pearson's Chi-squared test and Poisson regression to verify the relationship between origin of water, construction of homes, age of introduction of cow's milk in the diet, place of birth and the prevalence of diarrhea. RESULTS The prevalence of diarrhea was reduced from 45.1% to 35.4%. We identified higher probability of diarrhea in children who did not use water from the public network, in those receiving cow's milk in the first month after birth, and in those living in houses made of paxiúba. Children born at home presented lower risk of diarrhea when compared to those who were born in hospital, with this difference reversing for the 2012 survey. CONCLUSIONS Sanitation conditions improved with the increase of bathrooms with toilets, implementation of the Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF - Family Health Program), and water treatment in the city. The multivariate regression model identified a statistically significant association between use of water from the public network, construction of houses, late introduction of cow's milk, and access to health service with occurrence of diarrhea.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as contribuições das melhorias socioeconômicas, higiênicas e de saneamento na redução da prevalência de diarreia em uma cidade na Amazônia. MÉTODOS Neste estudo transversal de base populacional, foram analisados dados dos inquéritos realizados no município de Jordão, Acre. Em 2005 e 2012, foram avaliadas, respectivamente, 466 e 826 crianças menores de cinco anos. Foram aplicados questionários sobre as condições socioeconômicas, construção dos domicílios, hábitos higiênicos e alimentares e saneamento ambiental. Foi aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson e a Regressão de Poisson para verificar a relação existente entre procedência da água, tipo de construção do domicílio, idade de introdução de leite de vaca na dieta e local de nascimento e a prevalência de diarreia. RESULTADOS A prevalência de diarreia foi reduzida de 45,1% para 35,4%. Foi identificada maior probabilidade de desenvolvimento de diarreia em crianças que não utilizaram água da rede pública, as que receberam leite de vaca no primeiro mês após o nascimento e as residentes em domicílios de paxiúba. As crianças que nasceram no domicílio apresentaram menor risco de diarreia quando comparadas às que nasceram em hospital, com essa diferença se invertendo para o inquérito de 2012. CONCLUSÕES Ocorreu melhora nas condições de saneamento com aumento no número de banheiro com vasos sanitários, implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família e tratamento de água na sede do município. O modelo de regressão multivariada identificou associação estatisticamente significativa entre utilização de água da rede pública, construção da moradia, introdução tardia de leite de vaca e acesso a serviço de saúde com ocorrência de diarreia.

15.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 36(1): 79-92, jan.-jun. 2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-785281

RESUMEN

Esse trabalho descreve a utilização doméstica de inseticidas pela população de Picos (Piauí, Brasil),identifica quais são os tipos de inseticidas mais utilizados e descreve a incidência de intoxicação e a consciência ambiental da população. Após visitas domiciliares (n=700), notou-se que a maioria dos entrevistados foi representada por mulheres (75%), com idade entre 31-55 anos (49%), ensino fundamental incompleto (38,1%) e renda familiar entre 1-2 salários mínimos (64%). A maioria das residências tem entre 1-3 moradores (48%), 85% dos entrevistados usam inseticidas escolhidos principalmente em propagandas de TV e radio e apenas 54% leem o rótulo antes de aplicar o produto. A forma de apresentação mais usada é o aerossol (70,7%). A maioria (79%) reconhece que inseticidas são maléficos à saúde, mas 74% não usam nenhum Equipamento de Proteção Individual (EPI). Sintomas de toxicidade foram relatados por 27%dos entrevistados. Duas mulheres relataram irritação, tonturas e problemas respiratórios e necessidade de intervenção médica e internação hospitalar. Todos os entrevistados descartam as embalagens como lixo comum, uma vez que em Picos não há coleta seletiva. Em conclusão, a maioria das pessoas usam inseticidas, conhecem sobre os riscos individuais e coletivos aos quais estão expostos mas não usam EPI mesmo acreditando que sejam tóxicos. Notou-se que aquisição de conhecimentos não resulta,necessariamente, em mudanças de comportamento, uma vez que o conhecimento não se traduz em atitudes e práticas preventivas adequadas, ressaltando-se a necessidade de campanhas de conscientização quanto à toxicidade e aos riscos ambientais, capacitação de profissionais e política fiscalizatória contra a venda indiscriminada.


This study described the use of household insecticides in Picos (Piauí, Brazil), identify which are the mostused types of insecticides and describes the incidence of poisoning and environmental awareness of the population. After home visits (n = 700), it was seen that the majority of respondents was represented by women (75%), with 31-55 years-old (49%), incomplete primary education (38.1%) and income between 1-2 earnings (64%). Most homes have between 1-3 residents (48%), 85% of the persons use insecticides mainly chosen in TV and radio and only 54% of them read the label before employing the product. The most used form of presentation is the aerosol (70.7%). Majority (79%) recognizes that insecticides are harmful to health, but 74% do not use any Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Symptoms of toxicity were reported by 27% of people interviewed. Two women reported irritation, dizziness and respiratory problems and need for medical intervention and hospitalization. All interviewed discard the package as regular trash, since Picos does not has selective collection. In conclusion, most people use insecticides, know about the individual and collective risks to which they are exposed but do not use PPE, though they believe insecticides are toxic. It was noted that acquisition of knowledge does not necessarily result in behavioral changes, since learning does not translate into appropriate preventive attitudes and practices, emphasizing the requirement for awareness campaigns about toxicity and environmental risks, preparation of professionals and surveillance policy against indiscriminate sale.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Piretrinas , Toxicidad
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3): 297-313, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-749651

RESUMEN

Abstract The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Luz Solar/efectos adversos , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Brasil , Cambio Climático , Dosis de Radiación , Protección Radiológica , América del Sur , Baño de Sol , Neoplasias Cutáneas/etiología , Ozono Estratosférico/química , Factores de Tiempo , Vitamina D/metabolismo
17.
Clinics ; 70(5): 346-349, 05/2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-748281

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the serum aminotransferase levels of patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease and establish their relationships with serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: Patients with chronic kidney disease were evaluated between September 2011 and May 2012. Aminotransferase and creatinine serum levels were measured using an automated kinetic method, and glomerular filtration rates were estimated using the Cockroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas to classify patients into chronic kidney disease stages. RESULTS: Exactly 142 patients were evaluated (mean age: 64±16 years). The mean creatinine serum level and glomerular filtration rate were 3.3±1.2 mg/dL and 29.1±13 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Patients were distributed according to their chronic kidney disease stages as follows: 3 (2.1%) patients were Stage 2; 54 (38%) were Stage 3; 70 (49.3%) were Stage 4; and 15 (10.5%) were Stage 5. The mean aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase serum levels showed a reduction in proportion to the increase in creatinine levels (p=0.001 and p=0.05, respectively) and the decrease in glomerular filtration rate (p=0.007 and p=0.028, respectively). Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels tended to be higher among patients classified as stage 2 or 3 compared with those classified as stage 4 or 5 (p=0.08 and p=0.06, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase serum levels of patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease decreased in proportion to the progression of the disease; they were negatively correlated with creatinine levels and directly correlated with glomerular filtration rate. .


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Prepucio/efectos de los fármacos , Queratinocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidad , Telomerasa/metabolismo , Acortamiento del Telómero/efectos de los fármacos , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Línea Celular , Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , ADN , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Activación Enzimática , Prepucio/enzimología , Prepucio/ultraestructura , Queratinocitos/enzimología , Queratinocitos/ultraestructura , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Acortamiento del Telómero/genética
18.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20150000. 28 p.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-964945

RESUMEN

La norma técnica contiene: los objetivos, ámbito de aplicación, base legal, disposiciones generales, disposiciones específicas y responsabilidades para la implementación de la vigilancia y control del Aedes Aegypti, vector del dengue y la fiebre de chikungunya y la prevención del ingreso del Aedes Albopictus en el territorio nacional


Asunto(s)
Dengue , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aedes , Normas Técnicas
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(4): 475-483, abr. 2015. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-747554

RESUMEN

Background: Several international studies show the effects of PM10 pollution on health but specific analyses for many cities in Chile are lacking. Aim: To relate PM10 concentrations to effects with population health and quantify the economic benefits of its reduction in Concepción Metropolitan Area. Material and Methods: Poisson regression and generalized additive models were used to analyze the short-term effects of PM10 on mortality and morbidity, controlling for lags, seasonal, trend and weather variables. The damage function method to determine the economic impact of pollution reduction was used. Results: The selected concentration-response (C-R) coefficients showed that PM10 concentrations had effects on hospital admissions with a two days lag for respiratory diseases in children under 15 years of age and with a one day lag for asthma in patients over 64 years. The effects on premature mortality had a six days lag. The decrease in 1 µg/m³ of PM10 concentration would generate benefits ranging from 1,025.8 to 32,490.9 million of Chilean pesos per year, with a confidence level of 95%, according the estimation based on concentration-response coefficients and their economic cost. Conclusions: Reduction of PM10 would have important health and economic benefits.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado , Enfermedades Respiratorias/mortalidad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/economía , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Chile , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/economía , Modelos Lineales , Morbilidad , Mortalidad Prematura , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Regresión , Enfermedades Respiratorias/inducido químicamente , Estaciones del Año , Factores de Tiempo , Tiempo (Meteorología)
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(2): 326-332, mar./abr. 2015.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-963908

RESUMEN

A recuperação de áreas degradadas tem o objetivo de fornecer ao ambiente degradado condições favoráveis a reestruturação em um ambiente que não tem condições de se regenerar por si só, sendo o plantio de mudas arbóreas uma forma efetiva de ampliar este processo. Entretanto as espécies arbóreas nativas têm ritmo de crescimento lento, o que aumenta o tempo da produção da muda, como também diminui a competitividade destas com as plantas daninhas em áreas de implantação de florestas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate no desenvolvimento de mudas de Psidium cattleyanum (araçá-amarelo), Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola) e Cedrela odorata (cedrinho), através da análise de seus parâmetros morfofisiológicos. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido em casa de vegetação, e as unidades experimentais foram constituídas de uma planta, conduzida em vasos com capacidade para 2,5L, dispostos inteiramente ao acaso, arranjados em uma esquema fatorial (doses x espécies), com seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação herbicida glyphosate nas seguintes subdoses: 0; 7,5; 15; 30 e 60 g e.a. ha-1, na formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação nas mudas foi realizada aos 120 dias após germinação. Foram realizadas avaliações dos efeitos dos tratamentos químicos (fitointoxicação) sobre as plantas aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após aplicação, e após 90 dias foram avaliados a sobrevivência das plantas, condutância estomática, altura, diâmetro do caule e massa seca de parte aérea. As diferentes doses do herbicida não provocaram intoxicação às plantas. Já a dose de 30 e 60 g e.a. ha-1 proporcionou maiores incrementos em altura e diâmetro, bem como maiores massas secas em plantas de pau-viola e araçá-amarelo, respectivamente.


Recovery of degraded areas aims to provide the degraded environment favorable conditions for restructuring in an environment that is unable to regenerate itself and planting of tree seedlings is one of the effective ways to extend this process. However, native tree species have slow growth rate which increases the seedlings production time as well as decreases their competitiveness with weeds in areas of forests deployment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate reduced rates application on Psidium cattleyanum (yellow guava), Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola) and Cedrela odorata (cedro) seedlings development by analyzing its morphophysiological parameters. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions and the experimental units consisted of one plant were conducted in 2.5L plastic pots and arranged in a completely randomized design with six replications. Treatments consisted of glyphosate application at 0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 g ha-1 using Scout® commercial formulation. Treatments application on these species seedlings was realized 120 days after seeds germination. Visual evaluations of plants phytotoxicity were realized at 7, 14 and 21 days after treatments application and plants survival, stomatal conductance, height, stem diameter and dry mass of shoots were evaluated 90 days after treatments application. Different doses of glyphosate did not cause plants phytotoxicity. Already, 30 and 60 g ha-1 of glyphosate provided greater increases in height, stem diameter and dry mass of shoots for Citharexylum myrianthum and Psidium cattleyanum, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Cedrela , Psidium , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Herbicidas
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