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Math Biosci ; : 108370, 2020 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387384


Sanitary Emergency Measures (SEM) were implemented in Mexico on March 30th, 2020 requiring the suspension of non-essential activities. This action followed a Healthy Distance Sanitary action on March 23rd, 2020. The aim of both measures was to reduce community transmission of COVID-19 in Mexico by lowering the effective contact rate. Using a modification of the Kermack-McKendrick SEIR model we explore the effect of behavioral changes required to lower community transmission by introducing a time-varying contact rate, and the consequences of disease spread in a population subject to suspension of non-essential activities. Our study shows that there exists a trade-off between the proportion of the population under SEM and the average time an individual is committed to all the behavioral changes needed to achieve an effective social distancing. This trade-off generates an optimum value for the proportion of the population under strict mitigation measures, significantly below 1 in some cases, that minimizes maximum COVID-19 incidence. We study the population-level impact of three key factors: the implementation of behavior change control measures, the time horizon necessary to reduce the effective contact rate and the proportion of people under SEM in combating COVID-19. Our model is fitted to the available data. The initial phase of the epidemic, from February 17th to March 23rd, 2020, is used to estimate the contact rates, infectious periods and mortality rate using both confirmed cases (by date of symptoms initiation), and daily mortality. Data on deaths after march 23rd, 2020 is used to estimate the mortality rate after the mitigation measures are implemented. Our simulations indicate that the most likely dates for maximum incidence are between late May and early June, 2020 under a scenario of high SEM compliance and low SEM abandonment rate.

Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139357, 2020 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416536


The objective of this study was to conduct a critical analysis of the social, environmental and health risk factors in the Mexican indigenous population in the context of the COVID-19 disease pandemic, and to propose strategies to mitigate the impacts on these communities. Regarding social factors, we identified the return of indigenous people to their communities, poor access to water, language barriers, and limited access to the Internet, as factors that will not allow them to take the minimum preventive measures against the disease. Additionally, environmental risk factors associated with pollutants from biomass burning were identified. In health, the lack of coverage in these areas and comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, respiratory tract infections, and chronic pulmonary diseases were identified. Some existing government programmes were identified that could be supported to address these social, environmental and health gaps. We believe that the best way to address these issues is to strengthen the health system with a community-based approach. Health is the best element of cohesion for inserting development and progress proposals in indigenous communities, given the vulnerability to which they are exposed in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, all information is provided (as possible) on risk factors and potential solutions in indigenous communities in the hope of providing solutions to this pandemic and providing a reference for future studies.

Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350745


COVID-19 is a rapidly evolving public health emergency that has largely impacted the provision of healthcare services around the world. The challenge for electrophysiology teams is double; on one side preventing disease spread by limiting all nonessential face-to-face interactions, but at the same time ensuring continued care for patients who need it. These guidelines contain recommendations regarding triaging in order to define what procedures, device checks and clinic visits can be postponed during the pandemic. We also discuss best practices to protect patients and healthcare workers and provide guidance for the management of COVID-19 patients with arrhythmic conditions.

Healthc Manage Forum ; 33(4): 158-163, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372664


In April 2009, Mexican, American, and Canadian authorities announced a novel influenza that became the first pandemic of the century. We report on lessons learned in Mexico. The Mexican Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan, developed and implemented since 2005, was a decisive element for the early response. Major lessons-learned were the need for flexible plans that consider different scenarios; the need to continuously strengthen routine surveillance programs and laboratory capacity and strengthen coordination between epidemiological departments, clinicians, and laboratories; maintain strategic stockpiles; establish a fund for public health emergencies; and collaboration among neighboring countries. Mexico responded with immediate reporting and transparency, implemented aggressive control measures and generous sharing of data and samples. Lessons learned induced changes leading to a better response to public health critical events.

Gac Med Mex ; 156(4)2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412512


INTRODUCTION: As of March 23, 2020, suspension of non-essential activities was declared in Mexico throughout the country in order to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data on the first 1,510 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico, and to describe the geographical distribution of the disease and its transmission dynamics. METHOD: Description of the first COVID-19 cases with real-time RT-PCR-positive test, as well as evaluation of epidemiological measures, cumulative incidence, rate of transmission, and mortality and lethality rates during the first month of the epidemic. RESULTS: Average age was 43 years, and 58 % were males; 44 % of initial cases were imported. Lethality in the population during the first month went from 1.08 to 3.97 per 100 cases; however, the trend is linear and similar to that observed in Europe. CONCLUSIONS: In Mexico, social distancing is being applied, but studies are still required on the dynamics of the epidemic, person-to-person transmission, incidence of subclinical infections, and patient survival.

Gac Med Mex ; 156(4)2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412513


By April 2, 2020, only 116 days after the description of the first case of SARS-CoV2 virus infection, which causes the COVID-19 disease, 1,014,673 cases and 50,030 deaths have been recorded in 181 countries.1 In the United States, there have been 244,678 cases and 5,911 deaths recorded (in New York State alone, there are 93,053 cases and 2,538 deaths), while in Mexico, 1,378 cases and 37 deaths have been recorded. This number is expected to keep on increasing in both countries. The health system in Mexico, as well as in the rest of the world, will face an enormous problem in the months to come.

Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 132-137, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285862


On December 31, 2019, the Chinese health authorities informed the international community, through the mechanisms established by the World Health Organization (WHO), of a pneumonia epidemic of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province. The first cases were reported early in that month and were linked to a history of having visited a market where food and live animals are sold. On January 7, 2020, isolation and identification of the culprit pathogen was achieved using next-generation sequencing, while the number of affected subjects continued to rise. The publication of full-genomes of the newly identified coronavirus (initially called 2019-nCoV, now called SARS-CoV2) in public and private databases, of standardized diagnostic protocols and of the clinical-epidemiological information generated will allow addressing the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), declared on January 30 by the WHO. With this document, we intend to contribute to the characterization of the pneumonia epidemic, now designated coronavirus disease (Covid-19) review the strengths Mexico has in the global health concert and invite health professionals to join the preparedness and response activities in the face of this emergency.

Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Global , Humanos , México , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Organización Mundial de la Salud
s.l; s.n; fev. 08, 2020. 12 p. ilus, mapas.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050284


Declaratoria de Emergencia en Salud Pública de importancia Internacional por el nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCoV

Humanos , Coronavirus , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , México/epidemiología
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-02-29.
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-331351
s.l; s.n; [2020?]. 60 p. ilus, mapas.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050306


Este documento describe la situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad por 2019-nCoV, los lineamientos para la detección y seguimiento de los casos, así como los aspectos de la toma, manejo y envío adecuado de las muestras y el control analítico disponible para la confirmación de los casos.

Coronavirus , Servicios de Vigilancia Epidemiológica , Guías como Asunto/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Betacoronavirus , México/epidemiología