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Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(1): 222-226, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913904


Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since 2004, and the last case in dogs, reported in 2009, was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In 2014, a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" (Cerdocyon thous). The sample was diagnosed by the Official Veterinary Service of the Country and sent to the Center on Rabies Research from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, for antigenic and genetic characterization. A second sample from a dog positive for rabies in the same region in 2015 and 11 samples from a rabies outbreak from Asuncion in 1996 were also characterized. The antigenic profile of the samples, AgV2, was compatible with one of the variants maintained by dogs in Latin America. In genetic characterization, the samples segregated in the canine (domestic and wild species)-related group in an independent subgroup that also included samples from Argentina. These results and the epidemiology of the case indicate that even with the control of rabies in domestic animals, the virus can still circulate in wildlife and may be transmitted to domestic animals and humans, demonstrating the importance of continuous and improved surveillance and control of rabies, including in wild species, to prevent outbreaks in controlled areas.

Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Rabia/veterinaria , Animales , Antígenos Virales/genética , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Humanos , Paraguay/epidemiología , Filogenia , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/virología , Zoonosis
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 50(3): 17-28, sep-dic. 2017.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-884588


Introducción: Los niveles de actividad física determinan las condiciones de salud y enfermedad de las poblaciones. El estudio pretende determinar la prevalencia de los niveles de actividad física (AF) en la población adulta en el Paraguay e identificar los factores asociados a la inactividad física. Métodos: Estudio transversal tipo encuesta poblacional con representatividad nacional, incluyó personas con edades de 15 a 74 años. El muestreo fue probabilístico, trietápico sin reemplazo. STEPSwise fue la metodología y encuesta aplicada durante junio-setiembre 2011. Se consideraron los niveles de actividad física según el cuestionario Mundial sobre Actividad Física. Los valores de AF fueron estimados en MET. Los valores determinados se distribuyeron según las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Por regresión logística se estimó asociación entre las variables, en odd ratios con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Resultados: Se incluyeron 2536 participantes. Resultaron inactivos el 27,2% de la población, 20,1% y 31,3% hombres y mujeres, respectivamente. Los grupos que mostraron una mayor prevalencia de inactividad física con diferencias estadísticamente significativas fueron las mujeres, el grupo de edad superior a 55 años, vivir en área urbana, contar con un mayor nivel de estudios, así como un mayor nivel de ingresos. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se asociaron a una mayor prevalencia de inactividad física, principalmente en los varones. Conclusiones: El estudio además de la prevalencia de AF, aporta datos que serán de gran utilidad como línea de referencia para la vigilancia de los factores de riesgos de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Además contribuye a identificar los subgrupos prioritarios para intervenciones en salud pública.

Introduction: Physical activity levels determine health conditions and diseases in whole populations. The study attempts to determine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) levels in Paraguay and to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Methods: A cross-sectional population-type survey with national representatively, included people aged between 15 and 74 years old. Sampling was probabilistic, tri-stage without replacement. STEPSwise was the methodology and survey applied during June-September 2011. The levels of physical activity were considered according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The PA values were estimated in MET. The determined values were distributed according to sociodemographic and clinical variables. Logistic regression was made for estimate the association between the variables in odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 2536 participants were included. 27,2% of the population was inactive, 20,1% and 31,3% men and women, respectively. The groups that showed a higher prevalence of PA with statistically significant differences were: women, the age group over 55 years old, living in the urban area, having a higher level of studies and a higher level of income. Overweight and obesity were associated with a higher prevalence of physical inactivity, mainly in males. Conclusions: The study is the first to present the prevalence and differences of levels of global physical activity in Paraguay and related factors. This first step of surveillance of chronic diseases is very useful to provide a baseline for new interventions in public health.

BMC Infect Dis ; 13: 531, 2013 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24206645


BACKGROUND: The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. METHODS: This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). RESULTS: A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. CONCLUSION: This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers.

Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Paraguay/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
World J Urol ; 31(4): 861-7, 2013 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22116602


PURPOSE: The incidence of penile cancer is four times higher in Paraguay than in the United States or Europe. There are no adequate scientific explanations for this geographical variation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the interplay among risk factors, morphology of the primary tumor, and HPV status. METHODS: Information on socioeconomic status, education level, habits, and sexual history was obtained in 103 Paraguayan patients with penile cancer. All patients were then treated by surgery, and specimens were evaluated histopathologically. RESULTS: Patients usually dwelled in rural/suburban areas (82%), lived in poverty (75%), had a low education level (91%), and were heavy smokers (76%). Phimosis (57%), moderate/poor hygienic habits (90%), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (74%) were frequently found. Patients with >10 lifetime female partners had an odds ratio of 3.8 (95% CI 1.1, 12.6; P-trend = .03) for presenting HPV-positive tumors when compared to patients with <6 partners. However, this trend was not significant when the number of sexual partners was adjusted for age of first coitus and antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. HPV-related tumors (found in 36% of the samples) were characterized by a warty and/or basaloid morphology and high histological grade in most cases. CONCLUSIONS: In our series, patients with penile cancer presented a distinctive epidemiologic and pathologic profile. These data might help explaining the geographical differences in incidence and aid in the design of strategies for cancer control in Paraguay.

Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Pene/epidemiología , Pene/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Circuncisión Masculina , Comorbilidad , Escolaridad , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Paraguay/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Pene/etiología , Neoplasias del Pene/patología , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Clase Social