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1.
Biomedica ; 41(Supl. 1): 121-130, 2021 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111345

RESUMEN

Introduction: Malaria represents one of the biggest public health challenges, mainly in poor countries. Colombia has social characteristics such as migration, informal work, and economic shortages that favor illegal mining activities. The study of the malaria situation in these areas would allow establishing the bases for its prevention, control, and treatment in the existing public health programs. Objective: To describe the malaria situation in Colombian mining populations between 2012 and 2018. Materials and methods. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study with graphs and maps. For the statistical analysis, we used Pearson´s correlation and Moran's index. Results. From 2012 to 2018, 44,032 cases of malaria were reported in the mining population, 43,900 of uncomplicated malaria and 132 of complicated malaria, and three deaths, two due to Plasmodium vivax and one due to mixed infection. During this period, there was a decrease of 44.7% in cases. The risk rate in 2012 was 2.5 cases x 1000 inhabitants; 87.3% of cases were in men, and 37.9% corresponded to the 20 to 29-year-old age group while 46.7% were AfroColombians. We found a possible moderate positive linear correlation: The greater the mining activity, the greater the number of malaria cases. The global Moran index indicated a significant spatial grouping of cases in mining activities in Colombian Pacific municipalities. Conclusions. The case notification decrease during this period could be attributed to an underreporting of the public health surveillance system (Sivigila) system, as most miners do not have formal jobs, which prevents them from accessing health services. A cohort study is recommended in endemic areas to establish a direct relationship between mining exploitation and the occurrence of malaria cases.


Introducción. La malaria representa uno de los mayores desafíos de salud pública, principalmente en los países pobres. Ciertas características sociales de Colombia, como la migración, el trabajo informal y la escasez económica, favorecen la minería ilegal. El análisis de la situación de la malaria en estas áreas permite establecer una guía para la prevención, el control y el tratamiento de la enfermedad en los programas de salud pública existentes. Objetivo. Describir la situación de la malaria en las poblaciones mineras colombianas entre el 2012 y el 2018. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó la creación de gráficos y mapas. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson y el índice de Moran. Resultados. Entre el 2012 y el 2018, se notificaron 44.032 casos de malaria en la población minera, 43.900 de malaria no complicada y 132 de malaria complicada, así como tres muertes, dos por Plasmodium vivax y una por infección mixta. Hubo una disminución del 44,7 % de los casos en el período evaluado. La tasa de riesgo en el 2012 fue de 2,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes; el 87,3 % de los casos se presentó en hombres y el 37,9 % en personas entre los 20 y los 29 años, en tanto que el 46,7 % de la población estudiada estaba conformada por afrocolombianos. Se encontró una posible correlación lineal positiva moderada entre mayor la actividad minera, mayor el número de casos de malaria en mineros. El índice de Moran global evidenció una agrupación espacial significativa de los casos de malaria en zonas con industria minera en los municipios del Pacífico colombiano. Conclusiones. La disminución en la notificación de casos durante el período evaluado podría atribuirse a un subregistro del Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila), ya que la mayoría de los mineros no tienen trabajos formales, lo que dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud. Se recomienda un estudio de cohorte en áreas endémicas para establecer una relación directa entre la explotación minera y la presencia de casos de malaria.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Minería , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Masculino , Ocupaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 236: 105845, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984608

RESUMEN

Greater interest in commercial deep-sea mining has been accompanied by mounting environmental concerns, including metal contamination resulting from mining activities. However, little is known about the toxic effects of metal exposure on deep-sea life. Given its ability to accumulate metals from the surrounding environment, its wide distribution at both vents and seeps, and its high abundance, the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons could serve as an ideal model to investigate the toxicological responses of deep-sea organisms to metal exposure. Here, we evaluated metal accumulation, traditional metal-related biomarkers, namely acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, metallothioneins, and malondialdehyde, as well as metabolic profiles in the gills of B. platifrons after a 7-day exposure to copper (100 µg/L), cadmium (500 µg/L), or copper-plus-cadmium treatments (100 µg/L Cu and 500 µg/L Cd). Metal exposure concentrations selected in this study can be found in deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Metal exposure resulted in significant metal accumulation in the gills of the mussel, indicating that B. platifrons has promise for use as an indicator of deep-sea metal pollution levels. Traditional biomarkers (AKP, ACP, and measured antioxidants) revealed cellular injury and oxidative stress in mussels following metal exposure. Metabolic responses in the three treatment groups indicated that metal exposure perturbed osmoregulation, energy metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism in mussels, in a response marked by differentially altered levels of amino acids, hypotaurine, betaine, succinate, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, guanosine, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, and inosine. Nevertheless, several uniquely altered metabolites were found in each treatment exposure group, suggesting dissimilar modes of toxicity between the two metal types. In the Cd-exposed group, the monosaccharide D-allose, which is involved in suppressing mitochondrial ROS production, was downregulated, a response consistent with oxidative stress in Cd-exposed B. platifrons. In the Cu-exposed group, the detected alterations in dopamine, dopamine-related, and serotonin-related metabolites together suggest disturbed neurotransmission in Cu-exposed B. platifrons. In the Cu-plus-Cd group, we detected a decline in fatty acid levels, implying that exposure to both metals jointly exerted a negative influence on the physiological functioning of the mussel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate changes in metabolite profiles in Bathymodiolus mussels exposed to metal. The findings reported here advance our understanding of the adverse impact of metal exposure on deep-sea life and can inform deep-sea mining assessments through the use of multiple biomarkers.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Cobre/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Branquias/efectos de los fármacos , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metales/metabolismo , Minería , Mytilidae/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo , Alimentos Marinos , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 121-130, mayo 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285454

RESUMEN

Resumen | Introducción. La malaria representa uno de los mayores desafíos de salud pública, principalmente en los países pobres. Ciertas características sociales de Colombia, como la migración, el trabajo informal y la escasez económica, favorecen la minería ilegal. El análisis de la situación de la malaria en estas áreas permite establecer una guía para la prevención, el control y el tratamiento de la enfermedad en los programas de salud pública existentes. Objetivo. Describir la situación de la malaria en las poblaciones mineras colombianas entre el 2012 y el 2018. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó la creación de gráficos y mapas. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson y el índice de Moran. Resultados. Entre el 2012 y el 2018, se notificaron 44.032 casos de malaria en la población minera, 43.900 de malaria no complicada y 132 de malaria complicada, así como tres muertes, dos por Plasmodium vivax y una por infección mixta. Hubo una disminución del 44,7 % de los casos en el período evaluado. La tasa de riesgo en el 2012 fue de 2,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes; el 87,3 % de los casos se presentó en hombres y el 37,9 % en personas entre los 20 y los 29 años, en tanto que el 46,7 % de la población estudiada estaba conformada por afrocolombianos. Se encontró una posible correlación lineal positiva moderada entre mayor la actividad minera, mayor el número de casos de malaria en mineros. El índice de Moran global evidenció una agrupación espacial significativa de los casos de malaria en zonas con industria minera en los municipios del Pacífico colombiano. Conclusiones. La disminución en la notificación de casos durante el período evaluado podría atribuirse a un subregistro del Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila), ya que la mayoría de los mineros no tienen trabajos formales, lo que dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud. Se recomienda un estudio de cohorte en áreas endémicas para establecer una relación directa entre la explotación minera y la presencia de casos de malaria.


Abstract | Introduction: Malaria represents one of the biggest public health challenges, mainly in poor countries. Colombia has social characteristics such as migration, informal work, and economic shortages that favor illegal mining activities. The study of the malaria situation in these areas would allow establishing the bases for its prevention, control, and treatment in the existing public health programs. Objective: To describe the malaria situation in Colombian mining populations between 2012 and 2018. Materials and methods. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study with graphs and maps. For the statistical analysis, we used Pearson's correlation and Moran's index. Results. From 2012 to 2018, 44,032 cases of malaria were reported in the mining population, 43,900 of uncomplicated malaria and 132 of complicated malaria, and three deaths, two due to Plasmodium vivax and one due to mixed infection. During this period, there was a decrease of 44.7% in cases. The risk rate in 2012 was 2.5 cases x 1000 inhabitants; 87.3% of cases were in men, and 37.9% corresponded to the 20 to 29-year-old age group while 46.7% were AfroColombians. We found a possible moderate positive linear correlation: The greater the mining activity, the greater the number of malaria cases. The global Moran index indicated a significant spatial grouping of cases in mining activities in Colombian Pacific municipalities. Conclusions. The case notification decrease during this period could be attributed to an underreporting of the public health surveillance system (Sivigila) system, as most miners do not have formal jobs, which prevents them from accessing health services. A cohort study is recommended in endemic areas to establish a direct relationship between mining exploitation and the occurrence of malaria cases.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Minería , Colombia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 112009, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556811

RESUMEN

Cu pollution is a problem in mining areas in Peru. Here we evaluate the phytoextraction capacity, physiological and proteomic responses of four species growing in copper-contaminated areas in Arequipa, Peru. The plants used in the experiments were obtained by collecting seedlings (Tessaria integrifolia, Bacharis salicifolia), rhizomes (Eleocharis montevidensis) and seeds (Chenopodium murale) along a polluted river. They were exposed to solutions containing 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg Cu L-1 during 20 days. Growth was affected in a concentration-dependent way. According to the tolerance index, B. salicifolia and C. murale were the most sensitive species, but with greater Cu phytoextraction capacity and accumulation in the biomass. The content and ratio of photosynthetic pigments changed differently for each specie and carotenoids level were less affected than chlorophyll. Cu also induced changes in the protein and sugar contents. Antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and superoxide dismutase) increased with a decrease in the malondialdehyde. There were marked changes in the protein 2D-PAGE profiles with an increase in the abundance of metallothioneins (MT) of class II type I and II. Our results suggest that these species can grow in Cu polluted areas because they developed multiple tolerance mechanisms, such as and MTs production seems a important one.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Biológica/efectos de los fármacos , Cobre/toxicidad , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Desarrollo de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biomasa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Minería , Perú , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteómica , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Especificidad de la Especie
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(4): 1367-1383, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562108

RESUMEN

Antimony is a toxic element whose concentration in soil and water has been rising due to anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on its accumulation in leaves of Dittrichia viscosa growing in soils of an abandoned Sb mine, and the effect on oxidant/antioxidant systems and photosynthetic efficiency. The results showed leaves to have a high Sb accumulation capacity. The amount of total chlorophyll decreased depending on Sb concentration and of carotenoids increased slightly, with a consequent increase in carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio. Photosynthetic efficiency was unaffected. The amount of O 2 .- rose, although there was no increase in cell membrane damage, with lipid peroxidation levels being similar to normal. This response may be due to considerable increases that were observed in total phenolics, PPO activity, and enzymatic antioxidant system. SOD, POX, and DHAR activities increased in response to increased Sb amounts in leaves. The ascorbate/glutathione cycle was also affected, with strong increases observed in all of its components, and consequent increases in total contents of the ascorbate and glutathione pools. However, the ratio between reduced and oxidized forms declined, reflecting an imbalance between the two, especially that between GSH and GSSG. Efficient detoxification of Sb may take place either through increases in phenolics, carotenoids, and components of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle or through the enzymatic antioxidant system. Since Dittrichia viscosa accumulates large amounts of Sb without suffering oxidative damage, it could be used for phytoremediation.


Asunto(s)
Antimonio/toxicidad , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Asteraceae/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Antimonio/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Asteraceae/efectos de los fármacos , Biodegradación Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Minería , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fenoles/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , España
6.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(5): 1855-1866, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159231

RESUMEN

As an important class of flavonoids, anthocyanin has been used to enhance plant-defensive mechanisms against heavy metal stress. However, there are few available reports regarding surface spraying of anthocyanin for reduction of Cd poisoning in rice and its practical applications in paddy fields. After rice growing, measurements were taken of rice growth, pigments, the antioxidant system, thiol compounds, and distribution of Cd in rice tissues. The results showed that surface spraying anthocyanin could promote rice growth, and relative to the control, total chlorophyll significantly increased by 22.62% after surface spraying of 7.5 g L-1 anthocyanin. Simultaneously, Cd accumulation in rice grains was 0.17 ± 0.02 mg kg-1, which was significantly decreased by 46.88% relative to the control. In the pot experiment (40-day-old rice), treatment with 7.5 g L-1 anthocyanin resulted in decreases of ·O2-, H2O2, and malondialdehyde contents in rice leaves, while the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were increased by 59.10, 23.81, 41.75, and 9.39%, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of glutathione, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiols, and phytochelatins showed respective increases of 7.24, 14.49, 42.81, and 41.13% compared with the control value. Subcellular analysis revealed that surface spraying of anthocyanin increased organelle and soluble fractions of Cd in leaf cells. In conclusion, surface spraying of 7.5 g L-1 anthocyanin was mainly attributed to increased antioxidant activities and subcellular sequestration of Cd in organelles and soluble fractions in rice leaves to reduce Cd accumulation in rice grains in the field.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Antocianinas/farmacología , Cadmio/farmacocinética , Oryza/metabolismo , Semillas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cadmio/análisis , Clorofila/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Plomo , Minería , Oryza/efectos de los fármacos , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/farmacocinética , Zinc
9.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021.
en Inglés, Arabe, Chino, Portugués, Ruso | WHO IRIS | ID: who-339848
10.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 23(2): e1156, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1157026

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Mining activity generates transformations in aquatic ecosystems and adjacent areas, as well as the creation of land depressions or "lagoons" that act as water reservoirs where aquatic communities develop, including the phytoperiphyton. Considering the role of this community in these environments, the purpose of this research was to study the phytoperiphytic community present in lagoons generated by mining processes, in the San Juan basin, Chocó (Colombia). Lagoons with different formation times were selected: 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years; three lagoons for each time period. Physical and chemical variables were measured, and phytoperiphyton was collected, using an 8cm2 quadrant, obtaining a scraping area of 120cm2. The community was composed of six divisions, nine classes, 16 orders, 24 families and 33 genera, for a total density of 13108 org/cm2. The lagoons of 10-15 years presented the highest density, with Bacillariophytes as the most representative in all the studied lagoons, both in density and richness. There were differences in density between lagoons, but not in specific richness and diversity. Similarity values indicate that the lagoons have little variability in their phytoperiphytic communities. Conductivity and dissolved total solids are the variables with the greatest variation throughout the study; there are significant differences between lagoons for the variables dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity (p<0.05). This study constitutes a baseline for understanding the ecological dynamics of lentic environments generated by mining processes and on the development of phytoperiphytic communities in them.


RESUMEN La actividad minera genera transformaciones en los ecosistemas acuáticos y zonas adyacentes y, entre ellas, se crean depresiones en el terreno o "lagunas", que actúan como reservorios de agua, en los que se desarrollan comunidades acuáticas, como el fitoperifíton. Considerando el papel de esta comunidad en estos ambientes, el propósito de esta investigación fue estudiar la comunidad fitoperifítica presente en lagunas generadas por procesos de extracción minera, en la cuenca del San Juan, Chocó (Colombia). Se seleccionaron lagunas con diferente tiempo de formación: 1-5 años, 5-10 años y 10-15 años; tres lagunas por cada periodo de tiempo. Se midieron variables físicas y químicas y se colectó fitoperifíton, utilizando un cuadrante de 8cm2, obteniéndose un área de raspado de 120cm2. La comunidad, se compuso de seis divisiones, nueve clases, 16 órdenes, 24 familias y 33 géneros, para una densidad total de 13108 org/cm2. Las lagunas de 10-15 años presentaron la mayor densidad con las Bacillariophytas, como las más representativas en todas las lagunas estudiadas, tanto en densidad como en riqueza. Existieron diferencias en densidad entre lagunas, pero no en la riqueza específica y diversidad. Los valores de similaridad indican que las lagunas presentan poca variabilidad en sus comunidades fitoperifíticas. La conductividad y los sólidos totales disueltos son las variables de mayor variación, a lo largo de estudio, existiendo diferencias significativas entre lagunas, para las variables oxígeno disuelto, pH y alcalinidad (p<0,05). Las variables pH y conductividad, se relacionaron positivamente con la densidad de algunos grupos fitoperifíticos. Este estudio, se constituye en una línea base para el conocimiento de la dinámica ecológica de los ambientes lénticos generados por los procesos mineros y sobre el desarrollo de las comunidades fitoperifíticas en ellos.

11.
Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud Pública ; 38(3): e338882, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288006

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Conocer la valoración que habitantes de Buriticá, Antioquia, hacen de los impactos socioambientales y sanitarios por la actividad minera aurífera en la región. Metodología: Estudio investigativo de método mixto, con enfoque cualitativo y cuantitativo, con participación de funcionarios de la Alcaldía, habitantes de zona rural y de la cabecera municipal, y personal administrativo y operarios de una asociación minera del municipio en proceso de legalización. Los actores identificaron, valoraron, priorizaron y categorizaron los impactos percibidos, para lo que se utilizaron los métodos Leopold (1971) y Empresas Públicas de Medellín-Arboleda (1985) modificados. Resultados: La migración de mineros a Buriticá generó explotación aurífera informal con: impactos críticos (76-100 puntos) de contaminación de aguas, choque cultural, pérdida de identidad, aumento de alcoholismo, drogadicción, prostitución y delincuencia; impactos severos (50-75 puntos) de colapso de servicios públicos, aparición de plagas, construcciones de alto riesgo, tala de árboles y migración de animales; impactos positivos, como aumento del sentido de pertenencia de las personas autóctonas, incremento del comercio y del empleo, y aprendizaje del hospital para superar condiciones de capacidad instalada frente a la atención de urgencias, traumas, accidentes e intoxicaciones. Conclusión: El auge de la minería causó impactos identificados por diferentes actores: estos visualizaron que el aumento de la población foránea no es solo uno de los impactos más significativos que se han dado a partir de la minería, sino que también es el causante de muchos otros que han surgido en los tres componentes evaluados (social, ambiental y sanitario).


Abstract Objective: To determine the assessment of Buriticá's (Antioquia) inhabitants on the socio-environmental and health impacts of gold mining activity in the region. Methodology: Mixed method research study with a qualitative and quantitative approach, with the participation of officials from the Mayor's Office, inhabitants of rural areas and the municipal area, and administrative personnel and operators of a mining association in the municipality in the process of legalization. The actors identified, assessed, prioritized and categorized the perceived impacts, for which the modified Leopold (1971) and Empresas Públicas de Medellín-Arboleda (1985) methods were used. Results: The migration of miners to Buriticá generated informal gold mining that in turn generated: critical impacts (76-100 points) in terms of water contamination, culture shock, loss of identity, increased alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution and crime; severe impacts (50-75 points) in terms of the collapse of public services, appearance of pests, high-risk buildings, felling of trees and animal migration; positive impacts, such as an increase in the sense of belonging of indigenous people, an increase in commerce and employment, and hospital training to overcome conditions of installed capacity in the face of emergency care, trauma, accidents and poisoning. Conclusion: The mining boom caused impacts identified by different actors: these visualized that the increase in the foreign population is not only one of the most significant impacts that have occurred from mining, but is also the cause of many others that have emerged in the three components evaluated (social, environmental and health).


Resumo Objetivo: Conhecer a avaliação que os habitantes de Buriticá, Antioquia, fazem dos impactos socioambientais e sanitários devido à atividade de mineração aurífera na região. Metodologia: Foi usado o método misto em pesquisa, com abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa, com a participação de funcionários da prefeitura, habitantes da zona rural e do município, pessoal administrativo e trabalhadores de uma associação mineira do município em processo de legalização. Foram identificados, avaliados, priorizados e categorizados os impactos detectados, usando os métodos Leopold (1971) e Empresas Públicas de Medellín -Arboleda (1985) modificados. Resultados: A migração de mineiros à Buriticá gerou uma exploração aurífera informal com impactos críticos (76-100 pontos), contaminação de águas, choque cultural, perda da identidade, aumento de alcoolismo, dependência de drogas, prostituição e delinquência; impactos severos (50-75 pontos) de colapso de serviços públicos, surgimento de pragas, construções de alto risco, derrubada de árvores e migração de animais; impactos positivos como aumento do sentimento de pertencimento das pessoas autóctones, aumento do comércio e do emprego e a aprendizagem do hospital para superar condições de capacidade derivada da atenção de urgências, traumas, acidentes e intoxicações. Conclusão: O auge da mineração causou impactos identificados por diferentes fatores: é evidente que o aumento da população recém-chegada não é só um dos impactos mais significativos derivados da mineração, mas é também o causador de muitos outros que apareceram nos três componentes avaliados (social, ambiental e sanitário).

14.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127721, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745740

RESUMEN

The uptake and distribution of Pb and the mechanisms involved in the metal tolerance have been investigated in a mine population of Biscutella auriculata. Seedlings were exposed to 125 µM Pb(NO3)2 for 15 days under semihydroponic conditions. The results showed an increase in the size of Pb-treated seedlings and symptoms of toxicity were not observed. ICP-OES analyses showed that Pb accumulation was restricted to root tissue. Imaging of Pb accumulation by dithizone histochemistry revealed the presence of the metal in vacuoles and cell wall in root cells. The accumulation of Pb in vacuoles could be stimulated by an increase in phytochelatin PC2 content. Pb did not promote oxidative damage and this is probably due the increase of antioxidative defenses. In the leaves, Pb produced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity, while in roots an increase in catalase and components of the Foyer- Halliwell-Asada cycle were observed. The results indicated that Biscutella auriculata has a high capacity to tolerate Pb and this is mainly due to a very efficient mechanism to sequester the metal in roots and a capacity to avoid oxidative stress. This species could therefore be very useful for phytostabilization and repopulation of areas contaminated with Pb.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/efectos de los fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulación/efectos de los fármacos , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Plomo/metabolismo , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Brassicaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Brassicaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Plomo/análisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
15.
Nature ; 583(7815): 242-248, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641817

RESUMEN

Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change1. ERW also has possible co-benefits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidification2-4. Here we use an integrated performance modelling approach to make an initial techno-economic assessment for 2050, quantifying how CDR potential and costs vary among nations in relation to business-as-usual energy policies and policies consistent with limiting future warming to 2 degrees Celsius5. China, India, the USA and Brazil have great potential to help achieve average global CDR goals of 0.5 to 2 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year with extraction costs of approximately US$80-180 per tonne of CO2. These goals and costs are robust, regardless of future energy policies. Deployment within existing croplands offers opportunities to align agriculture and climate policy. However, success will depend upon overcoming political and social inertia to develop regulatory and incentive frameworks. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of ERW deployment, including the potential for excess industrial silicate materials (basalt mine overburden, concrete, and iron and steel slag) to obviate the need for new mining, as well as uncertainties in soil weathering rates and land-ocean transfer of weathered products.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/aislamiento & purificación , Productos Agrícolas , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Calentamiento Global/prevención & control , Objetivos , Silicatos/química , Atmósfera/química , Brasil , China , Política Ambiental/economía , Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calentamiento Global/economía , India , Hierro/aislamiento & purificación , Minería , Política , Probabilidad , Silicatos/aislamiento & purificación , Acero/aislamiento & purificación , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110799, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544743

RESUMEN

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that poses great risk to human health. However, it is still widely used in artisanal gold-mining enterprises around the world, especially in developing countries. Methylmercury (MeHg) is produced environmentally by biomethylation of inorganic Hg present in water sediments, leading to its subsequent accumulation in the aquatic food chain. Due to its high metabolic rate, the Central Nervous System (CNS) is one of the main targets of MeHg. In the present study, we investigate the impact of chronic MeHg intoxication on NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity and astrocyte mobilization in the visual cortex of the rat. After 60 days of MeHg administration by oral gavage (0.04 mg/kg/day), tissue samples containing the visual cortex were submitted to measurements of Hg levels, NADPH-d activity, and GFAP immunohistochemistry for identification of astrocytes. MeHg intoxication was associated with increased Hg deposits and with reduced NADPH-d neuropil reactivity in the visual cortex. A morphometric analysis suggested that NADPH-d-positive neurons were mostly spared from MeHg harmful action and intoxicated animals had astrocytic activation similar to the control group. The decrease in NADPH-d neuropil reactivity may be due to the negative effect of chronic MeHg poisoning on both the synthesis and transport of this enzyme in afferent pathways to the visual cortex. The relative resistance of NADPH-d-reactive neurons to chronic MeHg intoxication may be associated with peculiarities in cell metabolism or to a protective role of nitric oxide, safeguarding those neurons from Hg deleterious effects.


Asunto(s)
Astrocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Compuestos de Metilmercurio/toxicidad , NADPH Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Corteza Visual/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Astrocitos/enzimología , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Oro , Humanos , Masculino , Compuestos de Metilmercurio/metabolismo , Minería , Neuronas/enzimología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Corteza Visual/enzimología , Corteza Visual/patología
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110784, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485494

RESUMEN

Biscutella auriculata L. is one of the rare species that is able to grow in a very contaminated mining area in Villamayor de Calatrava (Ciudad Real, Spain). In an effort to understand the mechanisms involved in the tolerance of this plant to high metal concentrations, we grew B. auriculata in the presence of 125 µM Cd(NO3)2 for 15 days and analysed different parameters associated with plant growth, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species metabolism, metal uptake and translocation, photosynthesis rate and biothiol (glutathione and phytochelatins) content. Treatment with Cd led to growth inhibition in both the leaves and the roots, as well as a reduction of photosynthetic parameters, transpiration and stomatal conductance. The metal was mainly accumulated in the roots and in the vascular tissue, although most Cd was detected in areas surrounding their epidermal cells, while in the leaves the metal accumulated mainly in spongy mesophyll, stomata and trichrome. Based on the Cd bioaccumulation (5.93) and translocation (0.15) factors, this species denoted enrichment of the metal in the roots and its low translocation to the upper tissues. Biothiol analysis showed a Cd-dependent increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as the phytochelatins (PC2 and PC3) in both roots and leaves. Cd-promoted oxidative damage occurred mainly in the leaves due to disturbances in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, while the roots did not show significant damage as a result of induction of antioxidant defences. It can be concluded that B. auriculata is a new Cd-tolerant plant with an ability to activate efficient metal-sequestering mechanisms in the root surface and leaves and to induce PCs, as well as antioxidative defences in roots.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/efectos de los fármacos , Brassicaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Cadmio/toxicidad , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cadmio/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Oxidación-Reducción , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , España
18.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110601, 2020 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510424

RESUMEN

During the second half of the twentieth century, northwestern New Mexico served as the primary production site for one of the world's largest nuclear arsenals. From 1948 to 1970 the "Grants uranium district" provided almost half of the total uranium ore accumulated by the United States federal government for the production of nuclear weapons, in addition to becoming a national source for commercial nuclear energy from the late 1960s to the early 1990s. By the twenty-first century, after a prolonged period of economic decline that began in the late 1970s, all uranium mining and milling in New Mexico had ceased, leaving a legacy of environmental health impacts. What was once referred to as "The Uranium Capital of the World" now encompasses over a thousand abandoned uranium mines and seven massive uranium mill tailings piles, which are associated with airborne and soil contamination as well as groundwater plumes of uranium and other contaminants of concern, in a landscape that has been fractured by underground mine workings and punctured by thousands of exploratory boreholes. This article presents an ethnographic study of the diverse forms of expertise involved in monitoring and managing the mine waste and mill tailings. Drawing from over two years of ethnographic research, I describe the relationship between different stakeholders from local communities, government agencies, and transnational mining corporations as they deliberate about the possibility of cleaning up the former mining district. My thesis is that the possibility of cleaning up the Grants district hinges on the "politics of baselining"-a term I introduce to describe the relationship between stakeholders and their competing environmental models and hydrogeological theories; each accounts for a different geological past prior to mining that can be deemed "natural," as the background against which to measure the anthropogenic impacts from mining.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Minería , New Mexico , Política
19.
Ergonomics ; 63(10): 1281-1292, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449502

RESUMEN

Mining activities expose workers to diverse working conditions, rotational shifts and high altitude-related hypobaric hypoxia. Separately, each condition has been reported having a negative impact on miners' health risk; however, the combination of both stressors has been poorly explored. The present study aimed to analyse the effects of exposure to rotational work shift (RWS) alone or in combination with high altitude-related chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) on cardiometabolic, physical activity and sleep quality related markers in copper miners from Los Pelambres mine in Chile. One hundred and eleven male miners working in RWS with or without CIHH were included. Anthropometrics measures, sleep quality assessment, physical activity level (PAL) and handgrip strength were evaluated. Exposure to CIHH exacerbated the detrimental effects of RWS as miners exposed to the combination of RWS and CIHH where more obese and had a wider neck circumference, reduced PAL at work and worsened sleep quality. Practitioner summary: The purpose was to assess cardiometabolic health and sleep quality markers associated with the combined effects of rotational shift work and high altitude-related intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in miners. Findings showed a wider neck circumference, lower physical activity level and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality in exposed miners. Abbreviations: ANOVA: analysis of variance; BM: body mass; BMI: body mass index; CI: confidence intervals; CIHH: chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia; CV: cardiovascular; CVR: cardiovascular risk; HA: high altitude; HACE: high-altitude cerebral edema; HGS: handgrip strength; IPAQ-SF: International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form; LSD: Fisher's least standardized difference; MANCOVA: multivariate general lineal model; MET: metabolic equivalent; PAL: physical activity level; PSQI: Pittsburg sleep quality index; RWS: rotational work shift; WHR: waist-to-hip ratio.


Asunto(s)
Mal de Altura/complicaciones , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Minería , Enfermedades Profesionales/complicaciones , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos/efectos adversos , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Chile , Enfermedad Crónica , Cobre , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino
20.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 81(2): 190-195, abr-jun 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278264

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción. Las sustancias químicas son elementos altamente tóxicos por ingesta de humos metálicos. La Oroya es una ciudad minera que comprende un conjunto de fundiciones y refinerías, catalogada como la quinta más contaminada a nivel mundial, ocasionando efectos perjudiciales en la salud; sin embargo, existen profesionales de salud que trabajan en el hospital de dicha localidad. Objetivo. Identificar, analizar y comprender el significado que tiene la salud en los profesionales del hospital al vivir en una ciudad minera. Métodos. Estudio cualitativo, sustentado en el análisis de las representaciones sociales. Se seleccionó 13 profesionales de salud con un mínimo de 10 años laborando, divididos en foráneos y nativos arraigados. La técnica fue la entrevista en profundidad semiestructurada. Se aplicó una guía de preguntas construidas mediante el universo de creencias. Se utilizó el ATLASti como software de análisis textual. Resultados. Se identificó la categoría salud y bienestar, vinculada a dos sub categorías: psicosocial (objetivada en buenas relaciones interpersonales) y tranquilidad de vida. Y aspectos físicos, la cual comprende prácticas saludables y problemas de salud. Conclusiones. El significado de la salud fue enfrentar una nueva forma de vida desafiando la contaminación de una ciudad minera. Los foráneos presentaron más problemas de salud que los nativos arraigados y no tuvieron adecuada actividad física. Ambos grupos generaron nuevas costumbres, motivados por el beneficio económico mantener buenas relaciones con los pacientes y compañeros de trabajo y la vocación de servicio profesional.


ABSTRACT Introduction. Chemical substances are highly toxic elements due to the ingestion of metallic fumes. La Oroya is a mining city that comprises a set of smelters and refineries, ranked as the fifth most polluted worldwide, causing detrimental health effects; however, there are health professionals who work at the hospital in that locality. Objective. Identify, analyze and understand the meaning of health in hospital professionals when living in a mining city. Methods. Qualitative study, based on the analysis of social representations. Thirteen health professionals with a minimum of 10 years working were selected, divided into foreign and rooted natives. The technique was the semi-structured in-depth interview. A guide of questions constructed through the universe of beliefs was applied. ATLASti was used as textual analysis software. Results. The health and wellness category was identified, linked to two subcategories: psychosocial (objective in good interpersonal relationships) and tranquility of life. And physical aspects, which includes healthy practices and health problems. Conclusions. The meaning of health was to face a new way of life by defying pollution in a mining city. The foreigners presented more health problems than the rooted natives and did not have adequate physical activity. Both groups generated new customs, motivated by the economic benefit of maintaining good relationships with patients and coworkers and the vocation of professional service.

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