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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMEN

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232701, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249237

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study objectified to evaluate the trophic relationships and the possible aggressive mimicry involving Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae and Gnathocharax steindachneri, in lowland forest streams. Samplings occurred in November 2002, March and August 2003 in Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). The total of 943 fish was caught, being 79.43% of C. marthae, 3.18% of C. strigata and 17.39% of G. steindachneri. Stomach contents, degree of stomach repletion, relative volume and frequency of occurrence of food items were evaluated. Thirteen food items were identified, and the presence of terrestrial and aquatic insects indicates the high dependence of these species and the flooded forest. Low feeding overlap was observed between Carnegiella strigata and C. marthae compared to Gnathocharax steindachneri. However, the overlap between the two Carnegiella species was relatively high, which could explain the low frequency of syntopic occurrence among these species, suggesting a possible case of competitive exclusion.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as relações tróficas e a possível existência de uma relação de mimetismo agressivo envolvendo Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae e Gnathocharax steindachneri, em igarapés de terra firme. As coletas ocorreram em novembro de 2002, março e agosto de 2003 e foram realizadas na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável de Amanã (RDSA). Foram capturados 943 peixes, onde C. marthae representou 79,43%, C. strigata 3,18% e G. steindachneri 17,39%. Foram analisados os conteúdos estomacais e verificados grau de repleção, volume relativo e frequência de ocorrência dos alimentos. Foram identificados 13 itens alimentares, onde insetos terrestres e aquáticos denotaram alto grau de dependência destas espécies em relação à floresta alagada. Ocorreu baixa sobreposição alimentar das espécies Carnegiella strigata e C. marthae em relação a Gnathocharax steindachneri. Entretanto, a sobreposição entre as duas espécies de Carnegiella foi relativamente alta, o que poderia explicar a baixa frequência de ocorrência sintópica entre essas espécies, sugerindo um possível caso de exclusão competitiva.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243628, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249260

RESUMEN

Abstract Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Resumo Os aditivos aromatizantes têm grande importância tecnológica para a indústria de alimentos. Contudo, poucas são as informações quanto as propriedades toxicológicas desses microingredientes, especialmente, em nível celular. No presente estudo avaliou-se, sobre as células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., a toxicidade de um aditivo sintético líquido de aroma e sabor de chocolate, fabricado e amplamente comercializado em todo Brasil, e exportado para outros países da América do Sul. As concentrações de aromatizante avaliadas foram 100,00; 50,00; 25,00; 1,00; 0,50 e 0,25 µL/L, onde a maior concentração estabelecida foi cem vezes menor que a sugerida comercialmente para uso. Com base na interpretação dos resultados, a concentração 100 µL/L reduziu substancialmente a divisão celular dos meristemas nas 24 e 48 horas de exposição. As concentrações 100,00 a 0,50 µL/L demonstraram número significativo de prófases em detrimento as outras fases da divisão celular, indicando ação aneugênica, e induziram número significativo de alterações celulares, com ênfase a micronúcleos, broto nucleares e quebras cromossômicas. Nas condições de análises estabelecidas, com exceção a concentração 0,25 µL/L, o aromatizante de chocolate causou citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade aos meristemas radiculares.

4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020148, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288036

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate associations between snacking and energy, nutrients and food source, and to identify the contribution of snacking across age, sex, weight status and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Methods: A sub-sample was calculated from the population-based cross-sectional study 2015-Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital). The survey "ISA-Nutrição" used a sample of non-institutionalized individuals aged >15 years. For this study, only adolescents (12-18 years old; n=418) and young adults (19-29 years old; n=218) were included. Snacks were identified, and their contribution to energy, nutrients, and food sources were calculated. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used. Results: Participants experienced an average of 2.9±0.6 snacking occasions per day. Young adults consumed more energy from morning and night snacks, and adolescents, from afternoon snacks. The top three food sources on snacking contributed to 30.5% of energy: cookies (11.8%), sugar sweetened beverages (9.4%), sweets and other desserts (9.3%). Although results were non-significant, being a female (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.36-1.49), meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR 0.75; 95%CI 0.25-1.25), and scoring higher for the healthy eating index (OR 0.88; 95%C 0.24-1.52) were all factors related to increased intake of snacks. Alternatively, overweight individuals (OR -0.54; 95%CI -1.00 to -0.08) consumed less snacks. Conclusions: Improving the quality of snacks should be considered in behavior-change strategies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar associações entre lanches e consumo de energia, nutrientes e fontes alimentares e identificar seus contribuintes por idade, sexo, status de peso e comportamentos de estilo de vida entre adolescentes e jovens adultos. Métodos: Subamostra calculada a partir do estudo de base-populacional transversal Inquéritos de Saúde de São Paulo (ISA-Capital, 2015). O ISA-Nutrição utilizou amostra de indivíduos não-institucionalizados com idade >15 anos. Para este estudo, apenas adolescentes (12-18 anos; n=418) e jovens adultos (19-29 anos; n=218) foram incluídos. Os "lanches" foram definidos, bem como foram calculadas a contribuição de energia e nutrientes, e as fontes alimentares. Estatística descritiva e regressões logísticas foram utilizadas. Resultados: Em média foram realizados 2,9±0,6 lanches por dia pelos participantes. Jovens adultos consumiram mais energia nos lanches da manhã e noite, enquanto adolescentes, à tarde. As três principais fontes de alimentos nos lanches contribuíram em 30,5% para o total de energia: biscoitos (11,8%), bebidas açucaradas (9,4%), e doces e outras sobremesas (9,3%). Apesar de os resultados não serem significantes, ser do sexo feminino (Odds Ratio [OR] 0,93, intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 0,36-1,49), atingir as recomendações de atividade física (OR 0,75, IC95% 0,25-1,25), e ter alta pontuação no índice do total da qualidade dieta (OR 0,88, IC95% 0,24-1,52) resultou em aumento na ingestão de lanches. Alternativamente, ter sobrepeso (OR -0.54, IC95% -1.00 a -0.08) está relacionado a menores chances de consumir lanches. Conclusões: Estratégias para melhorar a qualidade dos lanches deveriam ser consideradas nas intervenções de mudança de comportamentos.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278466

RESUMEN

Abstract The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


Resumo A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados ​​em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados ​​no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239188, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278479

RESUMEN

Abstract Amazonian livelihoods are largely dependent on rivers, with local protein consumption mainly relying on several species of fish. The UJER (Upper Juruá Extractive Reserve - Reserva Extrativista do Alto Juruá) is located in the state of Acre, bordering Peru and several indigenous areas. Here we summarize the data we collected in 1993/1994 on the population living along the banks of the Juruá, Tejo, Bagé, Igarapé São João and Breu rivers on crop cultivation, animal husbandry, and use of game and fish resources. We interviewed 133 individuals (94 on the Juruá and Tejo, 16 on Bagé, 16 on Igarapé São João and 7 on Breu rivers). Our results include a comprehensive description on local livelihoods, including the most important fish species for local subsistence considering gender and seasonality, the main husbandry and game species, and the items cultivated on the local agriculture. Whenever more recent information was available in the literature, we compared changes in livelihoods over time in the same region and also with the recent patterns observed in the Lower and in the Middle Juruá River. We hope to provide useful information to understand temporal changes in local livelihoods, which can help adapt and shape the ecological management in the region.


Resumo Comunidades da Amazônia são amplamente dependentes dos rios, com o consumo local de alimentos baseado em várias espécies de peixes. A UJER (Reserva Extrativista do Alto Juruá - Reserva Extrativista do Alto Juruá) está localizada no estado do Acre, na fronteira com o Peru e com várias áreas indígenas. Aqui resumimos os dados que coletamos em 1993/1994 da população que vive às margens dos rios Juruá, Tejo, Bagé, Igarapé São João e Breu sobre cultivo, criação de animais e uso de recursos de caça e peixes. Foram entrevistados 133 indivíduos (94 nos rios Juruá e Tejo, 16 em Bagé, 16 em Igarapé São João e 7 no rio Breu). Nossos resultados incluem uma descrição abrangente dos meios de subsistência locais, incluindo as espécies de peixes mais importantes para a subsistência local, considerando gênero e sazonalidade, bem como as principais espécies de criação, de caça e os itens cultivados na agricultura local., Quando foi possível obter informações da literatura, comparamos as mudanças nos meios de subsistência ao longo do tempo na mesma região e também com os padrões recentes observados no Baixo e no Médio Rio Juruá. Esperamos fornecer informações úteis para o entendimento das mudanças temporais nos meios de subsistência locais, o que pode ser útil ao manejo ecológico da região.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMEN

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285591

RESUMEN

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243063, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285598

RESUMEN

Abstract The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é classificado como uma espécie de praga agrícola. Alimenta-se de plantas e colheitas; portanto, é responsável por enormes perdas financeiras em todo o mundo. O estudo atual foi realizado para avaliar a composição da dieta do porco-espinho de crista indiano nos distritos de Bagh, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJ&K). Assim, amostras fecais foram coletadas e examinadas em diferentes locais de amostragem. Lâminas de referência do material coletado na área de estudo foram preparadas para identificação dos componentes da dieta em pellets fecais. Um total de 80 amostras fecais foi coletado e processado. As frequências relativas percentuais (P.R.F.) foram calculadas para cada espécie de planta recuperada de pelotas. Os dados revelaram que o porco-espinho indiano consumiu 31 espécies de plantas em sua dieta, entre elas Zea mays (34,31 ± 7,76) foi a espécie mais selecionada, seguida por Rumex obtusifolius (15,32 ± 2,57) e Melia azedarach (12,83 ± 4,79). O estudo revelou que a maior diversidade de (n = 20) espécies de plantas foi consumida no verão, enquanto o mínimo (n = 13) espécies foi utilizado durante o inverno. Entre as partes das plantas, o caule foi muito consumido na primavera (57,2%) em relação à semente no outono (36,7%), enquanto a espiga e a folha foram as partes menos recuperadas da matéria fecal., O índice de diversidade de Berger-Parker mostrou alimentos altamente diversificados (10,92) no verão do ano em comparação com o outono (2,95). Este estudo fornece uma linha de base para a preferência alimentar dessa praga na área de estudo. Com base nas descobertas atuais, uma investigação detalhada sobre avaliação de danos, exploração, uso de habitat e gerenciamento de porco-espinho de crista indiano em AJ&K foi recomendada.

10.
Food Chem ; 366: 130531, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284182

RESUMEN

Phytochemical electrophiles are drawing significant attention due to their properties to modulate signaling pathways related to cellular homeostasis. The aim of this study was to develop new tools to examine the electrophilic activity in food and predict their beneficial effects on health. We developed a spectrophotometric assay based on the nitrobenzenethiol (NBT) reactivity, as a thiol-reactive nucleophile, to screen electrophiles in tomato fruits. The method is robust, simple, inexpensive, and could be applied to other types of food. We quantified the electrophile activity in a tomato collection and associated this activity with the pigment composition. Thus, we identified lycopene, ß- and γ-carotenes, 16 by-products of carotenoid oxidation and 18 unknown compounds as NBT-reactive by HPLC-MS/MS. The potential benefits of NBT-reactive compounds on health were evaluated in the in vivo model of C. elegans where they activated the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway, evidencing the ability of electrophilic compounds to induce a biological response.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Lycopersicon esculentum , Animales , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ADN , Suplementos Dietéticos , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/genética , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Factores de Transcripción
11.
Food Chem ; 366: 130527, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284186

RESUMEN

A novel dual quantum dot nanobeads-based fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (QBs-FLISA) was successfully developed for simultaneously detecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) in feedstuffs. Dual CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanobeads with different diameters that emit red and green fluorescence were conjugated with anti-AFB1 and anti-ZEN monoclonal antibodies to prepare fluorescent probes, which greatly enhance analytical performance. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection for AFB1 and ZEN were 9.3 and 102.1 pg mL-1, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 82.50% to 116.21% with relative standard deviation less than 11.3%. Compared with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, detection sensitivities of AFB1 and ZEN using QBs-FLISA were increased 20 and 5 folds, respectively. In addition, results of feedstuff samples analyzed by QBs-FLISA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed a good agreement (R2 = 0.99).


Asunto(s)
Puntos Cuánticos , Zearalenona , Aflatoxina B1/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Inmunoadsorbentes , Límite de Detección , Zearalenona/análisis
12.
Food Chem ; 366: 130592, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293549

RESUMEN

An exhaustive migration study of eight corks, made of ethylene-vinyl acetate, was carried out to identify any non-volatile and volatile compounds using an untargeted approach. The challenge associated with the structural elucidation of unknowns was undertaken using both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-mobility separation quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A total of fifty compounds were observed to migrate from the corks, and among these additives such as antioxidants (Butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Irganox 1010, Irganox 1075, Irgafos 168 and BHT) or lubricants (EBO and octadecanamide, N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-) were identified. A high proportion (84%) of the detected compounds was non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), and included several cyclic oligomers with different chain sequences. NIAS, such as 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-ethyl and 7,9-ditert-butyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione, break-down products, including hexa-, hepta- and nonadecanamide, N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-, and oxidation products were also identified. One cork was found to be unsuitable for use as a food contact material.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Embalaje de Alimentos , Cromatografía Liquida , Etilenos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Espectrometría de Masas , Compuestos de Vinilo
13.
Food Chem ; 366: 130530, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303204

RESUMEN

In this study, the effects of different temperatures, incubation times and types of reducing sugars, including glucose and different low molecular weight (Mw) chito-oligosaccharides (COS) with varying acetylation degree (AD), on the extent of Maillard reaction (MR) on chitosan-based films were studied. Interestingly, an improvement of structural and functional properties of all MR-crosslinked films was noted, which is more pronounced by heating at higher temperature and exposure time. These findings were proved through Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, color change and Ultraviolet spectra demonstrate that glucose addition provides the high extent of MR, followed by COS1 (Mw < 4.4 kDa; AD, 18.20%) and COS2 (Mw < 4.4 kDa; AD, 10.63%). These results were confirmed by enhanced water resistance and thermal properties. Moreover, MR-chitosan/COS films showed the highest mechanical properties, whereas, glucose-loaded films were brittle, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy micrographs. Furthermore, MR-chitosan/COS1 films exhibited the better antioxidant behavior followed by chitosan/glucose and chitosan/COS2 films, mainly at higher heating-conditions. Thereby, MR-crosslinked chitosan/COS based films were attractive to be applied as functional and active coating-materials in various fields.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Antioxidantes , Glucosa , Reacción de Maillard , Peso Molecular , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
14.
Food Chem ; 366: 130574, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303209

RESUMEN

There is growing interest in chitosan-based intelligent packaging films for monitoring food quality. However, practical application of these biopolymeric films has been limited by their poor physical and mechanical attributes. Herein, a versatile colorimetric indicator film was developed based on chitosan (CHI) and broken Riceberry phenolic extract (RPE). The effects of RPE fortification on the microstructure, physical, and functional attributes of the CHI films were comprehensively evaluated. The results revealed that CHI-RPE films exhibited increased hydrophobicity, mechanical resistance, thermal stability, barrier properties, and antioxidant activity compared to plain CHI film. The CHI-RPE films were cytocompatible. Notably, CHI-RPE film also produced intense naked-eye detectable colorimetric response to pH (2-12) variation and volatile ammonia. When enclosed with fresh shrimp, CHI-RPE film changed from orange-red to yellow in response to shrimp spoilage. Thus, CHI-RPE film has high potential for fabricating pragmatic, smart packaging labels for on-site visual detection of freshness in seafood products.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes , Embalaje de Alimentos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Extractos Vegetales , Alimentos Marinos/análisis
15.
Food Chem ; 366: 130586, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311229

RESUMEN

In this study, the gluten/zein nanofibrous films were fabricated by blending electrospinning and then glycated with xylose via Maillard reaction. The average fiber diameter of the gluten film decreased from 551 to 343 nm with the increasing ratio of zein, but increased significantly to a range of 717-521 nm after glycation, which induced a higher thermal stability of the nanofibers with an order to disorder transition. The glycated composite films showed the reduced water vapor permeability and improved water stability with a stiffer and more elastic network structure, due to the enhanced intermolecular entanglements and interactions between polymer chains. The results from this work suggested that the composite gluten/zein electrospun films may be glycated via Maillard reaction to obtain desirable physical properties for active food-packaging applications.


Asunto(s)
Nanofibras , Zeína , Embalaje de Alimentos , Glútenes , Polímeros
16.
Food Chem ; 366: 130606, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311233

RESUMEN

A natamycin-based non-migratory antimicrobial packaging for extending shelf-life of yogurt drink (Doogh) was developed. Firstly, the surface of low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) was modified with acrylic acid at different times of UV exposure (0-10 min) to produce carboxylic functional groups. Then, natamycin was applied to the UV-treated films to bind covalently with the pendent functional groups. The maximum grafting efficiency (81.96%) was obtained for the 6 min treated film. Moreover, surface properties of films were evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antifungal activity of different treatments of natamycin grafted film was evaluated against two common spoilage yeasts of Doogh including Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida parapsilosis. Results showed that 6 min treated film provides maximum anti-yeast activity and can be applied to control fungal growth in Doogh. Natamycin-grafted film postponed the yeast spoilage in Doogh and prolonged its shelf-life to 23 days.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Natamicina , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Embalaje de Alimentos , Rhodotorula , Yogur
17.
Food Chem ; 366: 130632, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311235

RESUMEN

The roles of total soluble polyphenols (TSP) and insoluble tannins (IST) in the enzymatic browning during the storage of dried persimmon slices packaged by different methods was studied. The color evolution was comprehensively evaluated within 18 weeks of storage, as well as determination the content variation of TSP, IST, and carotenoids. A series of simulated reactions were conducted to investigate the involvement of TSP and IST in PPO-catalyzed reaction. The results showed that N2-opaque packaging was a good way to alleviate this browning issue. The IST contributed preponderantly to the browning during the whole storage, while the contribution of TSP was little. And the degradation of carotenoids might be related to the color deterioration in the early storage. The IST participated in PPO-catalyzed reaction directly with the insoluble state. By contrast, only a small amount of TSP participated in PPO-catalyzed browning reaction, since it preferentially interacted with IST.


Asunto(s)
Diospyros , Carotenoides , Frutas , Reacción de Maillard , Taninos
18.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMEN

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Ácidos Grasos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Yema de Huevo/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Femenino , Minerales/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo
19.
Food Chem ; 366: 130588, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314930

RESUMEN

1H NMR fingerprinting of edible oils and a set of multivariate classification and regression models organised in a decision tree is proposed as a stepwise strategy to assure the authenticity and traceability of olive oils and their declared blends with other vegetable oils (VOs). Oils of the 'virgin olive oil' and 'olive oil' categories and their mixtures with the most common VOs, i.e. sunflower, high oleic sunflower, hazelnut, avocado, soybean, corn, refined palm olein and desterolized high oleic sunflower oils, were studied. Partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis provided stable and robust binary classification models to identify the olive oil type and the VO in the blend. PLS regression afforded models with excellent precisions and acceptable accuracies to determine the percentage of VO in the mixture. The satisfactory performance of this approach, tested with blind samples, confirm its potential to support regulations and control bodies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Aceites Vegetales , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Aceite de Oliva/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/análisis , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética , Aceite de Girasol
20.
Food Chem ; 366: 130654, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325246

RESUMEN

Patulin (PAT) is a potent mycotoxin commonly found in apples and apple-based products such as juice, thus affecting global food safety. Therefore, development of fast and simple analytical methods to effectively control its contamination is of great importance. This study developed and validated a technique for the analysis of PAT in samples of industrialized apple juice based on liquid-liquid extraction and using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent. Detection via mass spectrometry was performed after Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI). Mean recoveries of 97.5, 92.49 and 96.92% were reached for 4, 8 and 20 µg/L of PAT, respectively. The analyte was monitored with an APCI source in negative ion mode to identify its fragments. The 24 analyzed samples presented PAT levels below the limit of quantification. It may be concluded that the method fulfilled all of the validation criteria, thus being appropriate for routine surveillance of PAT in apple juice.


Asunto(s)
Malus , Patulina , Bebidas/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Cromatografía Liquida , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Patulina/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
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