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2.
Baltimore, Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-03-04.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51918

RESUMEN

[Mensaje de la Organización Mundial de la Salud]: El acceso a información y servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva asequibles y de buena calidad, que abarquen una amplia gama de métodos anticonceptivos, es fundamental para la realización de los derechos y para el bienestar de las mujeres y las niñas, los hombres y los niños. El acceso universal a métodos anticonceptivos efectivos garantiza que todos los adultos y adolescentes puedan evitar las consecuencias adversas para la salud y socioeconómicas de los embarazos no deseados, así como tener una vida sexual satisfactoria. En las principales iniciativas mundiales, incluidos los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y la Estrategia mundial para la salud de la mujer, el niño y el adolescente, se hace un llamamiento en pro del acceso universal a los servicios de planificación familiar como un derecho de las mujeres y las niñas, así como un factor crucial para tener una vida sana. Sin embargo, reducir la enorme necesidad insatisfecha de planificación familiar que aún existe sigue siendo un reto colosal para los países y la comunidad mundial de la salud. En muchos entornos, los servicios continúan siendo de mala calidad o no están disponibles, al tiempo que persisten las deficiencias en la provisión de servicios y las limitaciones sociales. Los proveedores de servicios de planificación familiar constituyen la base de las respuestas de los sistemas de salud a estos retos. En el presente Manual mundial para proveedores se ofrecen información y asesoramiento claros y actualizados para ayudar a los proveedores a satisfacer las necesidades de los usuarios y a fundamentar su elección y uso de anticonceptivos. Este manual es también un recurso excelente para la capacitación y puede ayudar a reforzar la supervision […] La OMS alienta a todos los sistemas nacionales de salud y a otras organizaciones que proporcionan servicios de planificación familiar a considerar esta nueva edición del Manual mundial para proveedores como un documento clave que ayude a garantizar la calidad y la seguridad de los servicios de planificación familiar. La OMS agradece las aportaciones de las numerosas personas, mencionadas en el apartado de agradecimientos, que contribuyeron a actualizar y ampliar esta edición del manual. Además, la OMS quiere expresar su agradecimiento a la Escuela de Salud Pública Bloomberg de la Universidad Johns Hopkins y al Centro para Programas de Comunicación por su gestión, así como a la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional, por su apoyo financiero y técnico al manual.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Familiar , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Salud de la Mujer , Salud del Niño , Servicios de Planificación Familiar
3.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 052918

RESUMEN

An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.


Agencia Federal de los Estados Unidos independiente establecida en 1961 como el punto focal para las materias económicas que afectan las relaciones de los EEUU con los países en desarrollo.


Órgão independente do governo federal dos EUA estabelecido em 1961 responsável por programas de assistência econômica e humanitária em todo o mundo.

4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 261-270, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564724

RESUMEN

The convergence of humans, animals and our shared environment results in a dynamic in which the health of each group is inextricably linked. Taking into account the fact that the majority of emerging pathogens (e.g. highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI], severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) are zoonotic diseases, Egypt has established a national One Health coordination mechanism. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to provide a comprehensive, strategic approach to concurrent and future health challenges that are facing public and animal heath, including environmental impacts. In this way, the public health, animal health and environment sectors can improve disease mitigation measures, develop stronger and more stable public and animal health services, promote effective national communication strategies and improve One Health collaboration among all relevant sectors. In Egypt, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) currently assist in hosting the country's Four-Way Linking Task Force with the participation of the convening Ministries (Ministry of Health and Population, Ministry of Environment, and Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation [MOALR] - through the General Organisation for Veterinary Services and the MOALR's laboratories). In the context of the Emerging Pandemic Threats 2 Program, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), FAO plans to assist Egypt in establishing a robust, multidisciplinary and multisectoral One Health system. This system is based on the solid foundation of the Four-Way Linking Platform, which combines information from four functional streams - epidemiology, laboratories, and animal and human health. Egypt's platform will involve all sectors concerned with HPAI control and combine all stakeholders in an integrated, holistic approach to improve the detection of, response to and control of any threats at the human- animal-environment interface in Egypt.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Colaboración Intersectorial , Salud Única , Animales , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Egipto , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Naciones Unidas , Zoonosis/prevención & control
7.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 18: 2325958219855631, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213119

RESUMEN

Over half of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) occurs postdelivery. Keeping mother-infant pairs in care remains challenging. Health workers in 3 countries used quality improvement (QI) approaches to improve data systems, mother-infant retention, and facility-based care delivery. The number and proportion of infants with known HIV status at time of discharge from early infant diagnosis programs increased in Tanzania and Uganda. We analyzed data using statistical process control charts. Mother-to-child HIV transmission did not decrease in 15 Kenyan sites, decreased from 12.7% to 3.8% in 28 Tanzanian sites, and decreased from 17.2% to 1.5% in 10 Ugandan sites with baseline data. This improvement is likely due to the combination of option B+, service delivery improvements, and retention through QI approaches. Reaching the global MTCT elimination target and maximizing infant survival will require health systems to support mother-infant pairs to remain in care and support health workers to deliver care. Quality improvement approaches can support these changes.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Madres , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kenia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Prevalencia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development
8.
Glob Public Health ; 14(12): 1829-1846, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156044

RESUMEN

Evidence on the implementation of health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions is scarce. Donors need this information to prioritise investments and lobby for continued financial support. To develop a deeper understanding of the implementation dynamics of robust HSS interventions, we retrospectively compared five USAID-supported projects in the Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Rwanda, and Zambia. A document review and key informant interviews (n = 44) were conducted, coded, and analysed in each of the five cases using an integrated implementation framework. The framework was organised by four phases of implementation. For the pre-condition phase, data-driven HSS interventions were nested in a range of political contexts and with differing levels of financial support. In pre-implementation, cases relied on diverse teams that created a data-informed, inclusive, and transparent project ethos for implementation. Implementation was located at multiple tiers of the health system, used interventions as catalysts for government initiatives, supported governance/accountability initiatives, and responded nimbly to contextual changes in the implementation climate. There was less evidence of maintenance and evolution but all cases were designed with an eye towards sustainability. This research yields important insights about the dynamics of HSS, identifying ways donors can better support countries to achieve universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , United States Agency for International Development , Países en Desarrollo , República Dominicana , Etiopía , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , Kazajstán , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rwanda , Estados Unidos , Zambia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210150, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615647

RESUMEN

Male condoms are important to prevent transmission of HIV (and other STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. Research was conducted to evaluate the quality of male condoms available in the Dominican Republic market based on preliminary concerns of suspect product. Based on international testing standards (ISO 4074 and ASTM D 3492-08), condoms were sampled across ten prominent brands within the market and evaluated for airburst pressure / volume, freedom from holes, visual defects, package seal integrity, packaging and marking, lubricant quantity, and dimensions. Five of the brands were found to have extensive quality problems, where holes were found in 5.7% to 17.5% of the condoms (depending on the brand). Between 5.1% and 30.5% of these condoms failed to meet the requirements for airburst properties, and violations in regulatory labeling where observed. Three additional brands were compliant for the other tests, but were found to have the same challenges with labeling violations as the previous five brands. Two brands were found to be fully compliant with all aspects of the evaluation. The level of defects observed in these samples would greatly increase the risk of HIV transmission (and other STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. When projected on the annual market of male condoms sold in the Dominican Republic (~26 million), potentially over 1 million condoms could be estimated to adversely impact the health risk of the end-user. These results prompted action by the Dominican Republic regulatory authorities to investigate and remove poor quality product from the market. This research study emphasizes the need for continued vigilance towards increased regulatory and market surveillance efforts to better protect public health interests.


Asunto(s)
Condones/normas , Anticoncepción/instrumentación , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados/normas , Control de Calidad , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , República Dominicana , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Látex , Masculino , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 46, 2019 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658625

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite progress towards achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals, barriers persist in laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) restricting scale up of early infant diagnosis (EID) and viral load (VL) test monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy. If these facilities and system challenges persist, they may undermine recorded gains and appropriate management of patients. The aim of this review is to identify Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in SSA that have resolved systemic barriers within the VL and EID treatment cascade and demonstrated impact in the scale up of VL and EID. METHODS: We queried five HIV and TB laboratory databases from 2007 to 2017 for studies related to laboratory system strengthening and PPP. We identified, screened and included PPPs that demonstrated evidence in alleviating known system level barriers to scale up national VL and EID testing programs. PPPs that improved associated systems from the point of viral load test request to the use of the test result for patient management were deemed eligible. RESULTS: We identified six PPPs collaborations with multiple activities in select countries that are contributing to address challenges to scale up national viral load programs. One of the six PPPs reached 14.5 million patients in remote communities and transported up to 400,000 specimens in a year. Another PPP enabled an unprecedented 94% of specimens to reach national laboratory through improved sample referral network and enabled a cost savings of 62%. Also PPPs reduced cost of reagents and enabled 300,000 tested infants to be enrolled in care as well as reduced turnaround time of reporting results by 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Our review identified the benefits, enabling factors, and associated challenges for public and private sectors to engage in PPPs. PPP contributions to laboratory systems strengthening are a model and present opportunities that can be leveraged to strengthen systems to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets for HIV/AIDS. Despite growing emphasis on engaging the private sector as a critical partner to address global disease burden, PPPs that specifically strengthen laboratories, the cornerstone of public health programs, remain largely untapped.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado , United States Agency for International Development , África del Sur del Sahara , Bases de Datos Factuales , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Diagnóstico Precoz , VIH , Humanos , Lactante , Laboratorios , Pruebas Serológicas , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
13.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49129

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. This report traces the progressive expansion of health accounts (HA) to measure national health expenditures, from the first attempts in 1926 by the American Medical Association to the present day. Milestones in the development of A System of Health Accounts (SHA) are covered, from the economic background to initial efforts by a few countries and organizations, to the need for a set of accounting standards for health care systems, and finally, to consolidation with SHA 2011. International organizations, such as the World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Eurostat, the World Bank, and the United States Agency for International Development have been critical to expanding national HA exercises and ensuring that these are standardized, comparable, and become institutionalized. National efforts to track health expenditures have not only enriched collective results, but have become an important component of global leadership, informing policy the world over. More than 100 countries have created HA under the global standard and have gained a better understanding of health spending and financial flows. These results are key for monitoring progress toward national and global initiatives, such as the Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage. Challenges remain to be tackled, among them institutionalization and quality of results. Social responsibility for improving data sources and expanding the generation and usability of health accounts are also needed.


[RESUMEN]. Este informe sigue el rastro de la ampliación progresiva de las cuentas de salud para medir los gastos nacionales en salud, desde los primeros intentos de la Asociación Médica Estadounidense en 1926 hasta la actualidad. Se mencionan los hitos en la creación del Sistema de Cuentas de Salud (SCS), desde los antecedentes económicos y las acciones iniciales de unos cuanto países y organizaciones a la necesidad de un conjunto de normas de contabilidad para los sistemas de atención de salud y, por último, la consolidación con el Sistema de Cuentas de Salud del 2011. Varias organizaciones internacionales, como la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos, Eurostat, el Banco Mundial y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional, han sido fundamentales para ampliar los ejercicios nacionales de cuentas de salud y asegurar que estén normalizados, sean comparables y se institucionalicen. Las acciones nacionales para realizar un seguimiento de los gastos en salud no solo han enriquecido los resultados colectivos, sino que se han convertido en un componente importante del liderazgo mundial, al fundamentar las políticas en todo el mundo. Más de 100 países han creado cuentas de salud de conformidad con la norma mundial, y han logrado una mejor comprensión del gasto en salud y de los flujos financieros. Estos resultados son clave para vigilar los avances relativos a las iniciativas nacionales y mundiales, como los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y la cobertura universal de salud. Todavía quedan retos por delante, como la institucionalización y la calidad de los resultados. También se necesita responsabilidad social para mejorar las fuentes de datos, y aumentar la generación y la facilidad de uso de las cuentas de salud.


[RESUMO]. Este informe traça a progressiva expansão das contas da saúde para mensurar os gastos nacionais em saúde, das primeiras tentativas em 1926 pela Associação Americana de Medicina aos dias de hoje. Os marcos do desenvolvimento de um sistema de contas da saúde (SHA) são apresentados: dos antecedentes econômicos, esforços iniciais por parte de alguns países e organizações e necessidade de estabelecer um conjunto de normas contábeis para os sistemas de saúde à consolidação do sistema de contas da saúde (SHA) 2011. As organizações internacionais, como Organização Mundial da Saúde, Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, Eurostat, Banco Mundial e Agência dos Estados Unidos para o Desenvolvimento Internacional, têm sido peças fundamentais para expandir os exercícios de contas nacionais da saúde e assegurar sua padronização, equivalência e institucionalização. Os esforços nacionais para monitorar os gastos em saúde não apenas melhoram os resultados coletivos, mas também são um importante componente de liderança global, servindo de base para políticas no mundo todo. Mais de 100 países criaram contas da saúde segundo o padrão global e têm agora um melhor entendimento do gasto em saúde e fluxos financeiros. Esses resultados são essenciais para monitorar o progresso rumo às iniciativas nacionais e globais, como os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e a cobertura universal de saúde. Existem ainda desafios a serem vencidos, como institucionalização e qualidade dos resultados. Também é preciso responsabilidade social para melhorar as fontes de dados e expandir a geração e a usabilidade das contas da saúde.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud , Economía de la Salud , Planificación en Salud , Estrategias Mundiales , Gastos en Salud , Estrategias Mundiales , Estrategias Mundiales , Economía de la Salud , Planificación en Salud , Gastos en Salud , Economía de la Salud , Planificación en Salud
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 71, 2018 01 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied. This report compiles data on the residual efficacy of insecticides used in IRS campaigns implemented by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 17 African countries and compares observed length of efficacy to ranges proposed in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Additionally, this study provides initial analysis on variation of mosquito mortality depending on the surface material of sprayed structures, country spray program, year of implementation, source of tested mosquitoes, and type of insecticide. METHODS: Residual efficacy of the insecticides used for PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns was measured in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The WHO cone bioassay tests were used to assess the mortality rate of mosquitoes exposed to insecticide-treated mud, wood, cement, and other commonly used housing materials. Baseline tests were performed within weeks of IRS application and follow-up tests were continued until the mortality of exposed mosquitoes dropped below 80% or the program monitoring period ended. Residual efficacy in months was then evaluated with respect to WHO guidelines that provide suggested ranges of residual efficacy for insecticide formulations recommended for use in IRS. Where the data allowed, direct comparisons of mosquito mortality rates were then made to determine any significant differences when comparing insecticide formulation, country, year, surface type, and the source of the mosquitoes used in testing. RESULTS: The residual efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin ranged from 4 to 10 months (average = 6.4 months), with no reported incidents of underperformance when compared to the efficacy range provided in WHO guidelines. Deltamethrin residual efficacy results reported a range of 1 to 10 months (average = 4.9 months), with two instances of underperformance. The residual efficacy of bendiocarb ranged from 2 weeks to 7 months (average = 2.8 months) and failed to achieve proposed minimum efficacy on 14 occasions. Lastly, long-lasting pirimiphos-methyl efficacy ranged from 2 months to 9 months (average = 5.3 months), but reported 13 incidents of underperformance. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the data used to determine application rate and expected efficacy of insecticides approved for use in IRS programs are collected in controlled laboratory or pilot field studies. However, the generalizability of the results obtained under controlled conditions are limited and unlikely to account for variation in locally sourced housing materials, climate, and the myriad other factors that may influence the bio-efficacy of insecticides. Here, data are presented that confirm the variation in residual efficacy observed when monitoring household surfaces sprayed during PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns. All insecticides except alpha-cypermethrin showed evidence of failing to meet the minimum range of residual efficacy proposed in WHO criteria at least once. However, this initial effort in characterizing program-wide insecticide bio-efficacy indicates that some insecticides, such as bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl, may be vulnerable to variations in the local environment. Additionally, the comparative analysis performed in this study provides evidence that mosquito mortality rates differ with respect to factors including: the types of insecticide sprayed, surface material, geographical location, year of spraying, and tested mosquitoes. It is, therefore, important to locally assess the residual efficacy of insecticides on various surfaces to inform IRS programming.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas/metabolismo , Insecticidas/farmacología , Malaria/prevención & control , Control de Mosquitos/organización & administración , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , United States Agency for International Development , África/epidemiología , Animales , Anopheles/efectos de los fármacos , Vivienda , Humanos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/transmisión , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/farmacología , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacología , Propiedades de Superficie/efectos de los fármacos , Estados Unidos
15.
Transfusion ; 58(1): 105-112, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2000, there has been an historic increase in international development assistance, including blood safety projects. The result has been increased blood donations and infectious disease screening in many beneficiary countries. A comprehensive examination of international development assistance for blood safety has yet to be completed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This report examines publicly available information, including donor agency websites and databases and data from the 2008 and 2012 World Health Organization Global Database on Blood Safety. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2015, from $602.4 million to $2.1 billion in international development assistance was allocated to blood safety programs worldwide, mostly as part of the global response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria were responsible for the majority of blood safety funding, which peaked in 2010 and declined through 2015. CONCLUSION: Between 2000 and 2015, countries with high burdens of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome received funding and technical assistance to improve national laboratories, increase blood component production, and strengthen clinical practice. Global trends in international development assistance at large, including aid for blood safety, suggest that funding will not rebound.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad de la Sangre/economía , Organización de la Financiación , Cooperación Internacional , Seguridad de la Sangre/tendencias , Presupuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Financiación Gubernamental/estadística & datos numéricos , Organización de la Financiación/tendencias , Fundaciones/economía , Fundaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Agencias Internacionales/economía , Agencias Internacionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development
16.
F1000Res ; 7: 1722, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613394

RESUMEN

Recognizing the notable scale of USAID Applying Science to Strengthen and Improve Systems (ASSIST) Project activities and sizable number of improvement teams, which in some cases is close to 1,000 improvement teams managed in one country at a point in time, we sought to answer the questions: How do we manage hundreds of improvement teams in one country alone? How do we manage more than 4,000 improvement teams globally? The leaders of our improvement programs manage such efforts as though they are second-nature, without pointing to the specific skills and strategies needed to manage thousands of teams. This paper was developed to capture the lessons, considerations, and insights shared in discussions with leaders on the USAID ASSIST Project, including country Chiefs of Party and Regional Directors. More specifically, this paper seeks to describe what is involved in scaling up and managing large numbers of improvement teams. Through focus group discussions and individual interviews, participants discussed the key skills, strategies, and lessons needed to successfully manage large numbers of teams on the USAID ASSIST Project. We concluded that the six key components in managing large numbers of teams are 1) leadership; 2) management structures and capacities; 3) clear and open communication; 4) shared learning, collaboration, and support; 5) ownership, engagement, and empowerment; and 6) partnerships. We further analyzed these six components as being interrelated to one another based on the relationship between culture, strategy, and technique in implementing quality improvement activities.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Comunicación , Conducta Cooperativa , Equipos de Administración Institucional , Propiedad , Poder Psicológico , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development
17.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e89, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093117

RESUMEN

This report traces the progressive expansion of health accounts (HA) to measure national health expenditures, from the first attempts in 1926 by the American Medical Association to the present day. Milestones in the development of A System of Health Accounts (SHA) are covered, from the economic background to initial efforts by a few countries and organizations, to the need for a set of accounting standards for health care systems, and finally, to consolidation with SHA 2011. International organizations, such as the World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Eurostat, the World Bank, and the United States Agency for International Development have been critical to expanding national HA exercises and ensuring that these are standardized, comparable, and become institutionalized. National efforts to track health expenditures have not only enriched collective results, but have become an important component of global leadership, informing policy the world over. More than 100 countries have created HA under the global standard and have gained a better understanding of health spending and financial flows. These results are key for monitoring progress toward national and global initiatives, such as the Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage. Challenges remain to be tackled, among them institutionalization and quality of results. Social responsibility for improving data sources and expanding the generation and usability of health accounts are also needed.

18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e89, 2018. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-961823

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT This report traces the progressive expansion of health accounts (HA) to measure national health expenditures, from the first attempts in 1926 by the American Medical Association to the present day. Milestones in the development of A System of Health Accounts (SHA) are covered, from the economic background to initial efforts by a few countries and organizations, to the need for a set of accounting standards for health care systems, and finally, to consolidation with SHA 2011. International organizations, such as the World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Eurostat, the World Bank, and the United States Agency for International Development have been critical to expanding national HA exercises and ensuring that these are standardized, comparable, and become institutionalized. National efforts to track health expenditures have not only enriched collective results, but have become an important component of global leadership, informing policy the world over. More than 100 countries have created HA under the global standard and have gained a better understanding of health spending and financial flows. These results are key for monitoring progress toward national and global initiatives, such as the Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage. Challenges remain to be tackled, among them institutionalization and quality of results. Social responsibility for improving data sources and expanding the generation and usability of health accounts are also needed.


RESUMEN Este informe sigue el rastro de la ampliación progresiva de las cuentas de salud para medir los gastos nacionales en salud, desde los primeros intentos de la Asociación Médica Estadounidense en 1926 hasta la actualidad. Se mencionan los hitos en la creación del Sistema de Cuentas de Salud (SCS), desde los antecedentes económicos y las acciones iniciales de unos cuanto países y organizaciones a la necesidad de un conjunto de normas de contabilidad para los sistemas de atención de salud y, por último, la consolidación con el Sistema de Cuentas de Salud del 2011. Varias organizaciones internacionales, como la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos, Eurostat, el Banco Mundial y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional, han sido fundamentales para ampliar los ejercicios nacionales de cuentas de salud y asegurar que estén normalizados, sean comparables y se institucionalicen. Las acciones nacionales para realizar un seguimiento de los gastos en salud no solo han enriquecido los resultados colectivos, sino que se han convertido en un componente importante del liderazgo mundial, al fundamentar las políticas en todo el mundo. Más de 100 países han creado cuentas de salud de conformidad con la norma mundial, y han logrado una mejor comprensión del gasto en salud y de los flujos financieros. Estos resultados son clave para vigilar los avances relativos a las iniciativas nacionales y mundiales, como los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y la cobertura universal de salud. Todavía quedan retos por delante, como la institucionalización y la calidad de los resultados. También se necesita responsabilidad social para mejorar las fuentes de datos, y aumentar la generación y la facilidad de uso de las cuentas de salud.


RESUMO Este informe traça a progressiva expansão das contas da saúde para mensurar os gastos nacionais em saúde, das primeiras tentativas em 1926 pela Associação Americana de Medicina aos dias de hoje. Os marcos do desenvolvimento de um sistema de contas da saúde (SHA) são apresentados: dos antecedentes econômicos, esforços iniciais por parte de alguns países e organizações e necessidade de estabelecer um conjunto de normas contábeis para os sistemas de saúde à consolidação do sistema de contas da saúde (SHA) 2011. As organizações internacionais, como Organização Mundial da Saúde, Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, Eurostat, Banco Mundial e Agência dos Estados Unidos para o Desenvolvimento Internacional, têm sido peças fundamentais para expandir os exercícios de contas nacionais da saúde e assegurar sua padronização, equivalência e institucionalização. Os esforços nacionais para monitorar os gastos em saúde não apenas melhoram os resultados coletivos, mas também são um importante componente de liderança global, servindo de base para políticas no mundo todo. Mais de 100 países criaram contas da saúde segundo o padrão global e têm agora um melhor entendimento do gasto em saúde e fluxos financeiros. Esses resultados são essenciais para monitorar o progresso rumo às iniciativas nacionais e globais, como os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e a cobertura universal de saúde. Existem ainda desafios a serem vencidos, como institucionalização e qualidade dos resultados. Também é preciso responsabilidade social para melhorar as fontes de dados e expandir a geração e a usabilidade das contas da saúde.


Asunto(s)
Economía de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrategias Mundiales , Planificación en Salud/economía , Gastos en Salud , Planificación en Salud
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(25): 3140-3156, 2017 12 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198877

RESUMEN

U.S. global health investment has focused on detection, treatment, and eradication of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, with significant results. Although efforts should be maintained and expanded to provide ongoing therapy for chronic infectious disease, there is a pressing need to meet the challenge of noncommunicable diseases, which constitute the highest burden of diseases globally. A Committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has made 14 recommendations that require ongoing commitments to eradication of infectious disease and increase the emphasis on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. These include improving early detection and treatment, mitigating disease risk factors, shifting global health infrastructure to include management of cardiovascular disease, developing global partners and private-public ventures to meet infrastructure and funding challenges, streamlining medical product development and supply, increasing research and development capacity, and addressing gaps in global political and institutional leadership to meet the shifting challenge.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Gobierno/métodos , Defensa del Paciente , United States Agency for International Development , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Morbilidad , Estados Unidos
20.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 5(4): 617-629, 2017 12 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284697

RESUMEN

Health practitioners, researchers, and donors are stumped about Jordan's stalled fertility rate, which has stagnated between 3.7 and 3.5 children per woman from 2002 to 2012, above the national replacement level of 2.1. This stall paralleled United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funding investments in family planning in Jordan, triggering an assessment of USAID family planning programming in Jordan. This article describes the methods, results, and implications of the programmatic assessment. Methods included an extensive desk review of USAID programs in Jordan and 69 interviews with reproductive health stakeholders. We explored reasons for fertility stagnation in Jordan's total fertility rate (TFR) and assessed the effects of USAID programming on family planning outcomes over the same time period. The assessment results suggest that the increased use of less effective methods, in particular withdrawal and condoms, are contributing to Jordan's TFR stall. Jordan's limited method mix, combined with strong sociocultural determinants around reproduction and fertility desires, have contributed to low contraceptive effectiveness in Jordan. Over the same time period, USAID contributions toward increasing family planning access and use, largely focused on service delivery programs, were extensive. Examples of effective initiatives, among others, include task shifting of IUD insertion services to midwives due to a shortage of female physicians. However, key challenges to improved use of family planning services include limited government investments in family planning programs, influential service provider behaviors and biases that limit informed counseling and choice, pervasive strong social norms of family size and fertility, and limited availability of different contraceptive methods. In contexts where sociocultural norms and a limited method mix are the dominant barriers toward improved family planning use, increased national government investments toward synchronized service delivery and social and behavior change activities may be needed to catalyze national-level improvements in family planning outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Planificación Familiar/economía , Fertilidad , Cooperación Internacional , United States Agency for International Development , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/organización & administración , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Jordania , Masculino , Embarazo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estados Unidos
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