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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131116, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583181

RESUMEN

Porophyllum ruderale subsp. ruderale is a food product used for seasoning in Central and Southern America. The present research aimed to investigate the chemical composition of an extract prepared from aerial parts of P. ruderale using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS, to isolate and identify major natural products present in the extract, and to furtherly investigate their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Twenty-five compounds were detected and characterized using UV-Vis and MS data. All characterized compounds were quantified. Ten major phenolics were isolated and identified by NMR. One previously undescribed natural product was isolated and established as 1-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy)benzoyl-6-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucose (12). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated based on the influence of the extract and isolated compounds on the TLR4-dependent secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α by human primary neutrophils in vitro. Phenolic acids, and caffeic acid derivatives in particular, contributed to the extract's bioactivity.


Asunto(s)
Coriandrum , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Bolivia , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
2.
J Dev Econ ; 153: 102716, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720336

RESUMEN

This paper shows that a youth empowerment program in Bolivia reduced the reported prevalence of violence against girls during the COVID-19 lockdown. The program offered training in soft skills and technical skills, sexual education, mentoring and job-finding assistance. To measure the effects of the program, the study conducted a randomized control trial with 600 vulnerable adolescents. Results indicate that 7 months after its completion, the program increased girls' earnings and decreased violence against girls. Violence was measured with both direct self-report questions and list experiments. These findings suggest that multi-faceted empowerment programs can reduce the level of violence experienced by young women during high-risk periods.

3.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra ; 11(3): 213-221, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721498

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on cognitive health in Latin American older adults, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence of dementia and the associated factors in Latin American older adults during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: A multicentric first phase cross-sectional observational study was conducted during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Five thousand two hundred and forty-five Latin American adults over 60 years of age were studied in 10 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela. We used the telephone version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the "Alzheimer Disease 8" scale for functional and cognitive changes, and the abbreviated version of the Yesavage depression scale. We also asked for sociodemographic and lockdown data. All the evaluation was made by telephone. Cross-tabulations and χ2 tests were used to determine the variability of the prevalence of impairment by sociodemographic characteristics and binary logistic regression to assess the association between dementia and sociodemographic factors. Results: We observed that the prevalence of dementia in Latin America is 15.6%, varying depending on the country (Argentine = 7.83 and Bolivia = 28.5%). The variables most associated with dementia were race and age. It does not seem to be associated with the pandemic but with social and socio-health factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of dementia shows a significant increase in Latin America, attributable to a constellation of ethnic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors.

4.
ChemSusChem ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730274

RESUMEN

Lithium battery materials can be advantageously used for the selective sequestration of lithium ions from natural resources, which contain other cations in high excess. However, for practical applications, this new approach for lithium production requires the battery host materials to be stable over many cycles while retaining the high lithium selectivity. Here, we employ a nearly symmetrical cell design to show that LiFePO 4 shows good capacity retention with cycling in artificial lithium brines representative of brines from Chile, Bolivia and Argentina. We also identify a quantitative correlation between brine viscosity and capacity degradation, and demonstrate, for the first time, that the dilution of viscous brines with water significantly enhances capacity retention and rate capability. The electrochemical and XRD characterisation of the cycled electrodes also show that the high lithium selectivity is preserved with cycling. Raman spectra of the cycled electrodes show no signs of degradation of the carbon coating of LiFePO 4 , while SEM images show signs of particle cracking, thus pointing towards interfacial reactions as the cause of capacity degradation.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806023

RESUMEN

Two new species of Hermeuptychia Forster, 1964 are described. Hermeuptychia sinuosa Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Guatemala: El Progreso, Morazán) is an isolated member of the genus that does not readily fit into known species groups, as suggested by its distinct male and female genitalia and COI DNA barcode sequences. It is distinguished from its congeners by prominently wavy submarginal lines, rounder wings and distinctive genitalia, and can typically be identified by a white dot, instead of an eyespot, near the ventral hindwing apex. Hermeuptychia occidentalis Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Mexico: Guerrero, Acapulco) belongs to the Hermeuptychia sosybius group as indicated by the presence of androconia on the dorsal surface of the wings, genitalia and COI DNA barcodes, and in addition to DNA characters, differs from its relatives in the shape of the uncus and female genitalia. Neotypes of Oreas strigata canthe Hübner, [1811] (type locality Suriname: Gelderland, Suriname River), Megisto acmenis Hübner, 1823 (type locality Argentina: Buenos Aires), and Satyrus cantheus Godart, [1824] (type locality USA: Florida, Pinellas Co., St. Petersburg) and lectotype of Euptychia celmis var. bonaërensis [sic] Burmeister, 1878 (type locality Argentina: Buenos Aires) are designated. These designations establish Hermeuptychia canthe as a valid species widely distributed in South America from Colombia to Bolivia and Southeast Brazil, Euptychia celmis var. bonaërensis [sic] Burmeister, 1878 as a junior objective synonym of Yphthimoides acmenis, and S. cantheus as a junior subjective synonym of Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). Papilio camerta Cramer, 1780 is treated as nomen dubium requiring further studies to determine an identity that is consistent with the original description, as it may be conspecific with Paryphthimoides poltys (Prittwitz, 1865) instead of being a Hermeuptychia species as currently assumed.

6.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-11-12.
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55180

RESUMEN

Em 2021, três países da Região das Américas (Brasil, Peru e Venezuela) notificaram casos confirmados de febre amarela. Em 2020, dois países da Região das Américas notificaram casos confirmados de febre amarela: Bolívia e Peru. A reemergência do vírus da febre amarela tem sido relatada na região extra-amazônica do Brasil desde 2014. A expansão da área histórica de transmissão da febre amarela para áreas anteriormente consideradas sem risco resultou em duas ondas de transmissão durante o período sazonal de 2016-2017, com 778 casos humanos confirmados incluindo 262 mortes, e outra durante o período sazonal de 2017-2018, com 1.376 casos humanos confirmados, incluindo 483 mortes. Consequentemente, o Brasil mudou suas áreas recomendadas de vacinação contra a febre amarela de modo a incluir todo o País.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Amarilla , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Epidemiología , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Américas , Brasil
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 649240, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760857

RESUMEN

The "One Health" (OH) approach has been recognized by world health authorities such as FAO/OIE/WHO, advocating for effective, multi-sectoral, and transdisciplinary collaboration. However, there is a lack of published evidence of the awareness of the OH concept in Colombia and other countries in the Latin American Region. In order to explore existing collaboration amongst the animal health, human-public health, environmental health sectors, and to describe the perception, knowledge, and barriers on OH in Colombia and other countries of Latin America, an online questionnaire-based survey was distributed among key professionals representing the three OH pillars (August 2018-August 2020). Overall, 76 key respondents from 13 countries (Colombia, México, Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú, Guatemala, Nicaragua Uruguay, and Venezuela) completed the questionnaire. Respondents worked in institutions of animal (59%), public (20%), human (7%), and environmental health (7%); they mainly belonged to higher academic institutions (59%), followed by ministries (11%), and research organizations (9%). Most participants (92%) were familiar with the OH term and 68% were aware of the formal cooperation among sectors in their countries, mostly on zoonoses; in 46% of the cases, such connections were established in the last 5 years. The main reported limiting factors to intersectorality were the lack of commitment of policy-makers, resources, and budget for OH (38%) and the "siloed approach" of sectors and disciplines (34%). Respondents ranked a median score of 3.0 (1-5 scoring) in how good OH activities are implemented in their countries, and a median score of 2.0 in the citizen awareness on OH as regards their countries. The most important OH issues were identified in vector-borne diseases, rabies, wrong and/or improper use of antimicrobials, emerging viral diseases, food-borne diseases, neglected parasitic diseases, deforestation, and ecosystem fragmentation. Although there is a high-perceived importance on conjoint cooperation, OH implementation, and operationalization remain weak, and the environmental component is not well-integrated. We consider that integration and implementation of the OH Approach can support countries to improve their health policies and health governance as well as to advocate the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of the Region.


Asunto(s)
Salud Única , Animales , Colombia , Ecosistema , Humanos , América Latina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Zootaxa ; 5068(2): 211-239, 2021 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810712

RESUMEN

The genus Gastrotheca (Anura: Hemiphractidae) is a group of marsupial frogs particularly diverse in Andean regions. Several taxonomic studies of this genus have been conducted in the humid cloud forestsor Yungasof the Andean eastern slopes of central Bolivia (departments of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz). Yet, the distinction among three species that occur sympatrically in these forests, G. lauzuricae (proposed as a junior synonym of G. coeruleomaculatus in 2015), G. piperata, and G. splendens, remains unclear since the morphological characters that purportedly support their differentiation are variable and partly shared among them. We have carried out external morphological studies, including multivariate morphometric analyses, to assess how they support the taxonomic status of these three species. We also evaluated characters of the cranial osteology of a sample of six individuals using micro CT-scanning. Principal component and linear discriminant analyses resulted in a great overlap among the putative species. Cranial osteological comparisons did not reveal highly significant differences among them, but suggested that different degrees of hyperossification could be related to the developmental state of individuals. Our results indicate that most morphological and osteological reported differences between the three species likely represent intraspecific variation. Thus, we propose that the three nominal species belong to a single biological entity, for which the name Gastrotheca splendens (Schmidt, 1857) has priority. We also restrict the name Gastrotheca coeruleomaculatus (Werner, 1899) to externally similar congeneric populations from the Yungas forests of department of La Paz, but highlighting the need of a detailed evaluation of their taxonomic identity.

10.
Zootaxa ; 5060(2): 81-94, 2021 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811174

RESUMEN

Rhagoletis antioquiensis Rodriguez Norrbom, a new species of fruit fly in the striatella species group of Rhagoletis Loew, is described and illustrated. New distribution records are reported for two other species of the striatella group: R. nicaraguensis Herndez-Ortiz Fras, 2000 is reported from Costa Rica, and R. solanophaga Herndez-Ortiz Fras, 2000 from Bolivia. A lectotype is designated for Urophora scutellaris Macquart, 1851 (= R. macquartii (Loew)). New host plant relationships for three species of Rhagoletis, all reared from fruits, are reported: Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schrtdl. and Witheringia solanacea LHer for R. jamaicensis Foote, 1981 from Colombia; Lycianthes pseudolycioides (Chod. Hassl.) Bitter for R. solanophaga from Bolivia; and Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. andigenum (Juz. Burkasov) Hawkes, Solanum interandinum Bitter from Colombia and Solanum americanum Mill. in Peru for undetermined species of the psalida group. The key to species of the striatella group of Herndez-Ortiz Fras (2000) is modified to include R. antioquiensis.

11.
Zootaxa ; 5004(1): 1-57, 2021 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811319

RESUMEN

A list of all 24 genera and 73 species of Stratiomyidae from Chile is provided, along with all their synonyms and photos of the type specimens of 20 species (including 12 primary types). Only one species is assigned to morphospecies level. All references known to us from the taxonomic and biological literature, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type specimens, type locality, and references are given. The geographic distribution of each species is given based on bibliographic and collection data. Three species are removed from the Chilean fauna: Nemotelus tenuivena James, 1974 is only known from the type locality in Argentina; Promeranisa nasuta (Macquart, 1850), which has its type locality corrected to Bolivia, Chiquitos Province; and Ptecticus pomaceus Loew, 1855, referred to Chile due to a locality information error, is a junior synonym of P. trivittatus Say, 1829, syn. nov.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677771

RESUMEN

Construction and demolition waste (CDW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) are the waste flows mostly generated at a global level. In developing countries, most of these waste streams are disposed of in open dumps. Policy-makers should be informed in which priorities should be established in order to improve the quality of the environment. The current research compares the environmental impacts generated by the MSW and CDW management system of La Paz (Bolivia). The aim is to evaluate (1) which environmental impact indicators are more important per waste flow and (2) if recycling can be considered a good option for mitigating such environmental footprint. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of the formal MSW management and the CDW mismanagement (i.e., open dumping) were conducted. The analysis of the management system (2019) is compared with future developments in recycling that counts with the support of an international cooperative project financed by the Italian cooperation. Results reported that, at a municipal level, CDW mismanagement contributes more than 60% to the freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, which represents the most relevant impact generated by this waste stream. Recycling allows achieving avoided impacts higher than the ones produced for three of six environmental impacts, suggesting MSW and CDW recovery as an important option for preventing environmental degradation. The research is the first attempt to highlight the importance of organizing appropriate CDW management systems into an integrated waste management scheme for mitigating environmental impacts in developing cities.

13.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 543, 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670602

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease remains a significant public health problem in Latin America. There are only two chemotherapy drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, and both may have severe side effects. After complete chemotherapy of acute cases, seropositive diagnosis may revert to negative. However, there are no definitive parasitological or serological biomarkers of cure. METHODS: Following a pilot study with seven Bolivian migrants to Spain, we tested 71 serum samples from chronic patients (mean age 12.6 years) inhabiting the Argentine Chaco region. Benznidazole chemotherapy (5-8 mg/kg day, twice daily for 60 days) was administered during 2011-2016. Subsequently, pre-and post-chemotherapy serum samples were analysed in pairs by IgG1 and IgG ELISA using two different antigens and Chagas Sero K-SeT rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). Molecular diagnosis by kDNA-PCR was applied to post-treatment samples. RESULTS: Pilot data demonstrated IgG1 antibody decline in three of seven patients from Bolivia 1 year post-treatment. All Argentine patients in 2017 (averaging 5 years post-treatment), except one, were positive by conventional serology. All were kDNA-PCR-negative. Most (91.5%) pre-treatment samples were positive by the Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT, confirming the predominance of TcII/V/VI. IgG1 and IgG of Argentine patients showed significant decline in antibody titres post-chemotherapy, with either lysate (IgG, P = 0.0001, IgG1, P = 0.0001) or TcII/V/VI peptide antigen (IgG, P = 0.0001, IgG1, P = 0.0001). IgG1 decline was more discriminative than IgG. Antibody decline after treatment was also detected by the RDT. Incomplete treatment was associated with high IgG1 post-treatment titres against lysate (P = 0.013), as were IgG post-treatment titres to TcII/V/VI peptide (P = 0.0001). High pre-treatment IgG1 with lysate was associated with Qom ethnicity (P = 0.045). No associations were found between gender, age, body mass index and pre- or post-treatment antibody titres. CONCLUSIONS: We show that following chemotherapy of early chronic Chagas disease, significant decline in IgG1 antibody suggests cure, whereas sustained or increased IgG1 is a potential indicator of treatment failure. Due to restricted sensitivity, IgG1 should not be used as a diagnostic marker but has promise, with further development, as a biomarker of cure. We show that following chemotherapy of early chronic Chagas disease, a significant decline in IgG1 antibody suggests cure, whereas sustained or increased IgG1 is a potential indicator of treatment failure. Due to restricted sensitivity, IgG1 should not be used as a diagnostic marker but has promise, with further development, as a biomarker of cure.

14.
MEDICC Rev ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653117

RESUMEN

Soaring summer temperatures, systematic urban and political violence, unreliable infrastructure-power outages, water shortages, sporadic transportation and interruption of other basic services-plus the illness, death and economic straits wrought by COVID-19, are what Haitians awake to every day. On the morning of August 14, 2021, they also woke to the earth in the throes of violent, lethal convulsions caused by a 7.2-magnitude earthquake, along the same fault line responsible for the devastating 2010 disaster and stronger still. As if this weren't enough, Tropical Storm Grace was bearing down on the nation, about to dump biblical amounts of rain on the heels of Tropical Storm Fred. When the Haitian President was assassinated on July 7, Haiti still had not received a single dose of any COVID-19 vaccine-indeed, it was the last country in the Americas to receive vaccines. Later that month, 500,000 doses arrived in the country, donated by the United States via COVAX, the WHO-led initiative to assure at least some vaccines reached low- and middle-income countries. In Haiti, getting those vaccines into the arms of the population is beset by cold chain, distribution and bureaucratic problems, and compounded by widespread vaccine hesitancy; when the earthquake struck, only 14,074 of those doses had been administered.[1,2] Suddenly there was a new, more urgent tragedy, the earthquake leaving thousands of dead, injured and displaced-perhaps hundreds of thousands once the real tally emerges. As in the 2010 quake, the doctors, nurses and technicians comprising Cuba's medical team in Haiti-a commitment Cuba has maintained with its Caribbean neighbor since 1998-were among the first responders. The 2010 relief effort included an additional 1500 health professionals and specialists from Cuba's Henry Reeve Emergency Medical Contingent. Just 24 hours after the August 14th quake, MEDICC Review spoke by phone with Dr Luis Orlando Oliveros-Serrano in Port-au-Prince, where he coordinates Cuba's medical team in Haiti. His disaster response experience had already taken him to Haiti twice before and to Pakistan, Bolivia and beyond.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(44)2021 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697233

RESUMEN

Agricultural expansion into subtropical and tropical forests causes major environmental damage, but its wider social impacts often remain hidden. Forest-dependent smallholders are particularly strongly impacted, as they crucially rely on forest resources, are typically poor, and often lack institutional support. Our goal was to assess forest-smallholder dynamics in relation to expanding commodity agriculture. Using high-resolution satellite images across the entire South American Gran Chaco, a global deforestation hotspot, we digitize individual forest-smallholder homesteads (n = 23,954) and track their dynamics between 1985 and 2015. Using a Bayesian model, we estimate 28,125 homesteads in 1985 and show that forest smallholders occupy much larger forest areas (>45% of all Chaco forests) than commonly appreciated and increasingly come into conflict with expanding commodity agriculture (18% of homesteads disappeared; n = 5,053). Importantly, we demonstrate an increasing ecological marginalization of forest smallholders, including a substantial forest resource base loss in all Chaco countries and an increasing confinement to drier regions (Argentina and Bolivia) and less accessible regions (Bolivia). Our transferable and scalable methodology puts forest smallholders on the map and can help to uncover the land-use conflicts at play in many deforestation frontiers across the globe. Such knowledge is essential to inform policies aimed at sustainable land use and supply chains.

16.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718816

RESUMEN

Light and water availability are likely to vary over the lifespan of closed-canopy forest trees with understory trees experiencing greater limitations to growth by light and canopy trees greater limitation due to drought. As drought and shade have opposing effects on isotope discrimination (Δ13C), paired measurement of ring width and Δ13C can potentially be used to differentiate between water and light limitations on tree growth. We tested this approach for Cedrela trees from three tropical forests in Bolivia and Mexico that differ in rainfall and canopy structure. Using lifetime ring width and Δ13C data for trees of up to and over 200 years old, we assessed how controls on tree growth changed from understory to the canopy. Growth and Δ13C are mostly anti-correlated in the understory but this anti-correlation disappeared or weakened when trees reached the canopy, especially at the wettest site. This indicates that understory growth variation is controlled by photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) due to variation in light levels. Once trees reached the canopy, inter-annual variation in growth and Δ13C at one of the dry sites showed positive correlations, indicating inter-annual variation in growth is driven by variation in water stress affecting stomatal conductance (gs). Paired analysis of ring widths and carbon isotopes provides significant insight to discerning between environmental factors controlling growth over trees' life; strong light limitations for understory trees in closed-canopy moist forests switched to drought stress for (sub)canopy trees in dry forests. We show that combined isotope and ring width measurements can significantly improve our insights in tree functioning and be used to disentangle limitations due to shade from those due to drought.

17.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 553, 2021 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Triatoma sordida is one of the main Chagas disease vectors in Brazil. In addition to Brazil, this species has already been reported in Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is hypothesized that the insects currently identified as T. sordida are a species subcomplex formed by three cytotypes (T. sordida sensu stricto [s.s.], T. sordida La Paz, and T. sordida Argentina). With the recent description of T. rosai from the Argentinean specimens, it became necessary to assess the taxonomic status of T. sordida from La Paz, Bolivia, since it was suggested that it may represent a new species, which has taxonomic, evolutionary, and epidemiological implications. Based on the above, we carried out molecular and experimental crossover studies to assess the specific status of T. sordida La Paz. METHODS: To evaluate the pre- and postzygotic barriers between T. sordida La Paz and T. sordida s.s., experimental crosses and intercrosses between F1 hybrids and between F2 hybrids were conducted. In addition, cytogenetic analyses of the F1 and F2 hybrids were applied with an emphasis on the degree of pairing between the homeologous chromosomes, and morphological analyses of the male gonads were performed to evaluate the presence of gonadal dysgenesis. Lastly, the genetic distance between T. sordida La Paz and T. sordida s.s. was calculated for the CYTB, ND1, and ITS1 genes. RESULTS: Regardless of the gene used, T. sordida La Paz showed low genetic distance compared to T. sordida s.s. (below 2%). Experimental crosses resulted in offspring for both directions, demonstrating that there are no prezygotic barriers installed between these allopatric populations. Furthermore, postzygotic barriers were not observed either (since the F1 × F1 and F2 × F2 intercrosses resulted in viable offspring). Morphological and cytogenetic analyses of the male gonads of the F1 and F2 offspring demonstrated that the testes were not atrophied and did not show chromosome pairing errors. CONCLUSION: Based on the low genetic distance (which configures intraspecific variation), associated with the absence of prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers, we confirm that T. sordida La Paz represents only a chromosomal polymorphism of T. sordida s.s.

18.
PeerJ ; 9: e12029, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707922

RESUMEN

In the past two decades, Amazon rainforest countries (Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela) have experienced a substantial increase in fire frequency due to the changes in the patterns of different anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study examines how both fire dynamics and bioclimatic factors varied based on the season (wet season and dry season) El Niño years across the different countries and ecosystems within the Amazon rainforest. Data from publicly available databases on forest fires (Global Fire Atlas) and bioclimatic, topographic and anthropogenic variables were employed in the analysis. Linear mixed-effect models discovered that year type (El Niño vs. non-El Niño), seasonality (dry vs. wet), land cover and forest strata (in terms of canopy cover and intactness) and their interactions varied across the Amazonian countries (and the different ecosystems) under consideration. A machine learning model, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS), was utilized to determine the relative importance of climatic, topographic, forest structure and human modification variables on fire dynamics across wet and dry seasons, both in El Niño and non-El Niño years. The findings of this study make clear that declining precipitation and increased temperatures have strong impact on fire dynamics (size, duration, expansion and speed) for El Niño years. El Niño years also saw greater fire sizes and speeds as compared to non-El Niño years. Dense and relatively undisturbed forests were found to have the lowest fire activity and increased human impact on a landscape was associated with exacerbated fire dynamics, especially in the El Niño years. Additionally, the presence of grass-dominated ecosystems such as grasslands also acted as a driver of fire in both El Niño and non-El Niño years. Hence, from a conservation perspective, increased interventions during the El Niño periods should be considered.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639304

RESUMEN

Similar interventions to stop the spread of COVID-19 led to different outcomes in Latin American countries. This study aimed to capture the multicausality of factors affecting HS-capacity that could help plan a more effective response, considering health as well as social aspects. A facilitated GMB was constructed by experts and validated with a survey from a wider population. Statistical analyses estimated the impact of the main factors to the HS-capacity and revealed the differences in its mechanisms. The results show a similar four-factor structure in all countries that includes public administration, preparedness, information, and collective self-efficacy. The factors are correlated and have mediating effects with HS-capacity; this is the base for differences among countries. HS-capacity has a strong relation with public administration in Bolivia, while in Nicaragua and Uruguay it is related through preparedness. Nicaragua lacks information as a mediation effect with HS-capacity whereas Bolivia and Uruguay have, respectively, small and large mediation effects with it. These outcomes increase the understanding of the pandemic based on country-specific context and can aid policymaking in low-and middle-income countries by including these factors in future pandemic response models.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay/epidemiología
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 9(10): e3870, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703715

RESUMEN

Background: Unilateral cleft palates have a large spectrum of variability. Key morphologic factors such as cleft width and palatal length are not represented in current classification systems. Palate length and velopharyngeal port size are clinically linked to speech outcomes, as the soft palate must close the posterior pharynx for proper phonation. This study investigates the relationship between objective preoperative measures and postoperative velopharyngeal port size, to define a reproducible severity scale. Methods: Surgical data were prospectively collected from unilateral cleft palate patients in Morocco, Bolivia, Vietnam, and Madagascar. Key measurements were cleft width and palate width at the hard-soft palate junction, alveolar cleft width, vertical alveolar discrepancy, velopharyngeal port size. Cleft width ratio (CWR) was defined as the width of the cleft at the hard-soft junction, divided by the palate width. Results: Seventy-six patients were evaluated. Thirty-one had complete clefts and average age at surgical repair was 2.9 years. Mean CWR was 0.50 ± 0.12. Palate length was increased by an average of 2.2 mm (11%) after palatoplasty. Multivariate analysis determined greater CWR and larger preoperative velopharyngeal ports were significantly correlated with a smaller percent change in palate length after palatoplasty (P < 0.01). Conclusions: A wider palatal cleft decreases the surgeon's ability to decrease velopharyngeal port size through palatoplasty. Given the ease of measurement even in low-resource settings, CWR may be a valuable tool for setting expectations for speech results, modifying surgical technique, and correlating future speech outcomes in evidence-based cleft care.

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