Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.465
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 15-25, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607664

RESUMEN

Emission intensity and climate change control the transport flux and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in multiple environmental compartments. This study applied a multimedia model (BETR model) to explore alternations in the spatio-temporal trends of concentrations and transport flux of benzopyrene (BaP), phenanthrene (Phe), perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Chaohu watershed, located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China in response to changes in source emissions and climate. The potential historic and future risks of these pollutants also were assessed. The results suggest that current trends in concentrations and transport were similar to that of their emissions between 2005 and 2018. During the next 100 years, temporal trends and spatial patterns were not predicted to change significantly, which is consistent with climate change. Based on sensitivity and correlation analyses, climate change had significant effects on multi-media concentrations and transport fluxes of BaP, Phe, PFOS and PCBs, and rainfall intensity was the predominant controlling factor. Risk quotients (RQs) of BaP and Phe-in soil increased from 0.42 to 0.95 and 0.06 to 0.35, respectively, from 2005 to 2090, indicating potential risks. The RQs of the other examined contaminants exhibited little potential risk in soil, water, or sediment. Based on spatial patterns, it was inferred that the ecosystem around Lake Chaohu is the most at risk. The study provides insights needed for local pollution control of POPs in the Chaohu watershed. In addition, the developed approach can be applied to other watersheds world-wide.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Multimedia , Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
BMJ ; 374: n2386, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593509
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-12.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54979

RESUMEN

This publication presents a comprehensive methodology to support the Member States of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in preparing for and responding to heat-health risks in the Region of the Americas. It builds on World Health Organization and the World Meteorological Organization global documents, as well as on the disaster preparedness methodologies employed throughout the countries of the Region. This publication is part of an effort coordinated by PAHO to support Member States in multihazard preparedness, and includes: early warning system strengthening; threat characterization; activation and deactivation procedure definition; and institutional coordination. It engages different disciplines and recognizes the importance of intersectoral collaboration to respond to heat-health risks. It aims to bring awareness of the impacts of heat on the health of people of the Americas to public health decisionmakers, and thereby strengthen health service provision.


Asunto(s)
Preparación , Calefacción , Ola de Calor , Cambio Climático , Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Toma de Decisiones , Efectos del Clima , Calentamiento Global
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-01.
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54947

RESUMEN

La hoja de ruta para las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas, publicada por la OMS en el 2012, estableció dos metas para el control de las geohelmintiasis para el 2020, a saber: suministrar tratamiento regular a 75% de los niños en edad preescolar y escolar que lo requirieran y lograr la cobertura de 75% con la quimioterapia preventiva en los niños en edad preescolar y escolar en 100% de los países. En el 2017, los datos recopilados de los 103 países donde las geohelmintiasis son endémicas mostraban que era factible alcanzar esas dos metas. En octubre del 2018, un grupo de representantes de esos países, junto con asociados de otras instituciones que apoyan las actividades de control, se reunió en Basilea para proponer nuevas metas que orientaran la quimioterapia preventiva y otras actividades de control una vez alcanzadas las metas para el 2020. Los indicadores establecidos por el grupo de trabajo y que se presentan en esta publicación pueden considerarse recomendaciones de los expertos dirigidas al Departamento de la OMS de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Desatendidas, para distribuir a su vez a las oficinas regionales y en los países de la OMS, los funcionarios del ministerio de salud y los responsables de los programas en los países con endemicidad, a fin de sustentar la lista definitiva de los indicadores en materia de geohelmintiasis que deberán alcanzarse para el 2030.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Salud del Niño , Lactante , Quimioterapia , Enfermedades Endémicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cambio Climático , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública
7.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 537-549, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601636

RESUMEN

Widespread plants may provide natural models for how population processes change with temperature and other environmental variables and how they may respond to global change. Similar changes in temperature can occur along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, but hardly any study has compared the effects of the two types of gradients. We studied populations of Anthyllis vulneraria along a latitudinal gradient from Central Europe to the range limit in the North and an altitudinal gradient in the Alps from 500 m to the altitudinal limit at 2500 m, both encompassing a change in annual mean temperature of c. 11.5 °C. Plant size and reproduction decreased, but plant density increased along both gradients, indicating higher recruitment and demographic compensation among vital rates. Our results support the view that demographic compensation may be common in widespread species in contrast to the predictions of the abundant centre model of biogeography. Variation in temperature along the gradients had the strongest effects on most population characteristics, followed by that in precipitation, solar radiation, and soil nutrients. The proportion of plants flowering, seed set and seed mass declined with latitude, while the large variation in these traits along the altitudinal gradient was not related to elevation and covarying environmental variables like annual mean temperature. This suggests that it will be more difficult to draw conclusions about the potential impacts of future climate warming on plant populations in mountains, because of the importance of small-scale variation in environmental conditions.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Plantas , Clima , Cambio Climático , Suelo
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 721, 2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648091

RESUMEN

Past studies indicate that increasing temperatures would accelerate the Earth's water cycle and in turn would increase the evaporation rate. Increased evaporation will result in more frequent and intense storms; hence, most researchers focus on climate change and its effect on Earth, particularly the precipitation. In the last two decades, the Udaipur district, India, faces water scarcity and flooding situations twice. The present study focuses on the prediction of rainfall using the most advanced soft computing techniques (SCT) such as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), classification and regression trees (CART), and gene expression programming (GEP) in India's Udaipur district. The performance of these SCT was evaluated to test the capability to predict the rainfall. Results showed that the MARS model for rainfall prediction showed better performance than the GEP model.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Inundaciones , Cambio Climático , India
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3127-3135, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658197

RESUMEN

Climate change may lead to biodiversity loss and species extinction. Understanding the impacts of climate change on the distribution pattern of endangered species is of great value to the identification of priority reserves and the formulation of relevant conservation strategies. Based on the distribution data of Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii) obtained from the field survey in Taxkorgan Nature Reserve (TNR) in Xinjiang during 2017-2018, the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model was used to predict the distribution pattern of its suitable habitat under climate change. The results showed that the suitable habitat of Marco Polo sheep was mainly distributed in the northwest of the TNR, with temperature as the key factor affecting its suitable habitat distribution. Under the medium and high emission concentration (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), the suitable habitat area of Marco Polo sheep would decrease in the next two periods (2050s and 2070s), with the loss rate of suitable habitat being as high as 40.5%. The loss of suitable habitat was mainly located in the low-altitude area, while the area of suitable habitat increased correspondingly in the high-altitude area. The area of suitable habitat from low elevation to high elevation increased with the increases of greenhouse gas emission concentration. According to the results of centroid transfer, the suitable habitat was mainly moved to the west, namely Tajikistan, the main distribution country of Marco Polo sheep.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Animales , Biodiversidad , China , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Ovinos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113573, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482110

RESUMEN

Climate change and combining related parameters of environmental hazards have left a considerable challenge in assessing social-ecological vulnerability. Here we integrated a fuzzy-based approach in the vulnerability assessment of mangrove social-ecological systems combining environmental parameters, socio-economic, and vegetative components from exposure dimensions, sensitivity and adaptive capacity along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman for the first time. This study aims to provide critical information for habitat-scale management strategies and adaptation plans by assessing the vulnerability of mangrove social-ecological systems. This study provides a methodology framework that consists of five steps. Step 1: We combined the fuzzy weighted maps of seven environmental hazards, including tidal range, maximum wind speeds, drought magnitude, maximum temperatures, extreme storm surge, sea-level rise, significant wave height, and social vulnerability. This map combination determined that the computed exposure index is from 1.07 to 4.32 across the study areas, with an increasing trend from the coasts of the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman. Step 2: We integrated the fuzzy weighted maps of four sensitivity variables, including area change, health change, seaward edge retreat, and production potential change. The findings show that the sensitivity index is from 1.40 to 2.64 across the study areas, increasing the trend from the Persian Gulf coast to the Gulf of Oman. Step 3: Besides, we combined the fuzzy weighted maps of three adaptive capacity variables, including the availability of migration areas, recruitment, and local communities' participation in restoration projects and education programs. The result showed that the index value across the study areas varies between 0.087 and 2.38, decreasing the trend from the Persian Gulf coast to the Gulf of Oman. Step 4: Implementing fuzzy hierarchical analysis process to determine the relative weight of variables corresponding to exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Step 5: The integration of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity and the vulnerability index maps in the study areas showed variation from 0.25 to 5.92, with the vulnerability of mangroves from the west coast of the Persian Gulf (Nayband) decreasing towards Khamir, then increasing to the eastern coasts of the Gulf of Oman (Jask and Gwadar). Overall, the results indicate the importance of the proposed approach to the vulnerability of mangroves at the habitat scale along a coastal area and across environmental gradients of climatic, maritime and socio-economic variables. This study validated the findings based on the ground truth measurements, and high-resolution satellite data incorporated the Consistency Rate (CR) in the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). The overall accuracy of all classified remote sensing images and maps consistently exceeded 90%, and the CR of the 25 completed questionnaires was <0.1. Finally, this study indicates differences in vulnerability of various habitats, leading to focus conservation completion and rehabilitation and climate change adaptation planning to support the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-13 implementation.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Aclimatación , Sequías , Océano Índico
11.
Ambio ; 50(11): 2009-2021, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559390

RESUMEN

An assessment of the socio-ecological system of the Nature Park "Numto" in West Siberia was carried out based on ecosystem services (ES) mapping, applying a "cascade approach" which was modified according to the specific conditions of low commercial land-use by Indigenous Peoples and adopted with a focus on making it practicable and understandable by decision-makers. The ES values were defined through stakeholder analysis, while the mapping was based on the biophysical traits of the ecosystems and related spatial distribution of ecosystem functions. The mapped ecosystem values differ from the perceived ones. The assessment identified conflicting land uses and groups of stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples vulnerable to future climate change-induced deficits in access to ES. The ES that are important for climate change mitigation and adaptation are not valued highly by Indigenous Peoples. ES mapping is suggested as an appropriate method for the development of straightforward recommendations for Nature Park management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Siberia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113452, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526276

RESUMEN

Cadiz Bay is a shallow mesotidal lagoon with extensive populations of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa at intertidal and shallow subtidal elevations. This work aims to understand the mechanisms behind the resilience of this species to gradual sea level rise by studying its acclimation capacity to depth along the shallow littoral, and therefore, to gradual variations in the light environment. To address this objective, these populations have been monitored seasonally over a 10 year period, representing the longest seasonal database available in the literature for this species. The monitoring included populations at 0.4, -0.08 and -0.5 m LAT. The results show that C. nodosa has a strong seasonality for demographic and shoot dynamic properties - with longer shoots and larger growth in summer (high temperature) than in winter (low temperature), but also some losses. Moreover, shoots have different leaf morphometry depending on depth, with small and dense shoots in the intertidal areas (0.4 m) and sparse large shoots in the subtidal ones (-0.08 and 0.5 m). These differences in morphometry and shoot dynamic properties, combined with the differences in shoot density, explain the lack of differences in meadow production balance (i.e. meadow growth - meadow losses) between the intertidal (0.4 m) and the deepest population (-0.5 m), supporting the long term resilience of Cymodocea nodosa in Cadiz Bay. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms behind seagrass stability and resilience, which is particularly important towards predicting the effects of climate change on these key coastal ecosystems, and also highlights the value of continuous long-term monitoring efforts to evaluate seagrass trajectories.


Asunto(s)
Alismatales , Ecosistema , Aclimatación , Cambio Climático , Hojas de la Planta
13.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113555, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526279

RESUMEN

This article examines the structural aspects of climate vulnerabilities in the context of monsoon failures. The paper is based on a unique household survey, conducted in Tamil Nadu, India. The study uses a rural differentiation framework to interrogate unequal vulnerabilities to monsoon failures, based on measures such as Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves of monetary losses. Results show that negative consequences of climate change in general, and monsoon failures in particular, intensify pre-existing socio-economic disparities. When the rural differentiation theory is applied in a broader sense, the analysis shows that landed and farming households have greater exposure and losses. When we move beyond these aggregate categories, the revelation is that households with pre-existing disadvantages such as marginal landholders, subsistence farmers and agricultural workers are more vulnerable.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Agricultores , Granjas , Humanos , India
15.
Nature ; 597(7876): 366-369, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526704

RESUMEN

Southeast Australia experienced intensive and geographically extensive wildfires during the 2019-2020 summer season1,2. The fires released substantial amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere3. However, existing emission estimates based on fire inventories are uncertain4, and vary by up to a factor of four for this event. Here we constrain emission estimates with the help of satellite observations of carbon monoxide5, an analytical Bayesian inversion6 and observed ratios between emitted carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide7. We estimate emissions of carbon dioxide to be 715 teragrams (range 517-867) from November 2019 to January 2020. This is more than twice the estimate derived by five different fire inventories8-12, and broadly consistent with estimates based on a bottom-up bootstrap analysis of this fire episode13. Although fires occur regularly in the savannas in northern Australia, the recent episodes were extremely large in scale and intensity, burning unusually large areas of eucalyptus forest in the southeast13. The fires were driven partly by climate change14,15, making better-constrained emission estimates particularly important. This is because the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide may become increasingly dependent on fire-driven climate-carbon feedbacks, as highlighted by this event16.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Imágenes Satelitales , Incendios Forestales/estadística & datos numéricos , Atmósfera/química , Australia , Teorema de Bayes , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Cambio Climático , Eucalyptus , Bosques , Pradera , Incertidumbre
17.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12528-12538, 2021 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499473

RESUMEN

Climate change, public health, and resilience to power outages are of critical concern to local governments and are increasingly motivating investments in on-site solar and storage. However, designing a solar-plus-storage system to co-optimize for climate, health, resilience, and energy bill benefits requires complex trade-offs that are not captured in current analyses. To fill this gap, we integrate the climate and health impacts of grid-purchased electricity into the REopt Lite optimization model using forward-looking marginal emissions costs. Using this new model, we quantify the impact of including energy bill, climate, health, and/or power outage cost savings on the optimal sizing, battery dispatch, and economic returns of solar-plus-storage on three public building types (a hospital, school, and warehouse) across 14 U.S. cities. We find that monetizing and co-optimizing for climate and health benefits, as compared to only energy bill savings and resilience, increases the net present value of the solar-plus-storage systems by $200k to $5.2M and makes larger systems financially attractive. Our results illustrate significant differences across geographies and building types, highlighting the need for site-specific analyses and associated policies regarding the costs and benefits of solar-plus-storage.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Ciudades
20.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 09 01.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523842

RESUMEN

This synthesis provides the latest insights into the impact of climate change in the Netherlands for which five separate health effects are particularly relevant. Climate change is associated with increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves. Major heat-related health risks include heat stroke, exacerbations of renal dysfunction due to dehydration and cardiovascular disease due to overheating. Climate change is associated with more hours of sunshine and more ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Heat and air pollution, both effects of climate change, lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Climate change is associated with an increase in water, food and vector-related infectious diseases due to, among other things, an increased temperature, increased water recreation and an altered water quality. Another effect is an increase in allergies and respiratory complaints via the prolongation and intensification of the pollen season. Our conclusion is that climate change in the Netherlands mainly entails negative health effects.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Hipersensibilidad , Alérgenos , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Países Bajos/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...