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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246889, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285639

RESUMEN

Abstract The intertidal rocky shores in continental Chile have high species diversity mainly in northern Chile (18-27° S), and one of the most widespread species is the gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). The aim of the present study is do a first characterization of spatial distribution of E. peruviana in along rocky shore in Antofagasta town in northern Chile. Individuals were counted in nine different sites that also were determined their spectral properties using remote sensing techniques (LANDSAT ETM+). The results revealed that sites without marked human intervention have more abundant in comparison to sites located in the town, also in all studied sites was found an aggregated pattern, and in six of these sites were found a negative binomial distribution. The low density related to sites with human intervention is supported when spectral properties for sites were included. These results would agree with other similar results for rocky shore in northern and southern Chile.


Resumo As costas rochosas entremarés no Chile continental apresentam alta diversidade de espécies, principalmente no norte do país (18-27 ° S), e uma das espécies mais difundidas é o gastrópode Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). O objetivo do presente estudo é fazer uma primeira caracterização da distribuição espacial de E. peruviana no costão rochoso da cidade de Antofagasta no norte do Chile. Os indivíduos foram contados em nove locais diferentes onde também foram determinadas suas propriedades espectrais usando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto (LANDSAT ETM +). Os resultados revelaram que os locais sem intervenção humana marcada apresentam maior abundância em comparação aos locais localizados no município. Também em todos os locais estudados foi encontrado um padrão agregado, sendo que em seis desses locais foi encontrada uma distribuição binomial negativa. A baixa densidade relacionada a sites com intervenção humana é suportada quando as propriedades espectrais para sites foram incluídas. Esses resultados concordariam com outros resultados semelhantes para costões rochosos no norte e no sul do Chile.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339340

RESUMEN

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMEN

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.

4.
Braz. J. Biol., v. 83, e248063, 2023
Artículo en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3943

RESUMEN

Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.

5.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48591

RESUMEN

Trabalhadores de saúde de onze países latino-americanos apresentam altas taxas de sintomas depressivos, pensamentos suicidas e sofrimento psíquico, conforme os resultados de um estudo liderado pelas universidades do Chile e da Colômbia, com a colaboração da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS).


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Personal de Salud/psicología , América Latina , Pandemias
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-19.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55631

RESUMEN

[WEEKLY SUMMARY] North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing, while SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased at moderate levels. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada and Mexico. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 activity increased in Jamaica with increased number of pneumonia cases and SARI hospitalizations. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity continued at low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued to increase and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala and Honduras, influenza activity increased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2), and low SARS-CoV-2 circulation; while SARS-CoV-2 activity increased in Costa Rica. RSV activity decreased in the subregion. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at low levels; however, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador; and in Bolivia, SARI activity was recorded at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels, except in Argentina. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Chile.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL] América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en aumento a niveles bajos, mientras que la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó a niveles moderados. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá y México. Caribe: la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 en Jamaica aumento en paralelo a mayor número de casos por neumonía y hospitalizaciones por IRAG. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG permaneció a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó en aumento y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala y Honduras, la actividad de la influenza aumentó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) y baja circulación de SARS-CoV-2; mientras que la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó en Costa Rica. La actividad del VRS decreció en la subregion. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 continuó en aumento; sin embargo, Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador; y en Bolivia, la actividad de IRAG se registró en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos, excepto en Argentina. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y Chile.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe , Gripe Humana , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-11.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55594

RESUMEN

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 among samples where subtyping was performed; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. Haiti reported a few detections in recent weeks with the predominance of influenza B/Victoria and A(H1N1)pdm09. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity decreased to low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala, influenza activity decreased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2) in the previous week, while influenza A(H3N2) circulation increased in Honduras with low SARI and ILI activity. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low; however, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador; and in Bolivia, SARI activity continued at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels, except in Argentina. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Uruguay. Global: In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity, although still low, appeared to increase in some countries with detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) and B Victoria lineage (mainly in China). In Europe, influenza activity continued to increase. Influenza A(H3N2) predominated. In East Asia, influenza activity continued rising in China, while influenza illness indicators and activity remained low in the rest of the subregion. Influenza B/Victoria viruses predominated. In tropical Africa, overall influenza activity continued decreasing, with both influenza A and B detected. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections of predominately influenza A(H3N2) increased overall, although reducing in a few countries. In South-East Asia, sporadic influenza detections were reported in the Philippines. However, in the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low overall. SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity from sentinel surveillance increased to approximately 30%. Activity remained under 10% positivity in the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asian and Western Pacific Regions of WHO. In the other WHO Regions, an increasing trend in positivity was observed in recent weeks. Overall positivity from non-sentinel sites also increased and was at 25%.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL] América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja pero en aumento. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09 en las muestras a las que se les determinó el subtipo; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá. Caribe: la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. Haití reportó algunas detecciones en las últimas semanas con predominio de influenza B/Victoria y A(H1N1)pdm09. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG disminuyó a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) en semanas previa, mientras que la circulación de la influenza A(H3N2) aumentó en Honduras con baja actividad de IRAG y ETI. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja; sin embargo, Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador; y en Bolivia, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos, excepto en Argentina. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y en Uruguay. Global: en las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza, aunque todavía baja, pareció aumentar en algunos países con detecciones de influenza principalmente A(H3N2) y B linaje Victoria (principalmente en China). En Europa, la actividad gripal siguió aumentando. Predominó influenza A(H3N2). En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza siguió aumentando en China, mientras que los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza se mantuvieron bajos en el resto de la subregión. Predominaron los virus influenza B linaje Victoria. En África tropical, la actividad general de la influenza continuó disminuyendo y se detectaron tanto la influenza A como la B. En el sur de Asia, en general, las detecciones de los virus de la influenza predominantemente A(H3N2) aumentaron, aunque disminuyeron en algunos países. En el sudeste asiático, en Filipinas se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza. Sin embargo, en las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo baja en general. El porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV-2 de la vigilancia centinela aumentó a aproximadamente el 30%. La actividad se mantuvo por debajo del 10 % de positividad en las Regiones del Mediterráneo Oriental, Asia Sudoriental y el Pacífico Occidental. En las otras Regiones, se observó una tendencia creciente en la positividad en las últimas semanas. La positividad general de los sitios no centinela también aumentó y fue del 25%.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe , Gripe Humana , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe
8.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55571

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar el impacto presupuestal de la vacunación contra COVID-19 en seis países de América Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú, durante el periodo 2021-2022. Métodos. Se evaluaron las vacunas de Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), Instituto de Gamaleya (Gam-COVID-Vac), Sinovac (CoronaVac), CanSino (Convidecia), AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), Moderna (mRNA-1273) y Pfizer (BNT162b2), según disponibilidad para cada país. Se adoptó la perspectiva del sistema de salud, de manera que solo se incluyeron costos médicos directos. El horizonte temporal se adoptó teniendo en cuenta los tiempos de implementación de cada plan de vacunación, excluyendo menores de 16 años y gestantes. Se incluyeron los siguientes costos: costo de la vacunación y aplicación, costos de la hospitalización general aislamiento, cuidado intermedio e intensivo. Se compararon dos escenarios de vacunación: 1) Población que desea vacunarse (según las encuestas nacionales) y 2) Población que debería vacunarse (total susceptible de vacunación). Los costos agregados para cada escenario de vacunación se compararon con el escenario de no vacunación. Adicionalmente, se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad determinísticos y probabilísticos. Resultados. Los diferentes esquemas de vacunación contra COVID-19 disponibles en América Latina generan ahorros potenciales que oscilan entre USD 100 y USD 1 500 millones de dólares por país para el período 2021-2022, asumiendo que se logra implementar en su totalidad el plan de vacunación previsto en cada país. Conclusiones. La vacunación contra COVID-19 es una estrategia que además de reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad para Latinoamérica, genera ahorros potenciales para los sistemas de salud en la región.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the budgetary impact of COVID-19 vaccination in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, during the 2021-2022 biennium. Methods. Vaccines from Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), Gamaleya Institute (Gam-COVID-Vac), Sinovac (CoronaVac), CanSino (Convidecia), AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), Moderna (mRNA-1273), and Pfizer (BNT162b2) were evaluated, according to their availability in each country. The health system perspective was adopted, so that only direct health care costs were included. The time horizon adopted took into account the implementation times of each vaccination plan, excluding children under 16 years of age and pregnant persons. The following costs were included: cost of vaccination/vaccine administration and costs of hospitalization (general isolation, stepdown care, and intensive care). Two vaccination scenarios were compared: 1) population wanting to be vaccinated (according to national surveys); and 2) population that should be vaccinated (total population susceptible to vaccination). The aggregate costs for each vaccination scenario were compared with the no-vaccination scenario. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. The different COVID-19 vaccination regimens available in Latin America generate potential savings ranging from USD 100 million to USD 1.5 billion per country for the 2021-2022 biennium, assuming that the vaccination plan proposed for each country is fully implemented. Conclusions. COVID-19 vaccination is a strategy that not only reduces morbidity and mortality in Latin America, but also generates potential savings for health systems in the region.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Estimar o impacto orçamentário da vacinação contra a COVID-19 em seis países da América Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru, no período 2021-2022. Métodos. Foram avaliadas as vacinas da Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), Instituto Gamaleya (Gam-COVID-Vac), Sinovac (CoronaVac), CanSino (Convidecia), AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), Moderna (mRNA-1273) e Pfizer (BNT162b2), conforme a disponibilidade para cada país. Adotou-se a perspectiva do sistema de saúde, de forma que só foram incluídos custos médicos diretos. O horizonte temporal foi adotado levando em consideração os tempos de implementação de cada plano de vacinação, excluindo crianças menores de 16 anos e gestantes. Foram incluídos os seguintes custos: custos de vacinação e aplicação, custos gerais de hospitalização, isolamento, e cuidados intermediários e intensivos. Compararam-se dois cenários de vacinação: 1) população disposta a se vacinar (com base em pesquisas nacionais) e 2) população que deveria ser vacinada (total elegível de vacinação). Os custos agregados para cada cenário de vacinação foram comparados com o cenário de não vacinação. Além disso, foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade determinísticas e probabilísticas. Resultados. Os diferentes esquemas de vacinação contra a COVID-19 disponíveis na América Latina geram economias potenciais entre 100 milhões e 1,5 bilhão de dólares por país para o período 2021-2022, considerando a implementação completa do plano de vacinação previsto em cada país. Conclusões. A vacinação contra a COVID-19 é uma estratégia que, além de reduzir a morbidade e a mortalidade na América Latina, gera economias potenciais para os sistemas de saúde da região.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación , Coronavirus , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , América Latina , Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Costos de la Atención en Salud , América Latina , Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Costos de la Atención en Salud
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014008

RESUMEN

In 2017, a geochemical survey was carried out across the Commune of Santiago, a local administrative unit located at the center of the namesake capital city of Chile, and the concentration of a number of major and trace elements (53 in total) was determined on 121 topsoil samples. Multifractal IDW (MIDW) interpolation method was applied to raw data to generate geochemical baseline maps of 15 potential toxic elements (PTEs); the concentration-area (C-A) plot was applied to MIDW grids to highlight the fractal distribution of geochemical data. Data of PTEs were elaborated to statistically determine local geochemical baselines and to assess the spatial variation of the degree of soil contamination by means of a new method taking into account both the severity of contamination and its complexity. Afterwards, to discriminate the sources of PTEs in soils, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to data expressed in isometric log-ratio (ilr) coordinates. Based on PCA results, a Sequential Binary Partition (SBP) was also defined and balances were determined to generate contrasts among those elements considered as proxies of specific contamination sources (Urban traffic, productive settlements, etc.). A risk assessment was finally completed to potentially relate contamination sources to their potential effect on public health in the long term. A probabilistic approach, based on Monte Carlo method, was deemed more appropriate to include uncertainty due to spatial variation of geochemical data across the study area. Results showed how the integrated use of multivariate statistics and compositional data analysis gave the authors the chance to both discriminate between main contamination processes characterizing the soil of Santiago and to observe the existence of secondary phenomena that are normally difficult to constrain. Furthermore, it was demonstrated how a probabilistic approach in risk assessment could offer a more reliable view of the complexity of the process considering uncertainty as an integral part of the results.

10.
AI Soc ; : 1-15, 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35002095

RESUMEN

This contribution offers reflections about Chilean Cybersyn, 50 years ago. In recent years, Cybersyn, has received significant attention. It was the brainchild of Stafford Beer, who conceived it to support the transformation of the Chilean economy from its bureaucratic history to hopefully create a vibrant and modern society, driven by cybernetic tools. These aspects have received much attention in recent times; however, in this contribution, I want to discuss how working in Cybersyn influenced my work after the coup of 1973. Perhaps, for me, its major influence was in the management of complexity, through what I refer here as variety engineering and through the Viable System Model VSM as a paradigm to the management of relationships with implications to enterprises, society and the economy. After the 1973 coup major interest was in technological aspects of Cybersyn such as real-time management and its contribution to decision support and executive information systems. In the late 70s I was personally influenced by information management, but by the early 1980s my work moved towards methodological aspects of how to use the VSM. By 1989 I had created the VIPLAN method (Espejo, 1989). Key questions I attempted to answer were, how to model the complexity of enterprises and their interactions with environmental agents. Later on, in the 1990s and 2000s, the main direction of my work was epistemological, ontological and methodological towards second-order cybernetics and relationships. Only in recent decades the political transformations proposed by Cybersyn have captured the imagination of many commentators. The confluence of social and cultural changes with information technology, data models, artificial intelligence, algorithms and several additional technological developments have challenged the excesses of capitalism, particularly after the banking crisis of 2008-2009. The purpose in this paper is discussing this evolution in the light of those early days in Chile.

11.
Trends Organ Crime ; : 1-23, 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35002209

RESUMEN

This article presents the results of an exploratory study aimed to analyze the contexts in which the use of Non-Traditional ports of cocaine departure and counter-intuitive routes is prioritized, based on the experience of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Moreover, we show that criminal organizations prioritize the Ports of Buenos Aires, San Antonio and Montevideo, and the counter-intuitive routes that lead to them, because they are spaces that generate incentives linked to the porosity of borders, the lack of control at the ports, and the possibility of exploiting the country's lack of reputation for drug exportation to re-export cocaine undetected. This study constitutes a precedent for future research on the role of South American Southern Cone ports in cocaine trafficking. We can identify at least four emerging lines of research: 1. Cocaine trafficking from landlocked countries; 2. The role of the waterway Paraná-Paraguay; 3. The link between Non-Traditional ports of cocaine departure and new markets; and 4. Other Non-Traditional Ports of cocaine departure, which are not containerized.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 3, 2022 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998441

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been associated with indirect markers of breast cancer risk, such as weight gain in adolescents and early menarche. How SSB intake relates to breast composition in adolescent girls has not been explored. METHODS: We evaluated the association between prospective intake of SSB and breast density in a cohort of 374 adolescent girls participating in the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study in Santiago, Chile. Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the association between average daily SSB intake quartiles and breast composition (absolute fibroglandular volume [aFGV], percent fibroglandular volume [%FGV], total breast volume [tBV]). Models were adjusted for potential confounding by BMI Z-score, age, daily energy intake (g/day), maternal education, hours of daily television watching after school, dairy intake (g/day), meat intake (g/day), waist circumference, and menarche. To examine the sensitivity of the association to the number of dietary recalls for each girl, analyses were further stratified by girls with one dietary recall and girls with > one dietary recall. RESULTS: A total of 881 dietary recalls were available for 374 girls prior to the breast density assessment. More than 60% of the cohort had > one dietary recall available. In multivariable analyses, we found no association between SSB intake quartile and aFGV (Q2 vs Q1 ß: - 5.4, 95% CI - 15.1, 4.4; Q3 vs Q1 ß: 1.3, 95% CI - 8.6, 11.3; Q4 vs Q1 ß: 3.0, 95% CI - 7.1, 13). No associations were noted for %FGV and tBV. Among girls with at least one dietary recall, we found no significant associations between SSB intake quartiles and %FGV, aFGV, or tBV. CONCLUSION: Overall, we observed no evidence that SSB intake was associated with breast density in adolescent Chilean girls.

13.
Plant Dis ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021869

RESUMEN

In May 2021, canker symptoms were detected on 'Xuxiang' kiwi trees in southwestern Shaanxi (Hanzhong municipality; 107.27° E, 33.23° N) in China. Seven-year-old trees exhibited black necrotic lesions and cracked areas in the trunk (Figure 1). The symptoms were observed in approximately 10% of the trees in 6 orchards (31 ha in total). Application of commercial fungicides did not control the advancement of the pathogen, and infected trees were removed to control the spread. Three samples, approximately 1 cm2 in size, of symptomatic tissue were collected and surface sterilized in 2% NaOCl for 1 min, and washed with sterile ddH2O. Four isolates showing white mycelium with yellow pigmentation were obtained after 4 days of incubation on PDA, containing chloramphenicol (50 µg/mL), at 28 ºC. The pathogen was isolated from all collected samples. ITS, EF1-α, TUB2, RPB1 and RPB2 genes were amplified using ITS1/ITS4, EF1-728F/EF1-986R, T1/T22, RPB1-5F/RPB1-8R and RPB2-5F/RPB2-7cR (strain NJC06), or RPB2-c7F/RPB2-11aR (strains NJC07 and NJC08), primers, respectively. Two isolates shared the same sequences (strain NJC08). Obtained sequences were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers MZ669205 and OL347898-OL347899 (ITS), OL439731-OL439733 (EF1-α), OL439734-OL439736 (TUB2), OL439737-OL439739 (RPB1), and OL439740-OL439742 (RPB2). The sequences shared >99% (ITS; F. avenaceum CBS 128538, MH864972), >99% (EF1-α; F. avenaceum 55-2, MN473124), 100% (TUB2; F. avenaceum SICAUCC 18-0001, MK253102), >98% (RPB1; F. avenaceum NRRL 26911, MG282372), and >98% (RPB2; F. avenaceum SICAUCC 18-0001, MK396098; or F. avenaceum FRC R-09495, CQ915486) homology to multiple F. avenaceum strains. Molecular phylogenetic tree (Figure 2) was constructed using MEGA7 with Fusarium strains found causing rot in various hosts (Wang et al. 2015), and other fungal species, such as Cadophora nalorum, Diaporthe ambigua, D. australafricana, and Neofusicoccum parvum, which were reported to cause cordon dieback on kiwi tree in Chile (Diaz et al. 2021). Microscope observations after cultivation of all isolates on barley-honey-tryptone medium (Song et al. 2020) showed the presence of septate mycelium, fusiform microconidia (8-15 µm in length, containing between 0 and 3 septa; n = 77) and chlamydospores (n = 21), and agree with the morphology of F. avenaceum (Zhao et al. 2020). To confirm pathogenicity, a sterilized spatula was used to make wounds (3 mm diameter, 1 mm depth) on the trunk of 3-months-old 'Xuxiang' kiwi trees. Solutions containing 1 × 106 spores/mL (20 µL) of the isolates were injected in the wounds. Sterile ddH2O was used for the control experiment. Inoculated plants were maintained in a growth chamber at 28 °C and 80% relative humidity for 4 days. The pathogen was recovered from the canker lesions, which were similar to those observed in the orchards, and its identity was confirmed by sequence analysis. The pathogen only infected wounded trees, and probably invaded the orchards during the pruning in February 2021. F. avenaceum was reported to cause canker on almond tree (Stack et al. 2020), stem rot on Anthoxanthum aristatum and Polygonatum cyrtonema (Pieczul et al. 2018; Xu et al. 2019), and root rot on carrot, Coptis chinensis and wheat (Le Moullec-Rieu et al. 2020; Mei et al. 2020; Ozer et al. 2020). Recently, F. avenaceum was found causing fruit blotch in kiwi fruit in Anhui (China) (Zhao et al. 2020). Here, F. avenaceum was found causing canker disease in kiwi tree, demonstrating the host and tissue promiscuity of this pathogen. Kiwi is an important crop in China with nearly 1.5 million tons produced in 2019. This report will help to better understand the pathogens reducing kiwi production in China.

14.
ILAR J ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022734

RESUMEN

In silico predictions combined with in vitro, in vivo, and in situ observations collectively suggest that mouse adaptation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus requires an aromatic substitution in position 501 or position 498 (but not both) of the spike protein's receptor binding domain. This effect could be enhanced by mutations in positions 417, 484, and 493 (especially K417N, E484K, Q493K, and Q493R), and to a lesser extent by mutations in positions 486 and 499 (such as F486L and P499T). Such enhancements, due to more favorable binding interactions with residues on the complementary angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interface, are, however, unlikely to sustain mouse infectivity on their own based on theoretical and experimental evidence to date. Our current understanding thus points to the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron variants of concern infecting mice, whereas Delta and "Delta Plus" lack a similar biomolecular basis to do so. This paper identifies 11 countries (Brazil, Chile, Djibouti, Haiti, Malawi, Mozambique, Reunion, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela) where targeted local field surveillance of mice is encouraged because they may have come in contact with humans who had the virus with adaptive mutation(s). It also provides a systematic methodology to analyze the potential for other animal reservoirs and their likely locations.

15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261604, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing recommendations for health professionals to participate in intervention design and implementation to effect changes in clinical practice, little is known about this strategy's effectiveness. This study analyses the effectiveness of interventions designed and implemented through participatory action research (PAR) processes in healthcare networks of Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay to improve clinical coordination across care levels, and offers recommendations for future research. METHODS: The study was quasi-experimental. Two comparable networks, one intervention (IN) and one control (CN), were selected in each country. Baseline (2015) and evaluation (2017) surveys of a sample of primary and secondary care doctors (174 doctors/network/year) were conducted using the COORDENA® questionnaire. Most of the interventions chosen were based on joint meetings, promoting cross-level clinical agreement and communication for patient follow-up. Outcome variables were: a) intermediate: interactional and organizational factors; b) distal: experience of cross-level clinical information coordination, of clinical management coordination and general perception of coordination between levels. Poisson regression models were estimated. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in some of the interactional factors (intermediate outcomes) -knowing each other personally and mutual trust- was observed in Brazil and Chile INs; and in some organizational factors -institutional support- in Colombia and Mexico. Compared to CNs in 2017, INs of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico showed significant differences in some factors. In distal outcomes, care consistency items improved in Brazil, Colombia and Uruguay INs; and patient follow-up improved in Chile and Mexico. General perception of clinical coordination increased in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico INs. Compared to CNs in 2017, only Brazil showed significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Although more research is needed, results show that PAR-based interventions improved some outcomes regarding clinical coordination at network level, with differences between countries. However, a PAR process is, by definition, slow and gradual, and longer implementation periods are needed to achieve greater penetration and quantifiable changes. The participatory and flexible nature of interventions developed through PAR processes poses methodological challenges (such as defining outcomes or allocating individuals to different groups in advance), and requires a comprehensive mixed-methods approach that simultaneously evaluates effectiveness and the implementation process to better understand its outcomes.

16.
J Phycol ; 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032341

RESUMEN

Crustose Verrucariaceae lichens form a distinctive black belt on seashores all over the world. This lifestyle is apparently enabled by a specific set of photobionts. However, their diversity is understudied. We sampled these lichens from the northern Patagonian Pacific coast of Chile. Using molecular markers, we identified both mycobionts and photobionts. The lichens, belonging to the genus Hydropunctaria and Wahlenbergiella group, hosted solely Ulvophycean photobionts. Pseudendoclonium submarinum (Kornmanniaceae, Ulvales) was the most common, but representatives of other closely related, yet undescribed, lineages were also found. Undulifilum symbioticum gen. et sp. nov. is described within the Kornmanniaceae based on culture morphology and DNA sequence data. Furthermore, the free-living macroscopic genus Urospora (Acrosiphoniaceae, Ulotrichales) is reported as a lichen photobiont for the first time and is the first of its kind in the order. These results indicate that undescribed algal diversity is waiting to be uncovered in seashore lichens.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020089

RESUMEN

Attic dusts provide an indirect measure of airborne pollutants deposited in the urban environment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in attic dust in the City of Coronel, (2) to evaluate the source apportionment of PHE and (3) to assess the risk of health effects from exposure in adults and children. In the City of Coronel, attic dust samples were collected in 19 houses. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn were measured in ICP-OES after Aqua Regia digestion of < 75 µm dust sample. The median (and the range) concentration (mg kg-1) of potentially harmful elements was: As 16 (7-72), Ba 154 (53-251), Cd 0.8 (0.25-14.5), Co 12, (8-22), Cr 38 (22-482), Cu 107 (44-1641), Mn 698 (364-1245), Ni 51 (24-1734), Pb 66 (18-393), Sr 131 (52-252), V 129 (57-376) and Zn 815 (107-9761). The exploratory data analysis shows that Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb and As distribution is dominated by anthropogenic sources and characterized by high extreme values. Principal component analysis shows four factors. One factor is geogenic, while the other three factors are associated with transport emissions and the industrial park. The resulting median of cumulative noncarcinogenic risk (HIs) value for attic dust was 3.49 for children. This is significant, as any value greater than one indicates an elevated risk.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020200

RESUMEN

The field of participatory research with children developed largely thanks to shared learning between different cultures, places, and disciplines. However, grand narratives and power relationships in academia inherited from colonialism and imperialism can threaten to obstruct the transformative value of this approach. In this article, we present the case of Think Big, a multinational collaboration for participatory research with children that involved adult and child coresearchers from Australia, Chile, Colombia, and the United Kingdom. Our aim was to explore how this project helped build solidarities between adult researchers from different countries and disciplines. We applied a methodology of diffraction to explore the processes and outcomes of this collaboration and presented our insights using the metaphor of a tree to explain the roots (knowledges and frameworks), trunk (ongoing collaboration and communication between the teams from different countries), branches (local projects), and fruits (research outcomes) of our work. Based on our experience, we proposed that multinational collaborations for participatory research offer important opportunities for adult researchers to collaborate with children to generate more democratic knowledge about their lives and to generate more egalitarian relationships between adult researchers from different places and backgrounds. However, it is important to anticipate that multinational collaborations are more likely to be affected by social and political upheavals, and language barriers must be overcome to decentralize academia. Also, the organizations involved in these collaborations need to develop strategies that facilitate funding, ethics clearance, and international research agreements.

20.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261953, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030178

RESUMEN

During recent years, multimorbidity has taken relevance because of the impact of causes in the system, people, and their families, which has been a priority in the health care plan. Interventions strategies and their implementation are still an emerging topic. In this context, Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC, together with Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur Oriente, implemented as a pilot study High-Risk Multimorbidity Integrated Care strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this strategy in terms of health services utilization and mortality. A cohort study was conducted with high-risk patients with multimorbidity, stratified by ACG®, intervened between April 2017 and December 2019. The studied population was 3,933 patients who belonged to similar size and location primary care centers. The impact analysis was performed used generalized linear models. Results showed that intervened patients had a significantly lower incidence in mortality (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.77), hospital admissions, length of stay, and the number of hospital emergency consultancies. With the proper barriers and facilitators of a real context intervention, the implementation process allowed the systematization and consolidation of the intervention provided in this study. The training for new roles and the constant implementation support from the Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC team were essential in the progress and success of the intervention. A complete description of the high-risk intervention strategy is provided to contribute to this emerging topic and facilitate its scale-up. We can conclude that this complex intervention was feasible to be implemented in a real context. The Ministry of Health has taken the systematization and consolidation of the conditions for the national scale-up.

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