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1.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 578-586, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757221

RESUMEN

Biodiversity offsetting is an increasingly applied tool aiming to compensate for environmental damage caused by exploitation projects. Critics, however, raise concerns over the purported effectiveness of offsetting and question the ethical underpinnings and implications of offsetting. These ethical dimensions have largely been overlooked in research, which may lead to offsetting systems that fail to respect the values intended to be safeguarded. To address these dimensions, 5 ethical objections in the scientific literature were identified: offsetting violates nature's intrinsic value; losses of nature cannot be compensated for by human interventions; too little is known to make adequate trades; offsetting impedes virtuous dispositions toward nature; and offsetting has negative justice implications. We examined these objections and arguments against them based on the ethical concepts of intrinsic and instrumental values, anthropocentrism, nonanthropocentrism, and deontological, consequentialist, and virtue-ethical paradigms. Both nonanthropocentric and anthropocentric concerns were expressed in deontological, consequential, and virtue-ethical framings. Objections mostly had a deontological or virtue-ethical basis, whereas counterarguments were based on consequential reasoning, but common ground in practice is often conceivable. Based on our findings, we formulated 10 recommendations for policy makers and 5 questions for practitioners to consider. We propose, for example, that policy makers clarify aims, legislate on no-go areas, and govern the use of multipliers. We suggest that practitioners consider, for instance, how to improve case-specific knowledge and promote learning and stakeholder engagement. We hope these recommendations and questions will encourage further discussion of the ethics of biodiversity offsets and ultimately strengthen the respect for biodiversity and human-welfare values at stake in offsetting projects.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Principios Morales , Justicia Social
2.
Conserv Biol ; 35(1): 197-205, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390216

RESUMEN

Biodiversity offsetting is the practice of using conservation actions, such as habitat restoration, management, or protection, to compensate for ecological losses caused by development activity, including construction projects. The typical goal of offsetting is no net loss (NNL), which means that all ecological losses are compensated for by commensurate offset gains. We focused on a conceptual and methodological exploration of net positive impact (NPI), an ambitious goal that implies commitment beyond NNL and that has recently received increasing attention from big business and environmental nongovernmental organizations. We identified 3 main ways NPI could be delivered: use of an additional NPI multiplier; use of slowly developing permanent offsets to deliver additional gains after NNL has first been reached during a shorter offset evaluation time interval; and the combination of permanent offsets with partially temporary losses. An important and novel variant of the last mechanism is the use of an alternate mitigation hierarchy so that gains from the traditional third step of the mitigation hierarchy (i.e., onsite rehabilitation) are no longer be counted toward reduced offset requirements. The outcome from these 3 factors is that for the same ecological damage, larger offsets will be required than previously, thereby improving offset success. As a corollary, we show that offsets are NNL only at 1 ephemeral point in time, before which they are net negative and after which they become either NPI or net negative impact, depending on whether permanent offsets are combined with partially temporary losses or if temporary offset gains are combined with partially permanent losses. To achieve NPI, offsets must be made permanent, and they must achieve NNL during an agreed-upon offset evaluation period. An additional NPI-multiplier and use of the modified mitigation hierarchy will deliver additional NPI gains. Achieving NPI is fully conditional on prior achievement of NNL, and NNL offsets have been frequently observed to fail due to inadequate policy requirements, poor planning, or incomplete implementation. Nevertheless, achieving NPI becomes straightforward if NNL can be credibly reached first.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Comercio , Ecosistema , Motivación
3.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 510-521, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538478

RESUMEN

When evaluating the impact of a biodiversity conservation intervention, a counterfactual is typically needed. Counterfactuals are possible alternative system trajectories in the absence of an intervention. Comparing observed outcomes against the chosen counterfactual allows the impact (change attributable to the intervention) to be determined. Because counterfactuals by definition never occur, they must be estimated. Sometimes, there may be many plausible counterfactuals, including various drivers of biodiversity change and defined on a range of spatial or temporal scales. Here, we posit that, by definition, conservation interventions always take place in social-ecological systems (SES) (i.e., ecological systems integrated with human actors). Evaluating the impact of an intervention in an SES, therefore, means taking into account the counterfactuals assumed by different human actors. Use of different counterfactuals by different actors will give rise to perceived differences in the impacts of interventions, which may lead to disagreement about its success or the effectiveness of the underlying approach. Despite that there are biophysical biodiversity trends, it is often true that no single counterfactual is definitively the right one for conservation assessment, so multiple evaluations of intervention efficacy could be considered justifiable. Therefore, we propose calculating the sum of perceived differences, which captures the range of impact estimates associated with different actors in a given SES. The sum of perceived differences gives some indication of how closely actors in an SES agree on the impacts of an intervention. We applied the concept of perceived differences to a set of global, national, and regional case studies (e.g., global realization of Aichi Target 11 for marine protected areas, effect of biodiversity offsetting on vegetation condition in Australia, and influence of conservation measures on an endangered ungulate in Central Asia). We explored approaches for minimizing the sum, including a combination of negotiation and structured decision making, careful alignment of expectations on scope and measurement, and explicit recognition of any intractable differences between stakeholders.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Australia , Ecosistema , Humanos
4.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 567-577, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720732

RESUMEN

Developers are often required by law to offset environmental impacts through targeted conservation actions. Most offset policies specify metrics for calculating offset requirements, usually by assessing vegetation condition. Despite widespread use, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of vegetation-based metrics for ensuring biodiversity persistence. We compared long-term impacts of biodiversity offsetting based on area only; vegetation condition only; area × habitat suitability; and condition × habitat suitability in development and restoration simulations for the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. We simulated development and subsequent offsetting through restoration within a virtual landscape, linking simulations to population viability models for 3 species. Habitat gains did not ensure species persistence. No net loss was achieved when performance of offsetting was assessed in terms of amount of habitat restored, but not when outcomes were assessed in terms of persistence. Maintenance of persistence occurred more often when impacts were avoided, giving further support to better enforce the avoidance stage of the mitigation hierarchy. When development affected areas of high habitat quality for species, persistence could not be guaranteed. Therefore, species must be more explicitly accounted for in offsets, rather than just vegetation or habitat alone. Declines due to a failure to account directly for species population dynamics and connectivity overshadowed the benefits delivered by producing large areas of high-quality habitat. Our modeling framework showed that the benefits delivered by offsets are species specific and that simple vegetation-based metrics can give misguided impressions on how well biodiversity offsets achieve no net loss.


Asunto(s)
Benchmarking , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Australia , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Nueva Gales del Sur
5.
Conserv Biol ; 35(3): 794-803, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851689

RESUMEN

Governments pass conservation laws, adopt policies, and make plans yet frequently fail to implement them. Implementation of conservation, however, often requires costly sacrifice: people foregoing benefit for the benefit of biodiversity. Decisions involve trade-offs with outcomes that depend on the values at stake and people's perceptions of those values. Psychology, ethics, and behavioral science have each addressed the challenge of making difficult, often tragic, trade-off decisions. Based on these literatures, values can be classified as secular or sacred, where sacred values are those for which compensation may be unthinkable (e.g., freedom). Taboo trade-offs emerge when secular values are pitted against sacred ones. These are difficult to discuss, much less negotiate. Confronting taboo trade-offs in conservation may require discursive approaches to better understand particular attributes of decisions that place sacred human values at risk. Tragic trade-offs emerge when sacred values are pitted against one another. The trolley problem-a forced choice between 2 unthinkable outcomes-is a simple heuristic illustrating ethical challenges of tragic trade-offs. Behavior studies illustrate that people have a strong aversion to losses where an active choice was made, resulting in a bias toward status quo decisions. Faced with tragic, trolley-problem-like choices, people tend to avoid taking responsibility for action, defer decisions, evade opinions on painful choices, and regret unfortunate outcomes of actions. To help close the implementation gap, conservation actors may need to directly address the psychological, ethical, and behavioral barriers created by the remorse, regret, and moral residue of implementing conservation choices that have tragic outcomes. Recognition of these predictable features of the human psyche may foster better administrative structures to support action with durable outcomes as well as new research directions.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Tabú , Biodiversidad , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Principios Morales
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171582

RESUMEN

Exploring the elements that affect farmers' willingness to protect cultivated land is the key to improving the ecological compensation mechanism for cultivated land protection. The purpose of this study was to analyze regional differences in ecological compensation for cultivated land protection, and to explore the influence of different external environments on farmers' willingness to engage in cultivated land protection. Based on the Profitable Spatial Boundary Analysis theory (PSBA), GIS spatial analysis technology was used to analyze regional space differences and assess ecological compensation for urban and rural cultivated land protection at the micro scale. The results show that the willingness of farmers to participate in cultivated land protection is affected by the external environment and the ecological compensation offered. The trend of the comprehensive benefit of cultivated land protection ecological compensation (B) is "Λ" from the first layer to the third layer. The B value of the urban-rural junction area is the highest value. This shows that the external environment is favorable for ecological compensation in this area, which has a positive effect on farmers' willingness to protect cultivated land. B < 0 in the first and third layer, which has a depressant effect on farmers' willingness to protect cultivated land. The study results contribute to the understanding of the impact of regional differences in the external environmental on ecological compensation and farmers' willingness to engage in cultivated land protection.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Compensación y Reparación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultores , China , Humanos
7.
Conserv Biol ; 34(4): 803-810, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406972

RESUMEN

Millennia of human conflict with wildlife have built a culture of intolerance toward wildlife among some stakeholders. We explored 2 key obstacles to improved human-wildlife coexistence: coexistence inequality (how the costs and benefits of coexisting with wildlife are unequally shared) and intolerance. The costs of coexisting with wildlife are often disproportionately borne by the so-called global south and rural communities, and the benefits often flow to the global north and urban dwellers. Attitudes and behaviors toward wildlife (tolerance versus intolerance) vary with social and cultural norms. We suggest more empathetic advocacy is needed that, for example, promotes conservation while appropriately considering those who bear the costs of conflict with wildlife. To achieve more equitable cost-sharing, we suggest limiting the costs incurred by those most affected or by sharing those costs more widely. For example, we advocate for the development of improved wildlife compensation schemes, increasing the scale of rewilding efforts, and preventing wildlife-derived revenue leaching out of the local communities bearing the costs of coexistence.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Actitud , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Conserv Biol ; 34(4): 891-902, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406981

RESUMEN

Interactions between humans and wildlife resulting in negative impacts are among the most pressing conservation challenges globally. In regions of smallholder livestock and crop production, interactions with wildlife can compromise human well-being and motivate negative sentiment and retaliation toward wildlife, undermining conservation goals. Although impacts may be unavoidable when human and wildlife land use overlap, scant large-scale human data exist quantifying the direct costs of wildlife to livelihoods. In a landscape of global importance for wildlife conservation in southern Africa, we quantified costs for people living with wildlife through a fundamental measure of human well-being, food security, and we tested whether existing livelihood strategies buffer certain households against crop depredation by wildlife, predominantly elephants. To do this, we estimated Bayesian multilevel statistical models based on multicounty household data (n = 711) and interpreted model results in the context of spatial data from participatory land-use mapping. Reported crop depredation by wildlife was widespread. Over half of the sample households were affected and household food security was reduced significantly (odds ratio 0.37 [0.22, 0.63]). The most food insecure households relied on gathered food sources and welfare programs. In the event of crop depredation by wildlife, these 2 livelihood sources buffered or reduced harmful effects of depredation. The presence of buffering strategies suggests a targeted compensation strategy could benefit the region's most vulnerable people. Such strategies should be combined with dynamic and spatially explicit land-use planning that may reduce the frequency of negative human-wildlife impacts. Quantifying and mitigating the human costs from wildlife are necessary steps in working toward human-wildlife coexistence.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Elefantes , África Austral , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos
9.
Conserv Biol ; 34(5): 1210-1220, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227646

RESUMEN

Mortality of animals on roads is a critical threat to many wildlife populations and is poised to increase strongly because of ongoing and planned road construction. If these new roads cannot be avoided, effective mitigation measures will be necessary to stop biodiversity decline. Fencing along roads effectively reduces roadkill and is often used in combination with wildlife passages. Because fencing the entire road is not always possible due to financial constraints, high-frequency roadkill areas are often identified to inform the placement of fencing. We devised an adaptive fence-implementation plan to prioritize road sections for fencing. In this framework, areas along roads of high, moderate, and low levels of animal mortality (respectively, roadkill hotspots, warmspots, and coldspots) are identified at multiple scales (i.e., in circles of different diameters [200-2000 m] in which mortality frequency is measured). Fence deployment is based on the relationship between the amount of fencing being added to the road, starting with the strongest roadkill hotspots, and potential reduction in road mortality (displayed in mortality-reduction graphs). We applied our approach to empirical and simulated spatial patterns of wildlife-vehicle collisions. The scale used for analysis affected the number and spatial extent of roadkill hot-, warm-, and coldspots. At fine scales (e.g., 200 m), more hotspots were identified than at coarse scales (e.g., 2000 m), but combined the fine-scale hotspots covered less road and less fencing was needed to reduce road mortality. However, many short fences may be less effective in practice due to a fence-end effect (i.e., animals moving around the fence more easily), resulting in a trade-off between few long and many short fences, which we call the FLOMS (few-long-or-many-short) fences trade-off. Thresholds in the mortality-reduction graphs occurred for some roadkill patterns, but not for others. Thresholds may be useful to consider when determining road-mitigation targets. The existence of thresholds at multiple scales and the FLOMS trade-off have important implications for biodiversity conservation.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Biodiversidad
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948098

RESUMEN

The relocation of chemical enterprises along the Yangtze River a necessary means of ecological protection in the Yangtze River Basin. Vulnerability assessment provides a new idea for the study of livelihood ability and compensation standard of employees after relocation. Based on the framework of "Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptability" proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the survey data of 410 employees of relocation enterprises in the Hubei Province of the Yangtze River Basin, this study firstly constructs a livelihood vulnerability evaluation index system and evaluation model, and analyzes whether the employees of relocation enterprises have the ability to cope with the risk impact brought by the Yangtze River Ecological Restoration policy. Then, we use multiple linear regression model to explore the relationship between the group's exposure, sensitivity, adaptability and livelihood vulnerability. Finally, we design a new compensation standard calculation method for special groups from the perspective of social cost, to alleviate their livelihood vulnerability and provide a theoretical basis and decision support for the government and enterprises to formulate and implement relevant resettlement standards. The results show that: (1) employees of all ages show a certain degree of vulnerability in their livelihood; (2) there are differences in livelihood vulnerability between male and female employees; (3) compared with other positions, the livelihood vulnerability of producers is relatively high, and the vulnerability index is unevenly distributed and internally differentiated; (4) a low family burden ratio, high education, convenient living conditions and complex social network can effectively reduce the vulnerability of employees' livelihood; (5) the key obstacle factors affecting the sustainable livelihood of families are living convenience, adaptability to relocation, policy understanding, children's burden ratio, education, and annual income per capita; (6) the alternative opportunity cost method can be used as the basis to determine the compensation standard of the relocated employees, which can better reflect the compensation effect of the opportunity cost in the existing definition of international compensation mechanisms and realize the leap from concept to action.


Asunto(s)
Industria Química , Compensación y Reparación , Empleo , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/economía , Modelos Económicos , Adulto , China , Cambio Climático , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ríos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto Joven
11.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 41-53, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058355

RESUMEN

Land-use change via human development is a major driver of biodiversity loss. To reduce these impacts, billions of dollars are spent on biodiversity offsets. However, studies evaluating offset project effectiveness that examine components such as the overall compliance and function of projects remain rare. We reviewed 577 offsetting projects in freshwater ecosystems that included the metrics project size, type of aquatic system (e.g., wetland and creek), offsetting measure (e.g., enhancement, restoration, and creation), and an assessment of the projects' compliance and functional success. Project information was obtained from scientific and government databases and gray literature. Despite considerable investment in offsetting projects, crucial problems persisted. Although compliance and function were related to each other, a high level of compliance did not guarantee a high degree of function. However, large projects relative to area had better function than small projects. Function improved when projects targeted productivity or specific ecosystem features and when multiple complementary management targets were in place. Restorative measures were more likely to achieve targets than creating entirely new ecosystems. Altogether the relationships we found highlight specific ecological processes that may help improve offsetting outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Agua Dulce , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Humedales
12.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 125-136, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125137

RESUMEN

Market-based conservation mechanisms are designed to facilitate the mitigation of harm to and conservation of habitats and biodiversity. Their potential is partly hindered, however, by the quantification tools used to assess habitat quality and functionality. Of specific concern are the lack of transparency and standardization in tool development and gaps in tool availability. To address these issues, we collected information via internet and literature searchers and through conversations with tool developers and users on tools used in U.S. conservation mechanisms, such as payments for ecosystem services (PES) and ecolabel programs, conservation banking, and habitat exchanges. We summarized information about tools and explored trends among and within mechanisms based on criteria detailing geographic, ecological, and technical features of tools. We identified 69 tools that assessed at least 34 species and 39 habitat types. Where tools reported pricing, 98% were freely available. More tools were applied to states along the U.S. West Coast than elsewhere, and the level of tool transferability varied markedly among mechanisms. Tools most often incorporated conditions at numerous spatial scales, frequently addressed multiple risks to site viability, and required 1-83 data inputs. Most tools required a moderate or greater level of user skill. Average tool-complexity estimates were similar among all mechanisms except PES programs. Our results illustrate the diversity among tools in their ecological features, data needs, and geographic application, supporting concerns about a lack of standardization. However, consistency among tools in user skill requirements, incorporation of multiple spatial scales, and complexity highlight important commonalities that could serve as a starting point for establishing more standardized tool development and feature-incorporation processes. Greater standardization in tool design may expand market participation and facilitate a needed assessment of the effectiveness of market-based conservation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Estados Unidos
13.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 148-157, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161689

RESUMEN

Offset schemes help avoid or revert habitat loss through protection of existing habitat (avoided deforestation), through the restoration of degraded areas (natural regrowth), or both. The spatial scale of an offset scheme may influence which of these 2 outcomes is favored and is an important aspect of the scheme's design. However, how spatial scale influences the trade-offs between the preservation of existing habitat and restoration of degraded areas is poorly understood. We used the largest forest offset scheme in the world, which is part of the Brazilian Forest Code, to explore how implementation at different spatial scales may affect the outcome in terms of the area of avoided deforestation and area of regrowth. We employed a numerical simulation of trade between buyers (i.e., those who need to offset past deforestation) and sellers (i.e., landowners with exceeding native vegetation) in the Brazilian Amazon to estimate potential avoided deforestation and regrowth at different spatial scales of implementation. Allowing offsets over large spatial scales led to an area of avoided deforestation 12 times greater than regrowth, whereas restricting offsets to small spatial scales led to an area of regrowth twice as large as avoided deforestation. The greatest total area (avoided deforestation and regrowth combined) was conserved when the spatial scale of the scheme was small, especially in locations that were highly deforested. To maximize conservation gains from avoided deforestation and regrowth, the design of the Brazilian forest-offset scheme should focus on restricting the spatial scale in which offsets occur. Such a strategy could help ensure conservation benefits are localized and promote the recovery of degraded areas in the most threatened forest landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Brasil , Ecosistema
15.
MedUNAB ; 23(1): 118-130, 2020/03/30.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087985

RESUMEN

Introducción. En mamíferos, el control de la temperatura corporal es vital. El estado de consciencia y control motor en humanos, ocurren a una temperatura de 37°C y las desviaciones pueden alterar las propiedades celulares, generando disfunciones fisiológicas. En especies como los roedores (su relación área de superficie/volumen facilita la pérdida de calor) mantienen temperaturas basales cercanas a los 30°C. Distinto es con animales como los paquidermos, cuya temperatura es menor comparada con los humanos. El objetivo es identificar los aspectos fisiológicos de la termorregulación. Descripción de temas tratados. Revisión descriptiva de la literatura de artículos publicados en diferentes bases de datos. La termorregulación es la capacidad del cuerpo para establecer y mantener su temperatura, regulando producción y pérdida de calor para optimizar la eficiencia de procesos metabólicos. El protagonismo lo tiene el sistema nervioso central y su control neurohormonal en múltiples niveles. El centro regulador térmico está en el hipotálamo anterior. Este recibe información de los receptores de grandes vasos, vísceras abdominales, médula espinal y de la sangre que perfunde el hipotálamo. Cuando aumenta la temperatura central, el termorregulador activa fibras eferentes del sistema nervioso autónomo, provocando pérdida de calor por convección y evaporación. Ante el descenso de temperatura, la respuesta es disminuir la pérdida de calor (vasoconstricción y menor sudoración); además, incrementar la producción de calor, intensificando la actividad muscular. Conclusión. La termorregulación es liderada por el hipotálamo, quien regula aumento y disminución de la temperatura respondiendo a las necesidades del organismo para llegar a la homeostasis y compensación, enfrentando las alteraciones de la temperatura ambiental. Cómo citar: Picón-Jaimes YA, Orozco-Chinome JE, Molina-Franky J, Franky-Rojas MP. Control central de la temperatura corporal y sus alteraciones: fiebre, hipertermia e hipotermia. MedUNAB. 2020;23(1):118-130. doi:10.29375/01237047.3714


Introduction. In mammals, controlling body temperature is vital. Consciousness and motor control in humans occur at a temperature of 37°C and any deviation can alter the cellular properties, generating physiological dysfunctions. In species such as rodents (their surface area/volume ratio facilitates heat loss) they maintain basal temperatures close to 30°C. This is different with animals such as pachyderms, whose temperature is lower compared to humans. This article aims to Identify the physiological aspects of thermoregulation. Topics. Descriptive literature review of articles published in different databases. Thermoregulation is the body's ability to establish and maintain its temperature, regulating heat production and loss to optimize the efficiency of metabolic processes. The main actor in this process is the central nervous system and its neuro-hormonal control on multiple levels. The thermal regulating center is located in the anterior hypothalamus. It receives information from the receptors of large vessels, abdominal viscera, spinal cord and the blood that perfuses the hypothalamus. When the core temperature increases, the thermoregulator activates efferent fibers of the autonomic nervous system, causing heat loss by convection and evaporation. When the temperature drops, the response is to decrease heat loss (vasoconstriction and less sweating); in addition, increase heat production by intensifying muscle activity. Conclusion. Thermoregulation is led by the hypothalamus, which regulates temperature increase and decrease by responding to the organism's need to reach homeostasis and compensation, facing the alterations of the ambient temperature. Cómo citar: Picón-Jaimes YA, Orozco-Chinome JE, Molina-Franky J, Franky-Rojas MP. Control central de la temperatura corporal y sus alteraciones: fiebre, hipertermia e hipotermia. MedUNAB. 2020;23(1):118-130. doi:10.29375/01237047.3714


Introdução. Nos mamíferos, o controle da temperatura corporal é vital. O estado de consciencia e controle motor em humanos ocorre a uma temperatura de 37 °C e os desvios podem alterar as propriedades celulares, gerando disfunções fisiológicas. Espécies como os roedores (a sua relação superfície/volume, facilita a perda de calor), mantêm a temperatura basal próxima de 30 °C. É diferente em animais como paquidermes, cuja temperatura é mais baixa em comparação aos humanos. Objetivo. Identificar os aspectos fisiológicos da termorregulação. Desenvolvimento. Revisão descritiva da literatura de artigos publicados em diferentes bases de dados. A termorregulação é a capacidade do corpo de estabelecer e manter sua temperatura, regulando a produção e a perda de calor para otimizar a eficiência dos processos metabólicos. O sistema nervoso central tem o papel principal, assim como seu controle neuro-hormonal em múltiplos níveis. O centro de regulação térmica está no hipotálamo anterior, que recebe informações dos receptores de grandes vasos, vísceras abdominais, medula espinhal e do sangue distribuído pelo hipotálamo. Quando a temperatura central aumenta, o termorregulador ativa fibras eferentes do sistema nervoso autônomo, causando perda de calor por convecção e evaporação. Dada a diminuição da temperatura, a resposta é reduzir a perda de calor (vasoconstrição e menos transpiração), além de aumentar a produção de calor, intensificando a atividade muscular. Conclusão. A termorregulação é liderada pelo hipotálamo, que regula o aumento e a diminuição da temperatura, respondendo às necessidades do organismo de atingir a homeostase e a compensação, enfrentando mudanças na temperatura ambiente. Cómo citar: Picón-Jaimes YA, Orozco-Chinome JE, Molina-Franky J, Franky-Rojas MP. Control central de la temperatura corporal y sus alteraciones: fiebre, hipertermia e hipotermia. MedUNAB. 2020;23(1):118-130. doi:10.29375/01237047.3714


Asunto(s)
Temperatura Corporal , Termorreceptores , Fiebre , Hipotermia
16.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 156-165, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687970

RESUMEN

The present article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the legal basis for and special features of indemnification for damages inflicted by maiming and other personal injuries including death, in particular, due to the doctor's treatment or the denial of medical care. The fulfilment of the aim involved critical analysis of civil legislation of Ukraine, with regard to indemnification for damages inflicted by maiming and other personal injuries including death. It also employs the legal framework governing out-of-court and in-court settlement of disputes with regard to inflicting personal injury to patients due to the provision of medical assistance or failure to provide medical assistance and some aspects of the assessment of damages to be awarded to the injured patient. In order to identify common trends relating to court decisions on damages in personal injury and wrongful death cases in the healthcare setting, 8 decisions made by domestic national courts of Ukraine as well as 17 decisions made by the European Court of Human Rights were considered. The present research employed the comparative legal research method, the integrated system-wide approach, the method of , the inductive method, the method of modelling , etc. Based on the conducted research, both out-of-court and in-court ways of the settlement of disputes with regard to inflicting personal injury to patients due to the provision of medical assistance or failure to provide medical assistance were identified as well as and some aspects of the assessment of the amount of compensation for damages to be awarded to the injured patient. The article provides a critical description of the reasons for liability of healthcare facilities or private doctors for causing maiming or other personal injuries including death to patients as well as the special features of this liability in criminal proceedings. It also outlines common tendencies of making decisions on personal injury cases involving the healthcare sector by the European Court of Human Rights. The article examines the role and special features of forensic medical examination as a sound basis for determining the fact of causing a personal injury.


Asunto(s)
Compensación y Reparación , Derechos Humanos , Legislación Médica , Responsabilidad Legal , Mala Praxis , Derechos del Paciente , Humanos , Ucrania
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614873

RESUMEN

The exploration of different stakeholders' heterogeneous willingness to pay for farmland ecological value is a fundamental part of understanding the total value of farmland protection and designing a scientific farmland protection policy. Unlike the homogenous assumption used in the previous studies, the mixed logit model of choice experiment method was applied to estimate respondents' heterogeneous willingness to pay for farmland non-market value (represented by farmland area, farmland fertility, water quality, air quality, species richness, and recreational value) in this study. Data came from a sample of 289 farmers in Wuhan, China who were face-to-face interviewed. Results showed that: (1) Farmers were unsatisfied with the status quo of the present farmland ecological environment and were willing to pay to preserve all the attributes of farmland non-market value. (2) Farmers had a heterogeneous preference for the status quo and recreational value-the error variances of these two attributes were both significant at the 1% level, and their willingness to pay for the farmland non-market value in Wuhan was 1141.88 Yuan/hm2. (3) Farmers' cognition degree of farmland importance and whether respondents bought medical insurance or not had significant impacts on their willingness to pay. The results can provide the basic foundation for accurate valuation of farmland non-market services, help farmland regulators make the right farmland conversion decisions, and improve the resource allocation efficiency of local financial expenditure during farmland protection in Wuhan.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/economía , Agricultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Compensación y Reparación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultores/psicología , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(1): 19-32, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239611

RESUMEN

Over the past few decades, investments in global health programs have contributed to massive advances in health for human populations. As with clinical medicine, however, global health interventions sometimes result in unintended harm, economic adversity, or social disruption. In clinical medicine, when medical error occurs, it is increasingly common for health care workers to offer apology, which involves acknowledging the error, taking responsibility for it, and expressing genuine remorse. In addition, hospitals are beginning to offer affected patients and their families reparation or compensation in an attempt to restore patients' health and repair relationships, as well as take steps to prevent similar harm in the future. By contrast, little is known about apology and reparation for unintentional harm in global health practice. Several factors, including the scale of global health programs, diffusion of responsibility across international networks of state and non-state actors, and concern that acknowledging harm could threaten otherwise successful health programs, render apology and reparation in global health more difficult than in clinical medicine. This article examines how and when individuals and global health organizations address inadvertent harm, illustrated by four case studies. It also describes ethical, legal, and human rights principles that could inform a more systematic approach. Addressing unintended harm in global health requires further attention at the individual, organizational, and global levels.


Asunto(s)
Compensación y Reparación , Ética Médica , Salud Global , Errores Médicos/economía , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Revelación de la Verdad
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(3)2019 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936339

RESUMEN

India is the largest consumer of asbestos in the world. There is no report from India of mesothelioma related to asbestos. The case is a 42-year-old man who died of pleural mesothelioma. He was exposed to asbestos domestically and from the environment since birth. Two of his close family members worked in a factory that used asbestos. The living quarter of the family was within the premises of the factory. Asbestos waste was strewn on the grounds surrounding the quarters. After decades of legal battles by workers and families exposed to asbestos, Indian courts have ordered remedial measures and compensation to people, who are exposed to asbestos at work and the environment. Mesothelioma, currently in epidemic proportions in the west where asbestos production was banned in the 1990s, could rise to alarming levels in the next decades in India if the legal remedial measures are not implemented soon.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ocupacionales del Aire/efectos adversos , Asbestos/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurales/diagnóstico , Adulto , Compensación y Reparación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Resultado Fatal , Humanos , India , Neoplasias Pulmonares/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Masculino , Mesotelioma/inducido químicamente , Mesotelioma/mortalidad , Mesotelioma Maligno , Exposición Profesional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Neoplasias Pleurales/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias Pleurales/mortalidad , Indemnización para Trabajadores/legislación & jurisprudencia
20.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 28(2): 145-170, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100598

RESUMEN

Discussion of reparations for U.S.-Guatemala STD experiments of the 1940s and 50s should be informed by a range of international and U.S. reparation experiences, so that features that impair the effectiveness of repair are avoided, and features that enhance effectiveness of repair are emulated. Two features have contributed to the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of repair elsewhere but have not been critically examined in relation to the Guatemalan experiments: Whether experimental subjects or their families have the opportunity to participate in reparations processes, and whether any group of experimental subjects is intentionally denied recognition. Three advantages of victim participation are explored, and a critique provided of one narrow delimitation of victims. Even if political and moral failings ultimately prevent reparations for Guatemalan experimental subjects, an emphasis on effectiveness and victim-centeredness should nonetheless shape reparations for other, future victims of human rights abuses in experimentation.


Asunto(s)
Compensación y Reparación , Víctimas de Crimen , Experimentación Humana/ética , Violación , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/historia , Víctimas de Crimen/historia , Víctimas de Crimen/legislación & jurisprudencia , Familia , Femenino , Guatemala , Historia del Siglo XX , Experimentación Humana/historia , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Violación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Estados Unidos
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