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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543

RESUMEN

Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Arañas , Acacia , Insectos , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

RESUMEN

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Pakistán , Esmog , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ciudades , Material Particulado/análisis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMEN

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Biodiversidad , Ríos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256190, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364523

RESUMEN

Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant causing serious health problems. The aim of the present study was to find out concentration of PM in ambient air and its associated health risk in Haripur city, Pakistan. Twenty-three samples were taken at various educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries in Haripur city. Concentration of PM2.5 (µg/m3) and PM10 (µg/m3) was measured with Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A portable PM counter. The results revealed that values of both PM2.5 and PM10 were above the permissible limits (35 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 µg/m3 for PM10) set by Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan (Pak-EPA) in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries investigated. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05) variation was found in the concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas, and industries studied. The concentration of PM2.5 was positively correlated with the concentration of PM10 in all the sampling sites. Therefore, from 1-14 scale standard of health index, the values of PM2.5 and PM10 exhibited that the ambient air quality of Haripur city Pakistan is under high risk. If the regulatory authorities such as Environmental Protection Agency, Health Department and Local Government monitor PM pollution in different settings of Haripur city, then a decrease can be possible in the pollution level. The remedies that can be taken to overcome the problem of ambient air pollution such as PM are plantation of trees at the sites where there are higher levels of air pollutants and use of masks on personal protection basis along with implementation of pollution control system in industries of Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur city, Pakistan.


O material particulado (MP) é um importante poluente do ar que causa sérios problemas de saúde. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descobrir a concentração de MP no ar ambiente e sua associação com o risco à saúde na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão. Vinte e três amostras foram coletadas em várias instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias na cidade de Haripur. A concentração de MP2,5 (µg/m3) e MP10 (µg/m3) foi medida por meio do contador de MP portátil Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A. Os resultados revelaram que os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 estavam acima dos limites permitidos (35 µg/m3 para MP2,5 e 150 µg/m3 para MP10) estabelecidos pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental do Paquistão (Pak-EPA) em todas as instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias investigadas. Além disso, foi encontrada variação significativa (p < 0,05) na concentração de MP2,5 e MP10 em todos os locais estudados. A concentração de MP2,5 correlacionou-se positivamente com a concentração de MP10 em todos os locais de amostragem. Portanto, a partir da escala padrão 1-14 do índice de saúde, os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 mostraram que a qualidade do ar ambiente na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão, está sob alto risco. Se as autoridades reguladoras, como a Pak-EPA, o Departamento de Saúde e o governo local, monitorarem a poluição por MP em diferentes configurações da cidade de Haripur, pode ser que haja uma diminuição no nível de poluição. As medidas que podem ser tomadas para superar o problema da poluição do ar ambiente, como o MP, são o plantio de árvores nos locais onde há maiores níveis de poluentes atmosféricos, o uso de máscaras e a implantação de sistema de controle de poluição nas propriedades industriais de Hattar, na cidade Haripur, Paquistão.


Asunto(s)
Riesgo a la Salud , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Material Particulado , Pakistán
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511

RESUMEN

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Biodiversidad , Ríos , Contaminación Ambiental , Peces , Microplásticos , Pakistán
6.
Food Chem ; 398: 133866, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964561

RESUMEN

Seaweeds are a rich source of nutritional and functional compounds, but they also accumulate heavy metals. Here, the chemical composition (crude protein, total lipids, Nitrogen Free Extract and fiber) and the presence of minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se) and unwanted elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al) were determined in eleven seaweeds from Chile. Depending on the species, a good contribution to the Recommended Dietary Allowance for K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Se was observed, and low Na/K ratios (<1.0) as well. The health risk assessment indicated low hazard due to intake of seaweed meal. The mean values of As, Hg, and Pb were below the maximum limits set for food supplements and feed ingredients. The seaweeds studied have a suitable chemical composition for their uses as food and feed ingredients, although Cd levels should be monitoring especially in brown seaweeds.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Algas Marinas , Cadmio/metabolismo , Chile , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plomo/metabolismo , Mercurio/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Algas Marinas/química
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250000, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339398
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363

RESUMEN

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Bivalvos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244494, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285607

RESUMEN

Abstract Since water is one of the essentials for life, the presence and quality of water in the habitat is extremely important. Therefore, water quality change and management of Lake Aygır was investigated in this study. For this, water samples collected from the lake and the irrigation pool between May 2015 and May 2016 were analyzed monthly. Spectrophotometric, titrimetric and microbiological methods were used to determine the water quality. According to some water quality regulations, HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, fecal coliform and total suspended solid (TSS) values were found above the limit values. The other 29 parameters comply with Turkish national and international legislations. Lake Aygır was negatively affected by the surrounding settlements and agricultural activities. It is thought that the water resource should be monitored periodically and remedial studies should be done to prevent parameters exceeding the limits. However, Lake Aygır was generally suitable for drinking, use, fishing and irrigation.


Resumo Como a água é um dos elementos essenciais para a vida, a presença e a qualidade da água no habitat são extremamente importantes. Portanto, a mudança da qualidade da água e a gestão do lago Aygır foram investigadas neste estudo. Para isso, amostras de água coletadas no lago e na piscina de irrigação entre maio de 2015 e maio de 2016 foram analisadas mensalmente. Métodos espectrofotométricos, titulométricos e microbiológicos foram usados para determinar a qualidade da água. De acordo com alguns regulamentos de qualidade da água, os valores de HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, coliformes fecais e total sólido suspenso (TSS) foram encontrados acima dos valores limite. Os outros 29 parâmetros estão em conformidade com as legislações nacionais e internacionais turcas. O lago Aygır foi afetado negativamente pelos assentamentos e atividades agrícolas ao redor. Pensa-se que o recurso hídrico deve ser monitorado periodicamente e estudos corretivos devem ser feitos para evitar que os parâmetros ultrapassem os limites. No entanto, o lago Aygır era geralmente adequado para beber, usar, pescar e irrigar.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Lagos , Turquia , Calidad del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Explotaciones Pesqueras
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247913, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278555

RESUMEN

Abstract The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Oligoquetos , Nematodos , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ríos
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113489, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325795

RESUMEN

Heavy metal-contaminated wastes can threaten mangrove forests, one of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. The study evaluated the geospatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations in soils, the ecological and human health risks, and metal contents in soil fractions and mangrove organisms in the Botafogo estuary, Brazil, one of the most environmentally impacted estuaries in the country. The metal concentrations exceeded by up to 2.6-fold the geochemical background; 91%, 59%, 64%, 31%, and 82% of the soils were contaminated with Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni, respectively. Adverse effects to the biota may occur due to Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb exposures. Contents of clay and organic matter were the main factors governing the distribution of metals in soil, contributing to up to 63% of the total variability. However, the geospatial modeling showed that the predictive ability of these variables varied spatially with the metal and location. The ecological and human health risks assessments indicated that the metal concentrations in soils are safe for the environment and human beings. There was a low transfer of metals from the soil to the biota, with values of sediment-biota accumulation factor (SBAF) and biological accumulation coefficients (BAC) lower than 1.0, except for Zn (SBAF = 13.1). The high Zn bioaccumulation by Crassostrea rhizophorae may be associated with the concentrations of Zn in the bioavailable fractions.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
12.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMEN

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Material Particulado/análisis
13.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 3498394, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320947

RESUMEN

We present the results of groundwater quality assessment that was done during the rainy season in November 2018 in the Manga region of Nyamira County, Kenya. Water samples were collected from three springs, Kiangoso, Kerongo, and Tetema, for the assessment. Water quality index was calculated based on pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphates, fluoride, iron, total phosphorous, total hardness, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and total coliform. These fifteen parameters were analyzed and characterized according to standard methods and with reference to the World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards for physiochemical and bacteriological parameters which were then used in the calculation of water quality index. The water quality index was 21.32 for Kiangoso, 29.66 for Kerongo, and 25.64 for Tetema. The water quality index was found to be of excellent quality status at Kiangoso, while of good quality status at Kerongo and Tetema. The water quality index of Manga groundwater represented by the three springs therefore is less than 30 and can be used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purpose. The present results are crucial for future management of groundwater in the Manga region.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Kenia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113495, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245764

RESUMEN

Twenty beaches located around the island of Cyprus, in the eastern Mediterranean, were identified as monitoring sites. They were monitored over four monitoring sessions from January to September 2021 to assess marine litter amounts, categories, and spatiotemporal distribution. A total of 42,499 marine litter items were collected. The average marine litter density was 0.19 items/m2. Most of the collected items were plastics, with single-use plastics being ubiquitous. Plastic fragments >2.5 cm made a significant proportion of the plastic litter collected, particularly in the northern coasts of the island. Cigarette butts were abundant on touristic beaches, especially in the tourism period. The study identifies significant temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and distribution of marine litter, as well as variations related to waste management or lack thereof.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Residuos , Chipre , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Estaciones del Año , Residuos/análisis
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113565, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314394

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution has become a threat to the global marine environment. Many studies have shown that marine organisms are at risk of plastic ingestion, but there is still a lack of relevant research in the artificial reef area and adjacent waters of Haizhou Bay, located in the western Yellow Sea. The study of MPs will provide useful information for MPs pollution in the artificial reef food webs, as well as the understanding of MPs trophic transfer by reef fish. In this study, we quantified plastic ingestion by marine fish in artificial reef areas and adjacent waters (Natural area, NA; Aquaculture area, AA; Estuary area, EA; Artificial reefs area, AR and Comprehensive effective area, CEA) and analysed the related possible influencing factors. Of the 146 fish samples examined, 100% of fish ingested plastics, and 98.9% of these particles were microplastics (MPs) (<5 mm), with 3.00 ± 2.63 pieces/fish. The main types and colours of MPs were fibre (95.9%) and blue (84%). The MP quantity of AR and AA were significantly higher than that of CEA (P < 0.05) and there is no significant difference among other habitats. The MP ingestion by pelagic fishes was significantly lower than that of demersal fishes (P < 0.05). MP ingestion by omnivores was significantly higher than that by carnivores and planktivores (P < 0.05). The body length (body weight) of four species (Larimichthys polyactis: 17.7-16.7 cm (16.01-59.41 g); Collichthys lucidus: 8.1-14.3 cm (19.65-56.92 g); Tridentiger barbatus: 5.9-9.2 cm (3.37-19.1 g); Cynoglossus joyneri: 10.1-18.7 cm (5-45 g)) had no significant correlation with MP ingestion (P > 0.05). Our results showed that MPs in this region are ubiquitous (i.e., the MP ingestion rate was as high as 100%). We infer that there is a transfer mechanism in MPs from pelagic to benthic fish in this area, and there is weak biomagnification with the trophic transfer of the food chain (TMF = 1.62). However, more practical studies still need to verify whether MPs are actually transferred to humans through trophic transfer from the marine food web.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bahías , Ingestión de Alimentos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Peces , Plásticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
16.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119058, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227841

RESUMEN

In order to investigate the effectiveness of diagnostic ratios in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source discrimination, semi-open pyrolysis experiments have been performed on an organic-rich, immature shale from the Winnipegosis Formation in southeastern Saskatchewan, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The concentrations and distributions of PAHs in expelled oils and residual extracts change drastically with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The difficulty and inconsistency commonly encountered by using diagnostic ratios for PAH source identification in environmental samples seem to be rooted in the great variation of the diagnostic ratios themselves under different formation temperatures. No single diagnostic ratio allows a simple segregation of PAHs into petrogenic or pyrogenic sources. Some diagnostic ratios such as anthracene/phenanthrene and benz[a]anthracene/chrysene compound pairs are mostly effective for low-temperature pyrolysis, whereas indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene, aromatic hydrocarbon ring number distribution and degree of alkylation are mainly valid for high-temperature pyrolysis. The diagnostic ratios based on fluoranthene/pyrene, benzo[bk]fluoranthene/benz[a]pyrene compound pairs enjoy limited validity over a narrow pyrolysis range, whereas parameters derived from aromatic hydrocarbon ring number distribution, degree of alkylation and 1,7-/(2,6- + 1,7-dimentylphenanthrene) may be undistinguishable between petrogenesis and low-temperature pyrolysis. The apparent temperature-related variability must be taken into account when using the diagnostic ratios for source identification purposes. Multiple molecular markers need to be carefully selected to confirm the results obtained with PAH diagnostic ratios. Mechanical use of diagnostic ratios most likely leads to misinterpretation of environmental samples.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Pirólisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Extractos Vegetales , Aceites Vegetales , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Saskatchewan
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387714

RESUMEN

Resumen Introducción: El embalse Cerrón Grande de 135 km2 es el humedal más grande de El Salvador, reconocido como "Humedal de Importancia Internacional" por la Convención Ramsar. Además, es uno de los ecosistemas más contaminados a nivel nacional, enfrentando serios problemas, entre ellos, las proliferaciones de cianobacterias. Objetivo: Evaluar las relaciones entre los factores ambientales y la distribución espacial y temporal de las cianobacterias en el embalse a lo largo de un año hidrológico. Métodos: Extrajimos agua con cianobacterias de seis sitios fijos, desde octubre 2018 hasta septiembre 2019. Resultados: Identificamos 16 géneros, el más abundante Microcystis sp. Además, Dolichospermum sp.; Microcistis sp. alcanzaron 1.5 x 106 células/ml en junio 2019, principalmente en el sector noroeste, que es poco profundo y cercano a las zonas de confluencia de afluentes altamente contaminados que llegan al embalse. El sector sureste más profundo tenía bajas concentraciones de estos organismos. Los factores ambientales mayormente relacionados con dicho comportamiento fueron: fósforo, la conductividad eléctrica y el valor de Secchi, como se esperaba de un cuerpo eutrófico. Conclusiones: La variación en la concentración celular de cianobacterias en este embalse está altamente influenciada por la lluvia, la mezcla de agua y el contenido de nutrientes.


Abstract Introduction: The 135 km2 Cerrón Grande reservoir is the largest wetland in El Salvador, recognized as "Wetland of International Importance" by the Ramsar Convention. It is also one of the most polluted ecosystems nationwide, facing serious problems, among them, a proliferation of cyanobacteria. Objective: To assess the relationships among environmental factors and the spatial and temporary distribution of cyanobacteria in the reservoir throughout a hydrological year. Methods: We extracted water with cyanobacteria from six fixed sites, from October 2018 through September 2019. Results: We identified 16 genera, the most abundant Microcystis sp. And Dolichospermum sp.; Microcystis sp. reached 1.5 x 106 cells/ml in June 2019, mainly in the north-west sector, which is shallow and close to the confluence zones where highly polluted tributaries reach the reservoir. The deeper south-east sector had low concentrations of these organisms. The environmental factors mostly related to this behavior were: phosphorus, electrical conductivity and Secchi value, as expected from a eutrophic body. Conclusions: Variation in the cellular concentration of cyanobacteria in this reservoir is highly influenced by rain, water mixing and nutrient content.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cianobacterias/clasificación , Distribución Animal , Embalses , Monitoreo del Ambiente , El Salvador
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(44): 67466-67482, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056283

RESUMEN

The Vibrionaceae family groups genetically and metabolically diverse bacteria thriving in all marine environments. Despite often representing a minor fraction of bacterial assemblages, members of this family can exploit a wide variety of nutritional sources, which makes them important players in biogeochemical dynamics. Furthermore, several Vibrionaceae species are well-known pathogens, posing a threat to human and animal health. Here, we applied the phylogenetic placement coupled with a consensus-based approach using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, aiming to reach a reliable and fine-level Vibrionaceae characterization and identify the dynamics of blooming, ecologically important, and potentially pathogenic species in different sites of the northern Adriatic Sea. Water samples were collected monthly at a Long-Term Ecological Research network site from 2018 to 2021, and in spring and summer of 2019 and 2020 at two sites affected by depurated sewage discharge. The 41 identified Vibrionaceae species represented generally below 1% of the sampled communities; blooms (up to ~ 11%) mainly formed by Vibrio chagasii and Vibrio owensii occurred in summer, linked to increasing temperature and particulate matter concentration. Pathogenic species such as Vibrio anguilllarum, Vibrio tapetis, and Photobacterium damselae were found in low abundance. Depuration plant samples were characterized by a lower abundance and diversity of Vibrionaceae species compared to seawater, highlighting that Vibrionaceae dynamics at sea are unlikely to be related to wastewater inputs. Our work represents a further step to improve the molecular approach based on short reads, toward a shared, updated, and curated phylogeny of the Vibrionaceae family.


Asunto(s)
Vibrionaceae , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Genes de ARNr , Humanos , Material Particulado , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Agua de Mar/microbiología , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Vibrionaceae/genética , Aguas Residuales , Agua
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13274-13283, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070515

RESUMEN

Decarbonizing power systems is a critical component of climate change mitigation, which can have public health cobenefits by reducing air pollution. Many studies have examined strategies to decarbonize power grids and quantified their health cobenefits. However, few of them focus on near-term cobenefits at community levels, while comparing various decarbonization pathways. Here, we use a coupled power system and air quality modeling framework to quantify the costs and benefits of decarbonizing the Texas power grid through a carbon tax; replacing coal with natural gas, solar, or wind; and internalizing human health impacts into operations. Our results show that all decarbonization pathways can result in major reductions in CO2 emissions and public health impacts from power sector emissions, leading to large net benefits when considering the costs to implement these strategies. Operational changes with existing infrastructure can serve as a transitional strategy during the process of replacing coal with renewable energy, which offers the largest benefits. However, we also find that Black and lower-income populations receive disproportionately higher air pollution damages and that none of the examined decarbonization strategies mitigate this disparity. These findings suggest that additional interventions are necessary to mitigate environmental inequity while decarbonizing power grids.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Carbón Mineral , Humanos , Gas Natural , Texas
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13107-13118, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083611

RESUMEN

Industrial activities release aerosols containing toxic metals into the atmosphere, where they are transported far from their sources, impacting ecosystems and human health. Concomitantly, long-range-transported mineral dust aerosols play a role in Earth's radiative balance and supply micronutrients to iron-limited ecosystems. To evaluate the sources of dust and pollutant aerosols to Alaska following the 2001 phase-out of leaded gasoline in China, we measured Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of particles collected in 2016 from snow pits across an elevational transect (2180-5240 m-a.s.l) in Denali National Park, USA. We also determined Pb flux and enrichment from 1991-2011 in the Denali ice core (3870 m-a.s.l). Chinese coal-burning and non-ferrous metal smelting account for up to 64% of Pb deposition at our sites, a value consistent across the western Arctic. Pb isotope ratios in the aerosols did not change between 2001 and 2016, despite the ban on lead additives. Emissions estimates demonstrate that industrial activities have more than compensated for the phase-out of leaded gasoline, with China emitting ∼37,000 metric tons year-1 of Pb during 2013-2015, approximately 78% of the Pb from East Asia. The Pb flux to Alaska now equals that measured in southern Greenland during peak pollution from North America.


Asunto(s)
Polvo , Contaminantes Ambientales , Aerosoles/análisis , China , Carbón Mineral , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gasolina , Humanos , Hierro , Isótopos , Plomo , Micronutrientes
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