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1.
Food Chem ; 376: 131835, 2022 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980530

RESUMEN

To reduce matrix interference and realize simultaneous detection of multiple homologous compounds (trimethoprim (TMP), diaveridine (DVD), ormetoprim (OMP), baquiloprim (BQP), and aditoprim (ADP) in pig, cattle, chicken, and fish muscles), an immunomagnetic bead (IMB)-based sample purification pretreatment with HPLC-UV was developed. A broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (mAb, named 14C6) was prepared and conjugated with carboxylic-acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles using the active ester method to obtain IMBs for sample purification. The extraction solvent was optimized based on the extraction efficiency. Good linearity was observed for all the five analytes (10-200 µg/kg) with the LOD and LOQ of 5 and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 62.5% to 76.9%, while the coefficient of variation was <12.2%. The IMB method afforded greater sample purification and enrichment than those achieved with the SPE column-based conventional method. Hence, the IMB-based sample purification is a useful tool to determine 2,4-diaminopyrimidine residues in edible animal tissues.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Carne/análisis , Pirimidinas/análisis , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Animales , Bovinos , Pollos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Peces , Porcinos
2.
Se Pu ; 40(1): 48-56, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985215

RESUMEN

An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was established for the rapid screening and identification of 62 kinds of illegally added traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in food. According to the notice of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China on further regulating the management of raw materials of health food (Weifa Jianfa (2002) No. 51), the characteristic components of the 62 kinds of TCM were screened, and the corresponding characteristic component lists of different TCM were obtained. Methanolic extracts of the 62 kinds of standard medicinal materials were subjected to HPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. The filtrate was separated on a Thermo Accucore aQ column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) using 0.1%(v/v) formic acid aqueous solution or water and acetonitrile as the mobile phases for gradient elution in the electrospray positive and negative ion scanning mode. All the data were determined on the full scan of primary mass spectrometry and secondary mass spectrometry, with mass acquisition ranges of 100-1000 Da and 50-1000 Da, respectively. A 10 mmol/L sodium formate solution was used as the mass correction solution in both the positive and negative ion modes. Library View software was used to establish the precursor ion accurate quality database and the product ion fragment mass spectrometry database of the corresponding characteristic components of the different kinds of TCM. In the Library View database software, the name of each characteristic component of the 62 kinds of TCM was input (serial number) in order to classify the screened characteristic components. The samples were processed using the same method and analyzed. Peak View software was used to rapidly analyze and screen the target components of the TCM. The high-resolution data collected from the samples to be tested were imported into the Peak View software, followed by the compound list of the established MS database of standard medicinal materials. After setting the identification method parameters and library retrieval parameters, a matching analysis was performed, and the candidate substances for each peak were automatically identified by comparing the mass spectrum, accurate molecular ion mass number, fragment ion mass number, retention time, and other related parameters. The determination conditions of compound detection were as follows: the comprehensive score was more than 70 points. The molecular formula, retention time, mass spectrum as well as the primary isotope mass spectrometry, primary mass spectrometry, and secondary mass spectrometry data were matched with the library compounds. The corresponding list of "TCM-characteristic components" was established, and a high-resolution MS library of 388 characteristic components from the 62 types of TCM was constructed. Each TCM contains 5-10 characteristic components. According to the screening analysis of the actual food samples of the prepared wine, substitute tea, and beverage, one batch of the prepared wine sample matched with seven characteristic components of epimedium, and it was inferred that epimedium was added to the prepared wine samples. This method can allow for the qualitative screening of TCM without standards and has the characteristics of high throughput, accuracy, simplicity, and rapidity. It solves the difficulty in identifying and confirming illegally added TCM in food; provides technical methods and a basis for cracking down on the illegal addition of TCM in food; and facilitates the rapid screening and identification of illegally added TCM in food.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Medicina China Tradicional , Bebidas , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas
3.
Food Chem ; 376: 131938, 2022 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992047

RESUMEN

Twenty-two brown rice varieties available in the Qatari market were analyzed for essential and toxic elements by ICP-MS. Found concentrations (µg/kg) were: As: 171 ± 78 (62-343), Cd: 42 ± 60 (4-253), Cr: 515 ± 69 (401-639), Pb: 6 ± 7 ( 1 in million, may possibly be > 1 in 10,000 based on conservatively high brown rice consumption rates of 200 g/d or 400 g/d in Qatar. These elevated risks may be applicable to specific population subgroups with diabetic conditions who consume only brown rice. Non-cancer risks are mainly derived from Mn, V, Se, and Cd with a hazard index > 1 from some brown rice samples.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Oryza , Arsénico/análisis , Arsénico/toxicidad , Carcinógenos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Qatar , Medición de Riesgo
4.
Environ Int ; 158: 106996, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991256

RESUMEN

A multi-specimen, multi-mycotoxin approach involving ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis of breast milk, complementary food and urine was applied to examine mycotoxin co-exposure in 65 infants, aged 1-18 months, in Ogun state, Nigeria. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in breast milk (4/22 (18%)), while six other classes of mycotoxins were quantified; including dihydrocitrinone (6/22 (27%); range: 14.0-59.7 ng/L) and sterigmatocystin (1/22 (5%); 1.2 ng/L) detected for the first time. Seven distinct classes of mycotoxins including aflatoxins (9/42 (21%); range: 1.0-16.2 µg/kg) and fumonisins (12/42 (29%); range: 7.9-194 µg/kg) contaminated complementary food. Mycotoxins covering seven distinct classes with diverse structures and modes of action were detected in 64/65 (99%) of the urine samples, demonstrating ubiquitous exposure. Two aflatoxin metabolites (AFM1 and AFQ1) and FB1 were detected in 6/65 (9%), 44/65 (68%) and 17/65 (26%) of urine samples, respectively. Mixtures of mycotoxin classes were common, including 22/22 (100%), 14/42 (33%) and 56/65 (86%) samples having 2-6, 2-4, or 2-6 mycotoxins present, for breast milk, complementary food and urine, respectively. Aflatoxin and/or fumonisin was detected in 4/22 (18%), 12/42 (29%) and 46/65 (71%) for breast milk, complimentary foods and urine, respectively. Furthermore, the detection frequency, median concentrations and occurrence of mixtures were typically greater in urine of non-exclusively breastfed compared to exclusively breastfed infants. The study provides novel insights into mycotoxin co-exposures in early-life. Albeit a small sample set, it highlights transition to higher levels of infant mycotoxin exposure as complementary foods are introduced, providing impetus to mitigate during this critical early-life period and encourage breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Citrinina , Micotoxinas , Monitoreo Biológico , Biomarcadores , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Lactante , Leche Humana/química , Nigeria , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
5.
Environ Int ; 158: 107018, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991270

RESUMEN

In 2011, phthalates, mainly di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were found to have been added to a variety of foods in Taiwan, increasing the risk of microalbuminuria in children. Exposure to melamine perhaps modifies that risk. This prospective cohort study investigates whether renal injury resulting from exposure to DEHP-tainted foods from the 2011 Taiwan Food Scandal is reversed over time. The temporal and interactive effects of past daily DEHP intake, current daily DEHP intake, and urinary melamine levels on oxidative stress and renal injury were also examined. Two hundred possibly DEHP-affected children (aged < 18 years) were enrolled in the first survey wave (August 2012-January 2013), with 170 and 159 children in the second (July 2014-February 2015) and third waves (May 2016-October 2016), respectively. The first wave comprised questionnaires that were used to collect information about possible past daily DEHP intake from DEHP-tainted foods. One-spot first morning urine samples were collected to measure melamine levels, phthalate metabolites, and markers indicating oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine), and renal injury (albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase) in all three waves. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling revealed that both past daily DEHP intake and time might affect urinary ACR. However, most interactions were negative and significant correlation was observed only during the second wave (P for interaction = 0.014) in the group with the highest past daily DEHP intake (>50 µg/kg/day). Urinary melamine levels were found to correlate significantly with both urinary ACR and oxidative stress markers. The highest impact associated with exposure to DEHP-tainted foods in increasing urinary ACR of children was observed during the first wave, and the effect may partially diminish over time. These results suggest that continuous monitoring of renal health and other long-term health consequences is required in individuals who were affected by the scandal in 2011.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Niño , Dietilhexil Ftalato/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Contaminación de Alimentos , Humanos , Riñón/química , Estrés Oxidativo , Estudios Prospectivos , Taiwán , Triazinas
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 83, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015153

RESUMEN

This research was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Ni) in the sediments as well as the gill and muscle tissue of Siganus javus and two species of algae (Padina australis and Sargassum vulgare) collected from the Persian Gulf coasts of Bushehr province, which were studied using standard laboratory methods. The general form and trend of metal uptake at different stations in the gill and muscle tissue was Cu > Ni > Pb. The results of the study of metal uptake in both algae showed that the uptake of all three metals was higher in Padina species (Pb ˂ Cu ˂ Ni). The estimated daily intake (EDI), estimated weekly intake (EWI), allowable fish consumption rate limit (CRlim), and the target hazard quotients (THQ) for the consumption of this fish were also calculated. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in the edible parts of the fish did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by the WHO, MAFF, JECFA, and NHMRC for human consumption, but the Ni concentration was higher than standard. The consumer risk indexes for non-cancerous diseases due to all metals were lower than standard. Also, the total risk index (HI) in this study was 0.065.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Océano Índico , Irán , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2393: 417-436, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837191

RESUMEN

Aflatoxin food contamination with toxic and carcinogenic impacts on human health is a global concern. We have developed aptasensors for the detection of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and B1 (AFB1) using electrochemical and optical methods. In the first method, an electrochemical aptasensor was designed for the detection of AFM1 based on complementary strand of AFM1 aptamer that was attached onto the gold nanoparticles and a hairpin-shaped AFM1 aptamer. The designed electrochemical aptasensor showed high selectivity toward AFM1 with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.9 nM. Moreover, the developed aptasensor was successfully used to detect AFM1 in milk and serum with LODs of 1.8 and 1.2 nM, respectively. In the second method, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed based on the π-shape structure of AFB1 aptamer. The detection limit was found to be 2 pg/mL in buffer. Also, the developed aptasensor was used to analyze AFB1 spiked human serum and grape juice samples, and the recoveries were 95.4-108.1%. In another method, a fluorescent sensing scheme was developed for AFB1 detection based on a hairpin structure of G-quadruplex oligonucleotide-aptamer chimera, streptavidin-coated silica nanoparticles (SNP-streptavidin) and N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM). The LOD was reported as 8 pg/mL with a linear range of 30-900 pg/mL. Moreover, the developed sensor could detect AFB1 in serum and grape juice with the LOD of 9.8 and 11.2 pg/mL, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales/análisis , Leche/química , Vitis , Aflatoxina B1/análisis , Aflatoxina M1/análisis , Animales , Aptámeros de Nucleótidos , Técnicas Biosensibles , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Oro , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Nanopartículas del Metal , Suero/química , Estreptavidina
8.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118683, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921940

RESUMEN

To improve the accuracy of dietary risk assessment of arsenic (As) from aquatic products, toxic As species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid [MMA], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]) and total As were analyzed in 124 marketed aquatic products from eight coastal cities in China. Distribution characteristics of Toxic As (the sum of the four toxic As species) in the samples and associated risk of human dietary exposure were emphatically investigated. The impact of cooccurrence of As and other chemical elements in the aquatic products was assessed based on our former results of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se). Toxic As contents (maximum value 0.358 mg kg-1 wet weight) in the samples accounted for at most 14.1% of total As. DMA was the major component (mean proportion 50.8% for shellfish, 100% for fish) of Toxic As in aquatic products. Shellfish contained more Toxic As than fish did. Mean estimated daily intakes of Toxic As for the residents with aquatic product consumption rates of 46.1-235 g day-1 ranged from 0.034 to 0.290 µg kg-1 day-1. Potential health risk was indicated among those who greatly consumed aquatic products, as their target hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TR) values exceeded safety thresholds (1 for THQ, 10-4 for TR). DMA and MMA exposure contributed to 3.42-7.72% of the THQToxic As. Positive correlations between concentrations of As and Hg (Fish: r = 0.47, p < 0.01; Shellfish: r = 0.60, p < 0.01), as well as between that of As and Se (Fish: r = 0.69, p < 0.01; Shellfish: r = 0.37, p < 0.01) were found in the samples. It requires attentions urgently that As and Hg coexposure through aquatic product consumption rose the sum THQ of Toxic As and methylmercury (MeHg) to approximately two to eight times as high as the THQToxic As.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Mercurio , Selenio , Animales , Arsénico/análisis , Arsénico/toxicidad , China , Ciudades , Exposición Dietética , Peces , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Mercurio/toxicidad , Selenio/análisis , Selenio/toxicidad
9.
Food Chem ; 374: 131676, 2022 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896950

RESUMEN

Pesticide residues can be found in foods of plant origin which can cause adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of exposure to pesticide residues (180) from foods (478 samples of 49 food items) of plant origin collected in Beirut, Lebanon. Pesticides were extracted by QuEChERS method and analyzed through liquid and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 387 samples, 58 (32.2%) residues were detected. Over 50 % of the positive samples for 14 residues were exceeding the Maximum Residue Limits of European Union. All of the hazard quotient (HQ) values were less than 1 with respect to all age groups except for the pesticide residue chlorpyrifos in cucumber (1.7945). This suggests that the majority of foods examined for the pesticide residues can be considered safe for consumption by Lebanese children, although Chlorpyrifos in cucumber was of concern.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Plaguicidas , Niño , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Líbano , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
10.
Food Chem ; 374: 131777, 2022 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906802

RESUMEN

Biodegradable materials are increasingly being used in manufacturing processes due to their environmental benefits. In this work, a study has been performed to assess the migration of compounds from biodegradable multilayer teacups to a tea solution. Liquid chromatography in conjunction with ion-mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been used for the elucidation of non-volatile compounds. An orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis has been carried out to compare the tea after migration against untreated tea used as blank. Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been optimised to analyse the migration of volatile compounds. Eight migrants were identified in the tea, six of which were non-intentionally added oligomers. The degree of migration for hot tea ranged from 0.05 and 4.68 mg/kg, exceeding the specific migration limit. Nevertheless, the migration to cold tea was an order of magnitude lower (between 0.003 and 0.56 mg/kg).


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Cromatografía Liquida , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Microextracción en Fase Sólida
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1662: 462732, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910963

RESUMEN

The analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in vegetable oils is challenging especially regarding the analysis of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) since native terpenes like squalene or ß-carotene are usually extracted along with the MOAH fraction and interfere their detection. When applying a recently developed screening method for the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and MOAH in paper and cardboard by planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) to vegetable oils, native terpenes expectably interfered with MOAH analysis. Thus, an adaption of pSPE employing silver ions, named silver ion-planar solid phase extraction (Ag-pSPE), was developed in this study. Impregnation of thin-layers with silver nitrate (AgNO3) was found to be very successful in retaining squalene and ß-carotene. MOAH analysis of vegetable oils after saponification showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation (%RSD) <10%) and recoveries of 73.4-112.4% at a spiking level of 4.5 mg/kg (n = 4). For MOSH analysis, a simple solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up with aluminum oxide removed native n-alkanes prior to Ag-pSPE. Recoveries for MOSH were 55.3-84.5% with %RSD <11% at a spiking level of 45.5 mg/kg (n = 4). Limits of decision and quantitation were at 7.2 and 22.2 ng/zone for MOSH and 1.1 and 3.4 ng/zone for MOAH, respectively, which corresponded to the recently introduced pSPE method, thus showing that analytes were not affected by the impregnation of HPTLC plates with AgNO3. The method comparison with LC-GC showed similar results for MOSH, while the amounts for MOAH determined by Ag-pSPE were higher.


Asunto(s)
Aceite Mineral , Aceites Vegetales , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Iones , Aceite Mineral/análisis , Extracción en Fase Sólida
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 774-781, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216492

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Honey is a naturally sweet syrup made by honeybees from floral nectar. However, high-fructose corn syrup has been prevalently used for the adulteration of honey. A novel molecular method was developed for the characterization of corn syrup-adulterated honey by specific amplification and quantification of maize residual DNA in honey. An ultra-rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (UR-qPCR) system for rapid amplification and protocol for direct purification of residual DNA from honey were described. RESULTS: Rapidity of maize DNA amplification was acquired within 20 min for a limit of detection of around three copies of targeted DNAs. The amplification of maize residual DNA in honeys adulterated with corn syrup from 5% to 80% (v/v) showed that a minimum rate of 10% adulteration can be identified, and Maize genomic DNA in 5 mL of adulterated honeys was from 13 ± 9 copies to 2478 ± 827 copies, respectively. However, the residual DNA of maize was also detected in natural honey produced in the region where pollen and nectar of maize were collected, and the quantity of maize genomic DNA in these natural honeys was in the range of 10% adulteration with corn syrup. Therefore, detection of both pollen and residual DNA of maize in honey is important in identifying the source of maize residual DNA present in honey. CONCLUSION: A rapid PCR assay was first developed for the accurate detection and quantification of maize residual DNA in honey. It is a useful tool for specific identification of the corn syrup used for honey adulteration. Further studies on residual DNA in various types of corn syrup and specificity of primer are recommended. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
ADN de Plantas/genética , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Miel/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Zea mays/química , Animales , Abejas , Zea mays/genética
13.
Food Chem ; 370: 130966, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624693

RESUMEN

A rapid and solvent-saving method, based on microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) followed by epoxidation and on-line liquid chromatography (LC) - gas chromatography (GC) - flame ionization detection (FID), was optimized and validated for high-sensitivity MOAH determination in extra virgin olive oils. Quantitative recoveries and good repeatability were obtained even at concentrations of added mineral oils close to the LOQ (0.5 mg/kg for the total hump, 0.2 mg/kg for each single C-fraction). The validated method, also applied for MOSH determination (C-fraction LOQ: 0.5 mg/kg), was used to analyse 18 extra virgin olive oils from the Italian market or oil mills, and 10 additional samples extracted in the laboratory (with an Abencor apparatus) from hand-picked olives. The former resulted contaminated with variable amounts of MOSH and MOAH (on average 19.0 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively), while the latter showed no detectable MOAH, and low and rather constant MOSH (generally below 2.0 mg/kg).


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Aromáticos , Aceite Mineral , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Aromáticos/análisis , Microondas , Aceite Mineral/análisis , Aceite de Oliva
14.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118388, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699922

RESUMEN

Seafood is well recognized as a major source of Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC n-3 PUFA, especially ecosapentaenoic acid, i.e. EPA and docosaheaxaenoic acid, i.e. DHA) and essential trace elements (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn). It is also a source of non-essential trace elements (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) that can be deleterious for health even at low concentrations. Edible parts of sixteen species (fish, cephalopods, crustaceans and bivalves) of great importance in the Pertuis Charentais region, one of the main shellfish farming and fishing areas along the french coastline, were sampled in winter and analyzed to determine their fatty acid (FA) composition and trace element concentrations. Based on these analyses, a suite of indices was calculated to estimate risk and benefit of seafood consumption: the n-6/n-3 ratio, the atherogenic index, the thrombogenic index, the EPA + DHA daily recommended portion, as well as the maximum safe consumption. The results showed that fish contributed the most to LC n-3 PUFA supply, while bivalves and crustaceans were more beneficial in essential trace elements. Whatever the species, the concentrations of non-essential elements were not limiting for seafood consumption, as important amounts of the analyzed species can be eaten daily or weekly before becoming hazardous to consumers. Yet, concentrations of Hg in dogfish and seabass can become a concern for frequent seafood consumers (>three meals a week), confirming that varying seafood items is a key point for consumers to optimize the benefits of diverse seafood resources. Considering FA composition, whiting and pilchard are the most beneficial fish species for human diet, while surmullet was the least beneficial one. However, using an index integrating the relative risk due to Hg content, the surmullet appears as one of the most beneficial. This study provides a temporal shot of the quality of marine resources consumed in winter period in the studied area and highlights the complexity of a quantitative risk and benefit assessment with respect to the biochemical attributes of selected seafood.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Oligoelementos , Animales , Peces , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Mariscos , Oligoelementos/análisis
15.
Food Chem ; 370: 130972, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788944

RESUMEN

This study investigated seven pesticides in vegetables produced in rural South-western Uganda to determine their suitability for human consumption. Pesticide residue concentrations (ppm) were determined using QuEChERS method, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS and UV-Vis. Cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl, profenofos, malathion, dichlorvos and mancozeb concentrations detected in sprayed samples ranged between 0.00403 and 0.05350, 0.17478-62.60874, 0.12890-3.55681, 0.00107-0.59722, 0.03144-0.63328, 0.00240-0.34102 and 0.00001-0.00244, respectively. The residues exceeded MRLs in sprayed samples (59.52%), unsprayed samples (18%) and market samples (8%). The quality index of the market vegetables was found to be optimal (14.29%), good (75%), adequate (3.57%) and inadequate (14.29%). Pesticide residues may lower food quality and pose risk to human health. Therefore, regulation and monitoring pesticide residues in vegetables produced in south-western Uganda in order to avoid harmful effects on human health would be paramount.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Plaguicidas , Cromatografía Liquida , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Uganda , Verduras
16.
Food Chem ; 370: 131373, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788966

RESUMEN

Sesame oil is a traditional and delicious edible oil in China and Southeast Asia with a high price. However, sesame oil essence was often illegally added to cheaper edible oils to counterfeit sesame oil. In this study, a rapid and accurate headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) method was proposed to detect the counterfeit sesame oil where the other cheap oils were adulterated with essence. Combined with chemometric methods including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and random forest (RF), authentic and counterfeit sesame oils adulterated with sesame essence (0.5%, w/w) were easily separated into two groups. More importantly, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-furfurylthiol, methylpyrazine, methional, and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were found to be markers of sesame essence, which were used to directly identify the sesame essence. The determination of volatile compounds based on HS-GC-IMS was proven to be an effective method for adulteration detection of essence in sesame oil.


Asunto(s)
Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Aceite de Sésamo , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Aceites Vegetales , Aceite de Sésamo/análisis
17.
Food Chem ; 371: 131179, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808762

RESUMEN

The challenge of the present comprehensive work was to study, from apple orchards to consumer's plate, the influence of high- and low-temperature thermal treatments on the most frequently occurring fungicides (boscalid, captan, pyraclostrobin) and insecticides (acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide) in apples and processing factor (PF) application for more realistic dietary risk assessment in the new EFSA methodology. Dry pasteurization and canning combined with previous preliminary treatment gave PFs = 0.25-1.8 of the five active substances. Acute exposure (expressed as %ARfD) in the raw commodity was demonstrated to be 168.1% for acetamiprid in the worst case (input - highest residue) and 307.9% for boscalid in the most critical case (input - MRL), and after re-calculation for PF, decreased to 139.5% for acetamiprid in canned product and 203.2% for boscalid in pasteurized apples. These novel data may be helpful in estimating new threshold residue levels significant in food safety especially intended for children.


Asunto(s)
Fungicidas Industriales , Insecticidas , Malus , Residuos de Plaguicidas , Niño , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriales/análisis , Humanos , Insecticidas/análisis , Pasteurización , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131921, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426293

RESUMEN

The volume of occurrence data on food and animal feed contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) is slowly increasing as more laboratories develop analytical capability. This data allows an evaluation of current background levels in different countries and regions and is also useful for estimating the health risk through dietary exposure and as evidence for the formulation of future control strategies. Existing data varies in the number of analytes reported and the quality measures applied. In order to ensure reliability and comparability, guidance on analytical criteria such as precision and trueness, limits of quantitation, recovery, positive identification, etc. is provided. These parameters are based on several years of collective experience and allow validation and regular quality control of analysis of individual PBDE congeners and HBCDD stereoisomers. The criteria-based approach also allows laboratories the flexibility to use different analytical methodologies and techniques for generating data. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated by a successful proficiency testing scheme that has been used for a number of years and has attracted an increasing number of participants. The majority of participating laboratories (>80%) have been able to demonstrate performance within the 95% confidence interval (│z-score│≤ 2) and a further 10% of laboratories demonstrated performance with a z-score of (2 <│z-score│< 3). The combined support of these guidance criteria backed by successful proficiency testing will ensure the reliability and comparability of results, in particular, to refine risk assessments and to help the formulation of regulatory policy.


Asunto(s)
Retardadores de Llama , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Alimentos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
19.
Food Chem ; 369: 130894, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455322

RESUMEN

Fast and convenient matrix purification is an important prerequisite for high-throughput analysis of drug multiresidues in food. In this study, a silanized melamine sponge was prepared and first applied in the rapid determination of multiclass veterinary drugs in eggs by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Within five seconds, fast, convenient and efficient matrix separation could be achieved through simple soaking and squeezing. Compared to other matrix adsorbents, the developed material demonstrated equivalent or better purification performance. Good validation results were obtained in terms of drug recoveries (61.5%~97.0%, relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 10.8%), and linearities (R2 ≥ 0.999), as well as low limits of quantitation (0.3 ~ 10.9 µg·kg-1) and detection (0.1 ~ 3.8 µg·kg-1). By analyzing 52 egg samples, high concentrations of ofloxacin, trimethoprim, metronidazole, and dimetridazole were found at 542.9, 121.2, 66.1 and 58.0 µg·kg-1, respectively. The silanized melamine sponge has shown its great potential for rapid analysis of multiclass residues in food safety.


Asunto(s)
Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Drogas Veterinarias , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Cromatografía Liquida , Huevos/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Triazinas
20.
Food Chem ; 368: 130765, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474243

RESUMEN

In this research, more than 302,000 images of five different types of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) have been collected to train and validate a system based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to carry out their classification. Furthermore, comparable deep learning models have also been trained to detect and quantify the adulteration of these EVOOs with other vegetable oils. In this work, three groups of CNN models have been tested for (i) the classification of all EVOOs, (ii) the detection and quantification of adulterated samples for each individual EVOO, and (iii) a global version of the previous models combining all EVOOs into a single quantifying CNN. This last model was successfully validated using 30,195 images that were initially isolated from the initial database. The result was an algorithm capable of detecting and accurately classifying the five types of EVOO and their respective adulteration concentrations with an overall hit rate of >96%. Therefore, EVOO droplet analyses via CNNs have proven to be a convincing quality control tool for the evaluation of EVOO, which can be carried by producers, distributors, or even final consumers, to help locate adulterations.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Aceites Vegetales , Contaminación de Medicamentos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Aceite de Oliva/análisis
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