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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256502, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570789

RESUMEN

Human settlement environment is space places closely related to human production and life, and also surface spaces inseparable from human activities. As a coastal city in the east of China, Qingdao has a relatively high level of urbanization. However, it also along with many urban problems at the same time, among which the problem of human settlement environment has attracted more and more general attention from people. According to the characteristics of human settlement environment in Qingdao, the research constructs an index system with 10 index factors from natural factors and humanity factors, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation model. Evaluate and grade suitability of human settlement environment in Qingdao, explore the spatial aggregation and differentiation of the quality of human settlement environment, and reveal the internal connection of spatial evolution. The results indicate that the overall livability of Qingdao is relatively good, showing a multi-center and radial driving development. The distribution of livability is uneven, showing a decreasing spatial distribution law from the coast to the inland, and the quality of human settlement environment in Jiaozhou Bay and the coastal areas is relatively high. Qingdao is mainly based on natural livability, supplemented by humanity livability, compared with natural suitability, the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of humanity livability have experienced three stages: rising-contradictory rising-harmonious rising. The quality of human settlement environment has obvious spatial correlation and is positively correlated with the degree of agglomeration, and the agglomeration of blocks with a higher quality of human settlement environment is higher than that of blocks with a lower level. The rule of human settlement environment changing over time is that areas with high quality of human settlement environment begin to shift from the city center to the north and the south, transforming into multi-point development, and overall environmental suitability has been improved. According to the results of the comprehensive evaluation, combined with its local development status and policies, the research puts forward developmental suggestions for the construction of human settlement environment in Qingdao, and provides decision-making basis for relevant departments to solve the problem of deterioration of human settlement environment.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Urbanización/tendencias , China , Ciudades , Humanidades , Humanos
2.
Heliyon ; 7(4): e06916, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095560

RESUMEN

Current U.S. environmental management paradigms default to enforcement mechanisms that feed into the prison industrial complex, such as fines and jailing. To avoid contributing to and reinforcing mass incarceration and militarism, environmental management systems need to be transformed towards non-carceral forms. Additionally, working towards Indigenous sovereignty and decolonization, requires the strengthening of Indigenous relations with and governance over the land under the respective paradigms of Indigenous communities. This paper uses Hawai'i state fisheries law and programmatic efforts to address a central question: What is the extent and nature of carceral norms within conventional environmental management systems and how do they affect management outcomes? The study examines the current fisheries enforcement scheme in Hawai'i, tracing the embedded logic of carcerality, the degree to which ultimate sources of harm are addressed, and the concentration of governing powers. The results highlight how current fisheries enforcement is insufficient in caring for the seascape and, through its carceral approach, contributes to social injustices, particularly for Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians). Additionally, this paper demonstrates how current efforts in Hawai'i - Community-Based Subsistence Fisheries Areas (CBSFAs), the 'Aha Moku system, and the Makai Watch Program - attempt to empower communities, but ultimately keep enforcement powers centralized within the State, thus perpetuating dependency on the criminal justice system. This study ends with a discussion on how future decarceral environmental governance systems could be designed to center Hawaiian relations & paradigms, particularly by prioritizing the values of re-education, rematriation, and restoration.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764413

RESUMEN

In recent years, urbanization has been developing rapidly. However, it is also accompanied by land management problems, such as low land use efficiency. In this research, we manage to explore the temporal and spatial evolution laws as well as characteristics of the coupling and coordinated development between urbanization and land use benefits. Through this, it is possible for us to provide policy recommendations for the sustainable development of the urbanization in Fujian Province. In this study, we take prefecture-level municipal districts and county-level cities in Fujian as the research subject. We construct an index system, based on data in 2002, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2017, to evaluate the urban land use benefits and urbanization. Besides, we leverage the Gini coefficient weighting method to give weight to each index and calculate the value of its benefits. Moreover, it is the relative development degree and the coupling coordination degree model that we comprehensively leverage to study the spatiotemporal evolution law of the coupling coordination degree (CCD). The results show that: (1) Urban land use benefits and urbanization level are positively correlated with the regional administrative level and economic development status; (2) The CCD of urban land use benefits and urbanization level in various regions of Fujian is still low. However, the overall development direction is good; (3) From the perspective of spatial distribution, the CCD owns a "center-periphery" pattern that is based on the law of diminishing CCD power from three central cities of Fuzhou, Xiamen, and Sanming. Consequently, it requires governments to take action. Firstly, they should promote the intensive land use in the urbanization process. Meanwhile, they should also pay attention to ecological environment protection. Besides, it is recommendable to give full play to the radiating and leading effect of central cities on surrounding ones. Finally, they are required to provide appropriate policies and resource support to peripheral cities.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Urbanización , China , Ciudades , Desarrollo Económico
5.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 196, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509710

RESUMEN

Background: Environmental issues lead to serious health problems in young growing children. This study aims to determine the association between a country's level of environmental health, ecosystem vitality, and prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This was an ecological study. The data for the explanatory variables-country-level environmental performance index (EPI), environmental health, and ecosystem vitality-were obtained from the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy. The outcome variables were country-level prevalence of ECC in 0- to 2-year-old and 3- to 5-year-old children. The country EPI, environmental health, and ecosystem vitality were matched with country ECC prevalence for 0- to 2-year-olds and 3- to 5-year-olds for the period of 2007 to 2017. Differences in the variables by country income level were determined using ANOVA. Multivariate ANOVA was used to determine the association between ECC prevalence in 0- to 2-year-olds and 3- to 5-year-olds, and EPI, environmental health, and ecosystem vitality, adjusting for each country's per-capita gross national income. Results: Thirty-seven countries had complete data on ECC in 0- to 2-year-old and 3- to 5-year-old children, EPI, environmental health, and ecosystem vitality scores. There were significant differences in ECC prevalence of 0- to 2-year-olds and 3- to 5-year-olds between countries with different income levels. Also, there were significant differences in EPI (P < 0.0001), environmental health score (P < 0.0001), and ecosystem vitality (P = 0.01) score by country income levels. High-income countries had significantly higher EPI scores than did low-income countries (P = 0.001), lower-middle-income countries (P < 0.0001), and upper-middle-income countries (P < 0.0001). There was an inverse non-significant relationship between ECC prevalence and EPI in 0- to 2-year-olds (B = -0.06; P = 0.84) and 3- to 5-year-olds (B = -0.30; P = 0.50), and ecosystem vitality in 0- to 2-year-olds (B = -0.55, P = 0.08) and 3- to 5-year-olds (B = -0.96; P = 0.02). Environmental health was directly and non-significantly associated with ECC in 0- to 2-year-olds (B = 0.20; P = 0.23) and 3- to 5-year-olds (B = 0.22; P = 0.32). Conclusions: There was a complex relationship between various indicators of environmental performance and ECC prevalence. The association with EPI and ecosystem vitality was inverse whereas the association with environmental health was direct. Only the inverse association with ecosystem vitality in 3-5 year old children was significant. There may be higher risk of ECC with greater economic development, industrialization, and urbanization, while better ecosystem vitality may offer protection against ECC through the rational use of resources, healthy life choices, and preventive health practices.

6.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 20(1): 13, 2020 05 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human-rights violation with adverse long-term and inter-generational consequences. Redefining VAWG as legally unacceptable is one strategy for social change. The co-occurrence of national laws against VAWG is understudied, and tools to monitor the national legal environment are lacking. We developed the Laws on Violence against Women and Girls Index (LoVI) to measure global progress to develop comprehensive national legislation against child marriage, sexual harassment, domestic violence, and marital rape. METHODS: Using data from 2016 and 2018 for 189 countries from the World Bank Women, Business, and the Law database, we used factor analysis to assess the dimensionality of the LoVI. We examined the distribution of the LoVI across countries and regions, and the relationship of national rankings on the LoVI with those for other indicators from the United Nations, Demographic and Health Surveys, and World Factbook. RESULTS: A single LoVI factor showed good model fit in the factor analysis. National LoVI rankings were positively associated with gender equality in human development and economic rights-related rankings and negatively associated with rates of justifying wife beating and of lifetime and prior-year physical and/or sexual IPV. The LoVI was not associated with national indicators for human development and income inequality. CONCLUSION: The LoVI is a concise, coherent, validated index to monitor the progress of nations on adopting comprehensive legislation to advance 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 5, to eliminate VAWG.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Equidad de Género , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violación , Adolescente , Adulto , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Matrimonio , Violación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violación/prevención & control , Factores Socioeconómicos , Naciones Unidas , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326327

RESUMEN

The article analyzes how approaches to "Living Well" as reflected in the Constitution of the State of Bolivia, the Law of the Rights of Mother Earth, and the American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of the Organization of American States (OAS) contribute to understanding the Andean cosmovision of indigenous peoples of the American continent. To do so, it first studied the most immediate precedents that led to incorporation of the notion of Living Well into Bolivian law. Second, it approached the right to development from the American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which has as its source the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The paper thus proposes reflections on the Bolivian State and the American Declaration that advance understanding of Living Well, a notion comparable in the West to the right to development (political, social, economic, environmental, and cultural) that enables the individual and collective realization of the individual. Fullness, understood in terms of well-being, is related to the protection of health and of the environment. Finally, the paper employs a qualitative methodology with a well-documented hermeneutic focus, as well as the tool of a semi-structured interview with a Bolivian scholar familiar on the topic.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Derechos Humanos , Pueblos Indígenas , Bolivia , Humanos , Naciones Unidas
8.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 20(1): 8, 2020 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: All around the world, the paralegal program prepares members of marginalized communities to face the legal system. Having a common background with their clients and being capable of conducting flexible work, paralegals' role moves beyond enlarging the beneficiaries of legal aid to addressing intersectional issues around health-related rights. This study assesses the health and other impacts of paralegals recruited by Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Masyarakat (LBHM), a human rights organization which provides legal assistance and operates in Jakarta, Indonesia. The positive results these paralegals can bring in the specific context can contribute to the development of community-based paralegals elsewhere. METHODS: This mixed methods research was carried out in 2016-2018. In 2016, a quantitative survey was administered to LBHM-trained paralegals and a sub-set of paralegals who completed the survey were then also interviewed. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, and, for the qualitative data, thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The paralegals make important contributions to health-related rights in four distinct ways. Firstly, most of the paralegals checked their clients' health in all stages of detention, especially regarding their drug dependency status and checking for signs of torture. Secondly, paralegals help clients to be more aware of their health-related rights, especially regarding their rights to obtain health services inside detention. Thirdly, paralegals can ensure that their clients obtain health services by taking medicines directly to the clients or encouraging the law enforcement agencies to refer the clients to health services. Lastly, in drug cases, paralegals help their clients to obtain alternative sentences besides imprisonment. CONCLUSIONS: These four contributions verify the positive impacts paralegals, recruited from marginalized communities, can deliver for community members facing criminal justice processes. The shifting role of paralegals from merely an intermediary between clients and lawyers to champions of the health-related rights of their clients can happen as a result of adequate training, support, and networks with other agents in criminal justice system.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derecho a la Salud , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Derecho Penal , Humanos , Indonesia , Cárceles Locales , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e031233, 2020 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184302

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to poor environmental conditions has been associated with deterioration of physical and mental health, and with reduction of cognitive performance. Environmental conditions may also influence cognitive development of children, but epidemiological evidence is scant. In developed countries, children spend 930 hours per year in a classroom, second only to time spent in their bedroom. Using continuous sensing technology, we investigate the relationship between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and cognitive performance of school-aged children. The proposed study will result in a better understanding of the effects of environmental characteristics on cognitive performance, thereby paving the way for experimental studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A study protocol is presented to reliably measure IEQ in schools. We will monitor the IEQ of 280 classrooms for 5 years, covering approximately 10 000 children. Each classroom in the sample is permanently equipped with a sensor measuring air quality (carbon dioxide and coarse particles), temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and noise levels, all at 1 min intervals. The location of sensing equipment within and across rooms has been validated by a pilot study. Academic performance of school-aged children is measured through standardised cognitive tests. In addition, a series of health indicators is collected (eg, school absence and demand for healthcare), together with an extensive set of sociodemographic characteristics (eg, parental income, education, occupational status). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Medical Ethical Approval for the current study was waived by the Medical Ethical Committee azM/UM (METC 2018-0681). In addition, data on student performance and health stems from an already existing data infrastructure that are granted with ethical approval by the Ethical Review Committee Inner City faculties (ERCIC_092_12_07_2018). Health data are obtained from the 'The Healthy Primary School of the Future' (HPSF) project. Medical Ethical Approval for HPSF was waived by the Medical Ethical Committee of Zuyderland, Heerlen (METC 14 N-142). The HPSF study protocol was registered in the database ClinicalTrials.gov on 14-06-2016 with reference number NCT02800616, this study is currently in the Results stage. Data collection from Gemeentelijke Gezondheidsdienst Zuid-Limburg (GGD-ZL) is executed by researchers of HPSF, this procedure has been fully approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Zuyderland. The questionnaires on level of comfort will be filled in anonymously by students and teachers. The study will follow the EU General Data Protection Regulation (EU GDPR) and Dutch data protection law to ensure protection of personal data, as well as maintain proper data management and anonymisation.The protocol discussed in this paper includes significant efforts focused on integrating results and making them available to both the scientific community and the wider public, including policy makers. The results will lead to multiple scientific articles that will be disseminated through peer-reviewed international journals, as well as through conference presentations. In addition, we will exploit ongoing collaboration with project stakeholders and project partners to disseminate information to the target audience. For example, the results will be presented to school boards in the Netherlands, through engagement with the Coalition for Green Schools, as well as to school boards in USA, through engagement with the Center for Green Schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02800616; Results.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Aprendizaje , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Niño , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Países Bajos , Proyectos Piloto , Proyectos de Investigación
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037311

RESUMEN

Ernest Everett Just is celebrated for his contributions to cell biology. Among other firsts, he was first to describe the "wave of negativity" spreading around an egg cell from the entrance point of the fertilizing spermatozoon. His accomplishments in biology are celebrated in Black Apollo of Science (1983) by Kenneth Manning, and by a 1996 Black Heritage postage stamp. What is not yet widely appreciated, however, is that Just connected evolutionary biology to ethical behavior (1933, 1939, 1940). He was probably the first cell biologist to argue that human ethical behavior evolved from our very most primitive cellular origins. Today, Just's contributions to evolutionary bioethics, including "the law of environmental dependence," can be better appreciated because his unpublished booklength manuscript, "The Origin of Man's Ethical Behavior" has been preserved at Howard University's Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Evolución Biológica , Biología Celular/historia , Biología Celular/educación , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Justicia Social/historia , Estados Unidos
11.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 68: 101535, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033699

RESUMEN

This article addresses whether autonomy is being adequately protected within therapeutic jurisprudence models. It first outlines the history and theory of therapeutic jurisprudence - noting that protection for autonomy has been theorised as a key component of therapeutic jurisprudence. It then examines therapeutic jurisprudence in light of critical disability theory and identifies that traditional therapeutic models, which often prioritises the decision-making of professionals, can undermine the autonomy of the individual. The article then describes the protection for autonomy provided by the right to legal capacity in Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. An analysis is undertaken of practical examples of where therapeutic jurisprudence falls short of the demands of Article 12. Finally, the article presents solutions for how therapeutic jurisprudence models could better protect autonomy via respect for the right to legal capacity in Article 12.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Personas con Discapacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Jurisprudencia , Competencia Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Autonomía Personal , Australia , Historia del Siglo XX , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Rol Judicial/historia , Teoría Social , Naciones Unidas
12.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(2): 163-166, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956014

RESUMEN

A recent UN general comment on criminal justice systems includes guidance to state parties regarding the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child for children with developmental delays or neurodevelopmental disorders or disabilities. This guidance asserts that these children "should not be in the child justice system at all", but when present "should be individually assessed" to enable appropriate safeguards and accommodations to ensure the protection of their rights without discrimination. In this Viewpoint, we examine the significant barriers faced by children who are affected by neurodevelopmental disabilities to the realisation of their rights under international law and standards. These barriers include systemic and cultural barriers created by a lack of awareness among justice professionals about how to identify and work with children who have neurodevelopmental disabilities, as well as procedural barriers, which arise from the complexity and rigidity of many criminal justice processes. The effect of these barriers is that the child is denied their rights on an equal basis with other children without such disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personas con Discapacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Delincuencia Juvenil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo , Naciones Unidas , Adolescente , Niño , Derecho Penal , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/clasificación , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/psicología , Justicia Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables
13.
Health Econ ; 29(3): 278-293, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860782

RESUMEN

To address exposure to secondhand smoke, which is highly prevalent in Korea, local governments have implemented smoking bans at open public places (parks, bus stops, and school zones) since 2011. Exploiting temporal and spatial variation in the implementation dates of these bans, this study estimates their causal effects on individual smoking behavior. The individual-level longitudinal data from the 2009-2017 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study are linked to the smoking ban legislation information from the National Law Information Center. I find robust evidence that outdoor smoking bans increased the probability of making a quit attempt by 16%. This effect appears immediately after a ban goes into effect and lasts for three or more years. People who spend more time outdoors are more likely to change smoking behavior. I also find heterogeneity in effects across the amount of monetary penalty. Whereas the policy change did not affect the prevalence of smoking overall, higher penalties had stronger impacts on reducing the intensity of smoking and increasing the propensity to try to quit.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
14.
Health Hum Rights ; 22(2): 271-283, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390712

RESUMEN

Claims of conscientious objection (CO) have expanded in the health care field, particularly in relation to abortion services. In practice, CO is being used in ways beyond those originally imagined by liberalism, creating a number of barriers to abortion access. In Argentina, current CO regulation is lacking and insufficient. This issue was especially evident in the country's 2018 legislative debate on abortion law reform, during which CO took center stage. This paper presents a mixed-method study conducted in Argentina on the uses of CO in health facilities providing legal abortion services, with the goal of proposing specific regulatory language to address CO based not only on legal standards but also on empirical findings regarding CO in everyday reproductive health services. The research includes a review of literature and comparative law, a survey answered by 269 health professionals, and 11 in-depth interviews with stakeholders. The results from our survey and interviews indicate that Argentine health professionals who use CO to deny abortion are motivated by a combination of political, social, and personal factors, including a fear of stigmatization and potential legal issues. Furthermore, we find that the preeminent consequences of CO are delays in abortion services and conflicts within the health care team. The findings of this research allowed us to propose specific regulatory recommendations on CO, including limits and obligations, and suggestions for government and health system leaders.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Legal , Negativa al Tratamiento , Argentina , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Conciencia , Femenino , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Embarazo
15.
J Law Med ; 28(1): 9-20, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415887

RESUMEN

The right to the highest attainable standard of health, existing under a number of international human rights instruments, including Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, has been incorporated in local law and in the constitutions of many countries. An important body of jurisprudence interpreting such rights and applying them in particular factual health scenarios is developing. Against the background of the South African Constitutional Court's 2002 landmark decision in Minister of Health v Treatment Action Campaign (No 2) (2002) 5 SA 721 in relation to access to HIV medications, this editorial reviews significant decisions in 2012 by Ngugi J of the Kenya High Court in PAO v Attorney General [2012] eKLR and by the Uganda Constitutional Court in 2020 in Center for Health, Human Rights and Development v Attorney General [2020] UGCC 12. It contends that this combination of high-profile judgments has breathed substance and significance into the right to the highest attainable standard of health, the entitlement to be treated with dignity and the right to life at a time when these rights may assume additional importance in the context of the availability and accessibility of vaccines for the COVID-19 virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Respeto , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Jurisprudencia , Estándares de Referencia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Law Health ; 34(1): 155-189, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449459

RESUMEN

On July 24, 2019, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed an act that included an amendment requiring Northern Ireland to implement recommendations from the Committee on the Elimination on Discrimination Against Women. The amendment required Northern Ireland to repeal the 1861 abortion act and requires the decriminalization of abortion. The law went into effect on October 22, 2019, since the Northern Ireland power-sharing government (Stormont) did not reconvene before October 21, 2019. Since the law did go into effect, it gave women the right to obtain abortions under the CEDAW recommendations; however, when the Northern Irish government (Stormont) reconvenes, it can recriminalize abortion. They made this attempt when Stormont under DUP leadership reconvened briefly on January 11, 2020 before the official Brexit the next day. This Note argues that abortion should be legal in Northern Ireland regardless of whether the new legislation from British Parliament ever went into effect or gets overturned by the Stormont legislature because of several treaties and domestic decisions from the Supreme Court in Belfast and the new regulations made in accordance with the amendment need to meet the standards of the CEDAW recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Regulación Gubernamental , Guías como Asunto , Cooperación Internacional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derecho Internacional , Gobierno Federal , Femenino , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Irlanda del Norte , Embarazo , Reino Unido , Naciones Unidas
17.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101497, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706399

RESUMEN

This article explores the current debate which exists within the United Nations human rights system regarding the right to liberty of persons with psychosocial disabilities. Article 14 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities states that the existence of a disability cannot be a justificatory ground for the involuntary detention of a person. In interpreting Article 14, the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has called for States Parties to repeal legislation which provides for detention based on the existence of a psychosocial disability, either solely or in combination with other factors such as a perceived dangerousness or need for treatment - essentially requiring the abolition of mental health laws. However, a number of other human rights bodies within the UN, including the Human Rights Committee, have continued to affirm the lawfulness of deprivations of liberty under mental health legislation in certain circumstances. This article will set out the current state of this discourse and conclude by making a determination on the governing legal interpretation of the right to liberty of persons with psychosocial disabilities under international law.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Naciones Unidas , Internamiento Obligatorio del Enfermo Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Toma de Decisiones , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Libertad , Derechos Humanos/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487789

RESUMEN

Policy action in the coming decade will be crucial to achieving globally agreed upon goals to decarbonize the economy and build resilience to a warmer, more extreme climate. Public health has an essential role in climate planning and action: "Co-benefits" to health help underpin greenhouse gas reduction strategies, while safeguarding health-particularly of the most vulnerable-is a frontline local adaptation goal. Using the structure of the core functions and essential services (CFES), we reviewed the literature documenting the evolution of public health's role in climate change action since the 2009 launch of the US CDC Climate and Health Program. We found that the public health response to climate change has been promising in the area of assessment (monitoring climate hazards, diagnosing health status, assessing vulnerability); mixed in the area of policy development (mobilizing partnerships, mitigation and adaptation activities); and relatively weak in assurance (communication, workforce development and evaluation). We suggest that the CFES model remains important, but is not aligned with three concepts-governance, implementation and adjustment-that have taken on increasing importance. Adding these concepts to the model can help ensure that public health fulfills its potential as a proactive partner fully integrated into climate policy planning and action in the coming decade.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Política Ambiental , Política de Salud , Salud Pública , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Planificación en Salud , Estados Unidos
19.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(1): 1626181, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533575

RESUMEN

This commentary is a response to Katarzyna Sekowska-Kozlowska's article on the treatment of criminal abortion laws as a form of sex discrimination under international human rights law through a study of the communications, Mellet v. Ireland and Whelan v. Ireland. The commentary offers a reading of these communications, and specifically the sex discrimination analysis premised on inequalities of treatment among women, as an engagement with the structural discrimination that characterises abortion laws, and as a radical vision for gender justice under international human rights law.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Derechos Humanos , Aborto Criminal , Femenino , Humanos , Irlanda , Embarazo , Naciones Unidas
20.
Int J Drug Policy ; 71: 29-35, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200325

RESUMEN

Article 33 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States to take appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drugs 'as defined in the relevant international treaties'. Those treaties are the UN drugs conventions. Following cannabis legalisation, then, can Canada remain in compliance with the CRC while breaching treaties to which Article 33 expressly refers? This article investigates this question with reference to the drafting of the CRC and the drugs conventions, how the relationship between the two systems has been approached, and the practice of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child from 1993-2015. While the CRC could offer an alternative framework through which to critically assess drug laws and policies, by and large it has operated so as to reinforce the drug control system. An interpretation of Article 33 in the light of Canada's cannabis reforms is proposed. Based on the text of the provision, the pacta tertiis rule, and the object and purpose of the provision, it decouples the CRC from the normative requirements of the drugs conventions.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Canadá , Niño , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Naciones Unidas
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