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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278539

RESUMEN

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMEN

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMEN

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247913, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278555

RESUMEN

Abstract The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247073, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249224

RESUMEN

Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models' procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis ​​pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234692, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249263

RESUMEN

Abstract The Gravataí River basin, one of the main water sources of the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, is among the ten most polluted rivers in Brazil. Water quality is monitored only through physico-chemical and microbiological parameters in Brazil, and in this context, considering the importance of the use of biomarkers in complementing the analysis of water, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental quality of the main affluent of the Gravataí River, Demetrio stream, through physico-chemical, microbiological, and cytogenotoxic criteria, at the stream source (P1), whereas samples P2 and P3 were obtained from the upstream near the area with the highest urban density and the downstream near the meeting point with the Gravataí River, respectively. The results for copper concentration and color classified the Demetrio stream as Class 4 in general, that is, the water is suitable only for navigation and to landscape harmony. The main genotoxic alterations (micronuclei and nuclear buds) were observed in P2, in which were obtained the highest levels of copper, in addition to iron and manganese. Anthropic interventions were observed in P1 and P2; however, due to its low metal concentration, P3, near the Gravataí River, manifested an improvement in environmental quality.


Resumo A bacia do rio Gravataí, uma das principais fontes de água da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, está entre os dez rios mais poluídos do Brasil. No Brasil a qualidade da água é monitorada apenas através de parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos e, nesse contexto, considerando a importância do uso de biomarcadores para complementar a análise da água, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade ambiental do principal afluente do Rio Gravataí, o arroio Demétrio, através de critérios físico-químicos, microbiológicos e citogenotóxicos, na nascente do arroio (P1), a montante e próximo à área com maior densidade urbana (P2) e a jusante e próximo ao ponto de encontro com o rio Gravataí (P3). Os resultados para a cor da água e para a concentração de cobre classificaram o arroio Demétrio como Classe 4 em geral, ou seja, esta água é adequada apenas para navegação e harmonia da paisagem. As principais alterações genotóxicas (micronúcleos e brotos nucleares) foram observadas no P2, no qual foram obtidos os maiores teores de cobre, além de ferro e manganês. Intervenções antrópicas foram observadas em P1 e P2; no entanto, devido à sua baixa concentração de metais, o P3, próximo ao rio Gravataí, manifestou uma melhoria na qualidade ambiental.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243187, 2022. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278521

RESUMEN

Abstract In this study, we investigated the proline and protease production of different bacteria in several organic waste materials. Our aim was to produce proline and protease economically in waste that is abundantly available while reducing its environmental impact. 5 ml of different organic waste materials (OWW: Olive waste water; N.B: Nutrient Broth; EW: Eggshell; PBS: PBS buffer; PLW: Peach leaf wastes; TCW: Turkish coffee wastes; TWW: Tea waste water; WCW: Waste cheese whey; WFO: Waste frying oil) were placed in 10 ml grow tubes, inoculated and incubated for 24 h. Phosphate-buffered saline and 10% solutions of different organic wastes were added. These cultures were subsequently incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Cells were harvested at 24 h for L-proline assay. 1 ml of culture was transferred by pipette into an Eppendorf tube and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 20 min at room temperature. Cellular debris was removed by centrifuge and the supernatant was used for proline activity assays. Protease activity was determined using a modified method with casein as the substrate. We found that proline and protease can easily be produced economically using Turkish coffee wastes (TCW), Waste cheese whey (WCW) and Olive waste water (OWW) organic waste. We believe that this study will result in similar research leading to the economical use of these waste materials thus reducing their impact on the environment.


Resumo Neste estudo, investigamos a produção de prolina e protease de diferentes bactérias em diversos resíduos orgânicos. Nosso objetivo era produzir prolina e protease economicamente em resíduos que estão disponíveis em abundância, reduzindo seu impacto ambiental. Cinco ml de diferentes materiais de resíduos orgânicos (OWW: resíduos de azeitona; NB: caldo nutriente; EW: casca de ovo; PBS: tampão PBS; PLW: resíduos de folhas de pêssego; TCW: resíduos de café turco; TWW: resíduos de chá; WCW: resíduos de queijo soro de leite; WFO: óleo de fritura residual) foram colocados em tubos de cultivo de 10 ml, inoculados e incubados por 24 horas. Adicionaram-se solução salina tamponada com fosfato e soluções a 10% de diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Essas culturas foram subsequentemente incubadas a 37° C durante 24 h. As células foram colhidas às 24 h para o ensaio de L-prolina. Um ml de cultura foi transferido por pipeta para um tubo Eppendorf e centrifugado a 14.000 rpm, por 20 min, em temperatura ambiente. Os detritos celulares foram removidos por centrifugação e o sobrenadante foi usado para ensaios de atividade de prolina. A atividade da protease foi determinada usando um método modificado com caseína como substrato. Descobrimos que a prolina e a protease podem ser facilmente produzidas economicamente, usando resíduos de café turco (TCW), resíduos de soro de queijo (WCW) e resíduos orgânicos de água de oliva (OWW). Acreditamos que este estudo resultará em pesquisas semelhantes, levando ao uso econômico desses materiais residuais, reduzindo, assim, seu impacto no meio ambiente.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285604

RESUMEN

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.

9.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201104, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1286050

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Continued unsustainable exploitation of natural resources promotes environmental degradation and threatens the preservation of dry forests around the world. This situation exposes the fragility and the necessity to study landscape transformations. In addition, it is necessary to consider the biomass quantity and to establish strategies to monitor natural and anthropic disturbances. Thus, this research analyzed the relationship between vegetation index and the estimated biomass using allometric equations in different Brazilian caatinga forest areas from satellite images. This procedure is performed by estimating the biomass from 9 dry tropical forest fragments using allometric equations. Area delimitations were obtained from the Embrapa collection of dendrometric data collected in the period between 2011 and 2012. Spectral variables were obtained from the orthorectified images of the RapidEye satellite. The aboveground biomass ranged from 6.88 to 123.82 Mg.ha-1. SAVI values were L = 1 and L = 0.5, while NDVI and EVI ranged from 0.1835 to 0.4294, 0.2197 to 0.5019, 0.3622 to 0.7584, and 0.0987 to 0.3169, respectively. Relationships among the estimated biomass and the vegetation indexes were moderate, with correlation coefficients (Rs) varying between 0.64 and 0.58. The best adjusted equation was the SAVI equation, for which the coefficient of determination was R² = 0.50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 and mean absolute error of prediction (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirming the importance of the Savi index in estimating the caatinga aboveground biomass.


RESUMO: A exploração contínua e insustentável dos recursos naturais promove a degradação ambiental e ameaça a conservação das florestas secas no mundo. Essa situação expõe a fragilidade e a necessidade de estudar as transformações da paisagem. É necessário considerar o quantitativo de biomassa e o estabelecimento de estratégias para monitorar distúrbios naturais e antrópicos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o índice de vegetação e a biomassa estimada por meio de equações alométricas em diferentes áreas da caatinga brasileira a partir de imagens de satélite. Este procedimento é realizado estimando-se a biomassa de nove fragmentos de floresta tropical seca com o uso em equações alométricas. As delimitações das áreas foram obtidas da coleção da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, a partir dos dados dendrométricos coletados no período entre 2011 e 2012. As variáveis espectrais foram obtidas a partir das imagens ortorretificadas do satélite RapidEye. A biomassa acima do solo variou de 6,88 a 123,82 Mg.ha-1. Os valores de SAVI para os coeficientes L = 1 e L = 0,5, NDVI e EVI variaram de 0,1835 a 0,4294, 0,2197 a 0,5019, 0,3622 a 0,7584 e 0,0987 a 0,3169, respectivamente. As relações entre a biomassa estimada e os índices de vegetação foram moderadas, com coeficiente de correlação (rs) variando entre 0,64 e 0,58. A equação mais bem ajustada foi a Equação do SAVI, com coeficiente de determinação foi R² = 0,50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 e erro médio absoluto de predição (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirmando a importância do índice SAVI na estimativa da biomassa aérea da Caatinga.

10.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210108, 2022. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1286059

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: In ecological parks, the proximity to tourist activities facilitates the exploration of garbage by coatis, with possible serious consequences for the animals health . We described the contents of wild coatis feces from three ecological parks. After analyzing 62 samples, fragments of plants and animals were identified in all feces. In the feces of two parks, seeds were present between 36.4% and 48.6% of the samples. Arthropod fragments were identified in 100% of the samples from two parks, but only 87.3% in a third park. Scales, bones or bird feathers were present in some samples. Undigested material of industrial origin was detected in 34.3% to 54.5% of the samples, such as fragments of paper, string, plastic, aluminum, latex and glass. Results are in line with other studies on the diet of wild coatis, but the intake of foreign bodies, potentially harmful to health, is described for the first time. Clinical problems resulting from ingesting waste can be dental fractures, mucosal erosions, intestinal perforation, peritonitis, impaction, diarrhea, weight loss, intoxication and infections. Coatis in the three parks are at risk of health, and actions are needed to avoid clinical and potentially fatal problems. Four actions are recommended to avoid ingesting foreign bodies: increasing the environmental education of visitors; improving the storage of waste generated in parks; periodically monitor the health of coatis, in order to make interventions when possible; make a permanent program to study the ecology of species in the three parks.


RESUMO: Em parques ecológicos, a proximidade com atividades turísticas facilita a exploração do lixo por quatis (Nasua nasua), com possíveis consequências graves para saúde dos animais. Descrevemos o conteúdo de fezes de quatis selvagens de três parques ecológicos. Após análise de 62 amostras, fragmentos de plantas e animais foram identificados em todas as fezes. Nas fezes de dois parques, as sementes estiveram presentes entre 36,4% e 48,6% das amostras. Foram identificados fragmentos de artrópodes em 100% das amostras de dois parques, mas apenas 87,3% em um terceiro parque. Escamas, ossos ou penas de pássaros estavam presentes em algumas amostras. Detectou-se material não digerido de origem industrial em 34,3% a 54,5% das amostras, como fragmentos de papel, barbante, plástico, alumínio, látex e vidro. Os resultados estão de acordo com outros estudos sobre a dieta de quatis selvagens, mas a ingestão de corpos estranhos, potencialmente prejudicial à saúde, é descrito pela primeira vez. Os problemas clínicos decorrentes da ingestão de lixo podem ser fraturas dentais, erosões de mucosas, perfuração intestinal, peritonite, impactação, diarreia, emagrecimento, intoxicação e infecções. Os quatis nos três parques estão com a saúde em risco, sendo necessárias ações para evitar problemas clínicos e potencialmente fatais. Quatro ações são recomendadas para evitar a ingestão de corpos estranhos: aumentar a educação ambiental dos visitantes; melhorar o armazenamento dos resíduos gerados nos parques; monitorar periodicamente a saúde dos quatis, de forma a fazer intervenções quando possível; fazer um programa permanente de estudo da ecologia das espécies nos três parques.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 969-976, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153452

RESUMEN

Abstract Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a predatory arthropod with potential for conservation biological control. In addition to being considered a bioindicator of environmental quality, this arthropod provides an important service for agriculture by reducing insect-pest populations. In this work we seek to understand how the plants Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees and Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) and their different clump sizes affect the population density, spatial distribution and determination of the minimum number of samples to estimate its population density during the winter. Among the evaluated host plants, S. angustifolium and A. bicornis presented higher population density than E. retusa, but we observed that the clump diameter significantly influences the population density and the minimum number of samples. We observed a gregarious behavior in plants of A. bicornis and E. retusa. For S. angustifolium, a uniform distribution was observed.


Resumo Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) é um artrópode predador com potencial para controle biológico de conservação. Além de ser considerado um bioindicador da qualidade ambiental, esse artrópode fornece um importante serviço para a agricultura, reduzindo as populações de insetos-praga. Neste trabalho buscamos entender como as plantas Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees e Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) e seus diferentes tamanhos de touceira afetam a densidade populacional, distribuição espacial e a determinação do número mínimo de amostras para estimar sua densidade populacional durante o inverno. Entre as plantas hospedeiras avaliadas, S. angustifolium e A. bicornis apresentaram maior densidade populacional que E. retusa, observamos que o diâmetro da touceira influencia significativamente a densidade populacional e o número mínimo de amostras. Observamos um comportamento gregário nas plantas de A. bicornis e E. retusa. Para S. angustifolium, uma distribuição uniforme foi observada.

12.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 729-734, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622584

RESUMEN

Along with the economic and technological development and growing demand for high-quality drinking water, direct drinking water has gained general popularity in China. However, no authoritative policy has been issued, giving a clear definition of direct drinking water and existing standards and regulations concerning direct drinking water are not definitive in nature. Existing water quality parameters are not well supported and sometimes even contradict each other. We elaborated, in this paper, the history of direct drinking water in China and systematically reviewed the existing regulations and standards related to direct drinking water. We also compared and analyzed the important microbiology, toxicology, sensory perception and general chemistry parameters in the standards. This paper is the first ever attempt at an in-depth analysis of the chaotic state of the direct drinking water industry. We have also highlighted the problems in the current standards and regulations for direct drinking water. Our study provides a basis for market regulation and the supervision and management of direct drinking water. In addition, the paper provides helpful information for laying down a definition of direct drinking water, calling for and approving of project proposals concerning the establishment of national standards for direct drinking water, and actually formulating the standards. We have made a number of suggestions: A. defining direct drinking water clearly and formulating the national standards for direct drinking water as soon as possible; B. conducting research on water quality benchmarks to provide scientific support for the formulation of the national standards for direct drinking water; C. giving more attention to the formulation of standards concerning microbiology parameters and their limits and giving consideration to the inclusion of parameters concerning viruses.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Saneamiento , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 193, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603574

RESUMEN

Introduction: in the recent past, cities in sub-Saharan Africa have reported serious cholera outbreaks that last for several months. Uganda is one of the African countries where cities are prone to cholera outbreaks. Studies on cholera in Bangladesh show increased risk of cholera for the immediate household members (contacts) yet the control interventions mainly target cases with little or no focus on contacts. This study aimed to describe the rapid control of cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities, Uganda, using, "Cases and Contacts Centered Strategy (3CS)" that consisted of identification and treatment of cases, promotion of safe water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and selective chemoprophylaxis for the contacts. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-2016 in the Kampala and Mbale cities during cholera outbreaks. Cholera cases were treated and 816 contacts from 188 households were listed and given cholera preventive packages. Data were collected, cleaned, analysed and stored in spreadsheet. Comparison of categories was done using Chi-Square test. Results: a total of 58 and 41 confirmed cholera cases out of 318 and 153 suspected cases were recorded in Kampala and Mbale cities respectively. The outbreaks lasted for 41 days in both cities. Case fatality rates were high; 12.1% (5/41) for Mbale city and 1.7% (1/58) for Kampala city. Fifty-five percent (210/379) of stool samples were tested by culture to confirm V. choleraeO1. No contacts listed and given cholera preventive package developed cholera. Both sexes and all age groups were affected. In Kampala city, the males were more affected than the females in the age groups less than 14 years, p-value of 0.0097. Conclusion: this study showed that by implementing 3CS, it was possible to rapidly control cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities and no cholera cases were reported amongst the listed household contacts. The findings on 3CS and specifically, selective antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for cholera prevention, could be used in similar manner to oral cholera vaccines to complement the core cholera control interventions (disease surveillance, treatment of cases and WaSH). However, studies are needed to guide such rollout and to understand the age-sex differences in Kampala city.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Higiene/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Cólera/prevención & control , Vacunas contra el Cólera/administración & dosificación , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Agua Potable/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54988

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA in sewage in a low-resource community in order to determine if it can be considered as an estimator of changes in the prevalence of COVID-19 in the population. Methods. In this descriptive observational study we collected samples of surface waters contaminated with sewage and optimized a method of purification of viral RNA using PEG concentration. We determined the amount of genetic material by quantitative real-time PCR using the CDC method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Results. We quantified viral RNA in surface waters contaminated with sewage of a low resource community and determined that temporal trends of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater samples mirrored trends in COVID-19 active cases. Conclusions. Measuring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in sewage can be applied in low-resource communities without connection to sewers as an estimator of changes in the prevalence of COVID-19.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Medir el ARN del SARS-CoV-2 en las aguas residuales de una comunidad de bajos recursos para determinar si se puede considerar un estimador de cambios en la prevalencia de la COVID-19 en la población. Métodos. En este estudio descriptivo de observación se tomaron muestras de las aguas superficiales contaminadas con aguas residuales y se optimizó un método de purificación del ARN viral mediante la concentración de polietilenglicol (PEG). Se determinó la cantidad de material genético por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real empleando el método de los CDC para la detección del SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. Se cuantificó el ARN viral de las aguas superficiales contaminadas con aguas residuales de una comunidad de bajos recursos y se determinó que las tendencias temporales del SARS-CoV-2 en las muestras de aguas residuales reflejaban las tendencias en los casos activos de COVID-19. Conclusiones. La medición del ARN del SARS-CoV-2 en aguas residuales puede aplicarse en las comunidades de bajos recursos sin conexión al alcantarillado como un estimador de los cambios en la prevalencia de la COVID-19.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Medir o RNA do SARS-CoV-2 nas águas residuais de uma comunidade com poucos recursos, a fim de determinar se pode ser utilizado para estimar mudanças na prevalência de COVID-19 na população. Métodos. Neste estudo observacional descritivo, coletamos amostras de águas superficiais contaminadas com dejetos e otimizamos um método de purificação de RNA viral utilizando concentração de PEG. Determinamos a quantidade de material genético por PCR quantitativo em tempo real, usando o método do CDC para detecção de SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. Quantificamos o RNA viral em águas superficiais contaminadas com dejetos de uma comunidade com poucos recursos e determinamos que as tendências temporais do SARS-CoV-2 em amostras de águas residuais refletiam tendências de casos ativos de COVID-19. Conclusões. A mensuração do RNA do SARS-CoV-2 em águas residuais pode ser aplicada em comunidades com poucos recursos, sem ligação com a rede de esgoto, para estimar mudanças na prevalência de COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , SARS-CoV-2 , Aguas Residuales , Argentina , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aguas Residuales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aguas Residuales , COVID-19
15.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-10-06.
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54963

RESUMEN

A carga global de doenças associadas à exposição à poluição do ar tem um impacto enorme na saúde humana em todo o mundo: estima-se que a exposição à poluição do ar cause milhões de mortes e anos perdidos de vida saudável anualmente. Estima-se que a carga de doenças atribuíveis à poluição do ar já seja comparável a de outros importantes riscos globais à saúde, como alimentação não saudável e tabagismo, e reconhece-se que a poluição do ar é agora a maior ameaça ambiental à saúde humana. O principal objetivo dessas diretrizes globais atualizadas é oferecer padrões de qualidade do ar pensados para a saúde, expressos como concentrações a longo ou curto prazo, para seis importantes poluentes atmosféricos: MP2,5, MP10, ozônio, dióxido de nitrogênio, dióxido de enxofre e monóxido de carbono. Além disso, as diretrizes fornecem metas intermediárias para orientar os esforços de redução desses poluentes, bem como declarações de boas práticas para o gerenciamento de certos tipos de MP (carbono negro/carbono elementar, partículas ultrafinas e partículas originadas de tempestades de areia e poeira) . Essas diretrizes não são uma norma juridicamente vinculativa; no entanto, fornecem aos Estados Membros da OMS uma ferramenta baseada em evidências que podem usar para subsidiar legislação e políticas. Em última análise, o objetivo dessas diretrizes é ajudar a reduzir os níveis de poluentes atmosféricos a fim de diminuir a enorme carga de morbidade resultante da exposição à poluição atmosférica em todo o mundo.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Carbono , Monóxido de Carbono , Dióxido de Azufre , Ozono , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminación Ambiental
16.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20200939, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Arsenic contamination in the environment and groundwater is a major global public health problem. Several researchers suggest that the toxicity of arsenic could be related to oral cancer development, usually resulting from potentially malignant lesions. During pathological processes, salivary proteins suffer modifications, which could lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the protein profile in human saliva samples from a rural population exposed to high levels of arsenic in drinking water and its association with potentially malignant lesions. METHODOLOGY: This observational, analytic and cross-sectional design included 121 patients from the state of Graneros (Tucumán, Argentina). Arsenic concentration in drinking water was determined and, according to the values obtained, individuals were divided into 2 groups: exposed group and non-exposed group. Saliva samples were obtained, and total protein concentration was measured by Bradford method. Finally, Laemmli SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted to obtain the protein profile. RESULTS: Total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Average areas of 20 and 42 KDa bands were significantly lower in exposed group than non-exposed group. CONCLUSION: Chronic intake of high arsenic concentrations in drinking water produces changes in the salivary protein profile, which is associated with the presence of potentially malignant lesions.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argentina , Arsénico/análisis , Arsénico/toxicidad , Estudios Transversales , Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Población Rural , Proteínas y Péptidos Salivales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
17.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131217, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467950

RESUMEN

Ozonation has been widely applied for the oxidation of contaminants in wastewater, and the disinfection of water. However, low ozone (O3) mass transfer efficiency in common ozonation reactors requires high O3 doses and causes high energy consumption. In this study, to intensify the O3 mass transfer and oxidation of humic acids (HA) solution, a lava rock packed bubble column (LBC) and a metal pall ring packed bubble column (MBC) were developed and evaluated. In comparison with non-packed bubble column (BC), both LBC and MBC enhanced the O3 mass transfer efficiency and the generation of hydroxyl radicals, thereby increasing the HA removal from an aqueous solution. At applied O3 dose of 33.3 mg/(Lcolumn h), the HA removal efficiency in BC was only 47%. When MBC and LBC were applied, it increased to 66% and 72%, respectively. Meanwhile, the O3 utilization efficiency in LBC reached 68%, which was higher than that in MBC (50%) and BC (21%). Consequently, LBC has the lowest energy consumption (EEO) for HA removal (1.4 kWh/m3), followed by MBC (1.6 kWh/m3) and BC (2.9 kWh/m3). LBC had better performance than MBC due to the adsorptive and catalytic roles of lava rock on the ozonation process. This study demonstrates the advantages of using lava rocks as packed materials in O3 bubble column over metal pall rings in intensifying O3 mass transfer and organic matters removal, which provides some insights into promoting the industrial application of O3.


Asunto(s)
Ozono , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Sustancias Húmicas/análisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00235120, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468563

RESUMEN

This study aimed to understand the forms of professional work and proposed actions to achieve the human right to adequate food (HRAF) in the context of primary healthcare (PHC). Using a qualitative approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews (from May 2013 to July 2014) with healthcare workers that conducted educational groups on food and nutrition in PHC in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was performed to identify the proposed actions on food, with HRAF as the theoretical basis. We identified three categories of professional work based on the proposed actions for food and nutrition. The first approaches food as a biomedical dimension. The second focuses on access and availability of foods in the territory. The third approaches users' local food reality, centered on the team's work. The proposed actions feature those conducted by individuals with obligations towards HRAF (healthcare workers in PHC) and those performed by rights-holder (users of PHC in the Brazilian Unified National Health System). Food in contexts of poverty is treated as a problem with no solution. This study allowed approximations between "what to do" and "how to act" based on ways of grasping food through the definitions, professional work, and proposed actions to achieve HRAF in PHC. It also allowed elucidating the need to understand food as a human right and strengthening the responsibility of healthcare workers in PHC as duty-bearers towards HRAF in the context of social policies.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Personal de Salud , Humanos
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485525

RESUMEN

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Diplomacia/métodos , Industria Farmacéutica/métodos , Salud Global , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , India , Salud Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología
20.
Codas ; 33(6): e20190288, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468630

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To analyze the Quality of Life of subjects with aphasia participating in an Interdisciplinary Living Group. METHODS: cross-sectional and quantitative study. Convenience sample submitted to two questionnaires: a semi-structured one, developed exclusively for the characterization of the subjects and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) to identify their Quality of Life (QOL). Data analysis was descriptive. RESULTS: Eight subjects were interviewed, aged between 35 and 78 years and schooling between Incomplete Elementary School and Incomplete Higher Education. The predominant occupation was that of a clerk and the income varied between one and four minimum wages. The time of brain injury was from three to 10 years, caused predominantly by Stroke caused by Systemic Arterial Hypertension. As for WHOQOL, there was an important variation between the subjects in the four domains (physical, psychological, social and environmental). However, most scored above 70 points. For all subjects, the Living Group was identified as a space for the production of life and health, motivating them to seek other services. CONCLUSION: The subjects were adults and elderly people belonging to the lower-middle class; presented chronic health conditions, impaired verbal expression and long monitoring time to their health needs. The WHOQOL-Bref revealed that five subjects perceived their favorable living/health conditions, however, they highlighted reduced social contact. The Living Group became an important space for improving QOL.


Asunto(s)
Afasia , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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