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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 571, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777936

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to determine the changes in carbon stocks of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) according to stand development stage in the Marmara Region of Türkiye. For this purpose, sample plots were taken from a total of 32 areas encompassing four stand development stages (young, middle age, mature and overmature stand). The diameter at breast height and height of all trees in the sample plots were measured, and only three dominant trees's ages per plot were determined. Aboveground carbon stock was calculated using equations developed for beech forests, while the coefficients in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use guide were used to determine belowground carbon stocks. A soil pit was dug in each plot and soil samples were taken at different depths (0-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60-100 cm). In addition, litters were sampled from four different 25 × 25 cm sections in each plot, and then the physical and chemical properties of the soil and litters were analysed. The variations in carbon stocks in above- and below-ground tree mass, litter and soil, and in ecosystem carbon stocks according to development stage were examined by analysis of variance and Duncan test, and the relationships between the carbon stocks were investigated by correlation analysis. Aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) tree, soil and ecosystem carbon stocks showed significant differences between the four stand development stages (P < 0.05), but not the litter carbon stocks (P > 0.05). AG and BG tree and ecosystem carbon stocks increased with progressive stand development stages, while the soil carbon stock was the highest at the young stage. These findings will contribute to the preparation of forest management plans and the national greenhouse gas inventory.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fagus , Bosques , Suelo , Fagus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Carbono/análisis , Suelo/química , Turquía , Árboles , Agricultura Forestal , Ecosistema
2.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(6): 1109-1117, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684739

RESUMEN

Large pulses of tree mortality have ushered in a major reorganization of Europe's forest ecosystems. To initiate a robust next generation of trees, the species that are planted today need to be climatically suitable throughout the entire twenty-first century. Here we developed species distribution models for 69 European tree species based on occurrence data from 238,080 plot locations to investigate the option space for current forest management in Europe. We show that the average pool of tree species continuously suitable throughout the century is smaller than that under current and end-of-century climate conditions, creating a tree species bottleneck for current management. If the need for continuous climate suitability throughout the lifespan of a tree planted today is considered, climate change shrinks the tree species pool available to management by between 33% and 49% of its current values (40% and 54% of potential end-of-century values), under moderate (Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6) and severe (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) climate change, respectively. This bottleneck could have strong negative impacts on timber production, carbon storage and biodiversity conservation, as only 3.18, 3.53 and 2.56 species of high potential for providing these functions remain suitable throughout the century on average per square kilometre in Europe. Our results indicate that the option space for silviculture is narrowing substantially because of climate change and that an important adaptation strategy in forestry-creating mixed forests-might be curtailed by widespread losses of climatically suitable tree species.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Árboles , Europa (Continente) , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biodiversidad , Agricultura Forestal , Modelos Biológicos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172350, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608907

RESUMEN

Extensive deforestation has been a major reason for the loss of forest connectivity, impeding species range shifts under current climate change. Over the past decades, the Chinese government launched a series of afforestation and reforestation projects to increase forest cover, yet whether the new forests can compensate for the loss of connectivity due to deforestation-and where future tree planting would be most effective-remains largely unknown. Here, we evaluate changes in climate connectivity across China's forests between 2015 and 2019. We find that China's large-scale tree planting alleviated the negative impacts of forest loss on climate connectivity, improving the extent and probability of climate connectivity by 0-0.2 °C and 0-0.03, respectively. The improvements were particularly obvious for species with short dispersal distances (i.e., 3 km and 10 km). Nevertheless, only ~55 % of the trees planted in this period could serve as stepping stones for species movement. This indicates that focusing solely on the quantitative target of forest coverage without considering the connectivity of forests may miss opportunities in tree planting to facilitate climate-induced range shifts. More attention should be paid to the spatial arrangement of tree plantations and their potential as stepping stones. We then identify priority areas for future tree planting to create effective stepping stones. Our study highlights the potential of large-scale tree planting to facilitate range shifts. Future tree-planting efforts should incorporate the need for species range shifts to achieve more biodiversity conservation benefits under climate change.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Árboles , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agricultura Forestal/métodos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172241, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582119

RESUMEN

Carbon sequestration via afforestation and forest growth is effective for mitigating global warming. Accurate and robust information on forest growth characteristics by tree species, region, and large-scale land-use change is vital and future prediction of forest carbon stocks based on this information is of great significance. These predictions allow exploring forestry practices that maximize carbon sequestration by forests, including wood production. Forest inventories based on field measurements are considered the most accurate method for estimating forest carbon stocks. Japan's national forest inventories (NFIs) provide stand volumes for all Japanese forests, and estimates from direct field observations (m-NFIs) are the most reliable. Therefore, using the m-NFI from 2009 to 2013, we selected four major forest plantation species in Japan: Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Pinus spp., and Larix kaempferi and presented their forest age-carbon density function. We then estimated changes in forest carbon stocks from the past to the present using the functions. Next, we investigated the differences in the carbon sequestration potential of forests, including wood production, between five forestry practice scenarios with varying harvesting and afforestation rates, until 2061. Our results indicate that, for all four forest types, the estimates of growth rates and past forest carbon stocks in this study were higher than those considered until now. The predicted carbon sequestration from 2011 to 2061, assuming that 100 % of harvested carbon is retained for a long time, twice the rate of harvesting compared to the current rate, and a 100 % afforestation rate in harvested area, was three to four times higher than that in a scenario with no harvesting or replanting. Our results suggest that planted Japanese forests can exhibit a high carbon sequestration potential under the premise of active management, harvesting, afforestation, and prolonging the residence time of stored carbon in wood products with technology development.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Carbono , Cryptomeria , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Árboles , Japón , Carbono/análisis , Larix/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pinus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Chamaecyparis , Monitoreo del Ambiente
5.
Nature ; 629(8011): 370-375, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600390

RESUMEN

Roads are expanding at the fastest pace in human history. This is the case especially in biodiversity-rich tropical nations, where roads can result in forest loss and fragmentation, wildfires, illicit land invasions and negative societal effects1-5. Many roads are being constructed illegally or informally and do not appear on any existing road map6-10; the toll of such 'ghost roads' on ecosystems is poorly understood. Here we use around 7,000 h of effort by trained volunteers to map ghost roads across the tropical Asia-Pacific region, sampling 1.42 million plots, each 1 km2 in area. Our intensive sampling revealed a total of 1.37 million km of roads in our plots-from 3.0 to 6.6 times more roads than were found in leading datasets of roads globally. Across our study area, road building almost always preceded local forest loss, and road density was by far the strongest correlate11 of deforestation out of 38 potential biophysical and socioeconomic covariates. The relationship between road density and forest loss was nonlinear, with deforestation peaking soon after roads penetrate a landscape and then declining as roads multiply and remaining accessible forests largely disappear. Notably, after controlling for lower road density inside protected areas, we found that protected areas had only modest additional effects on preventing forest loss, implying that their most vital conservation function is limiting roads and road-related environmental disruption. Collectively, our findings suggest that burgeoning, poorly studied ghost roads are among the gravest of all direct threats to tropical forests.


Asunto(s)
Automóviles , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Árboles , Clima Tropical , Asia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias
6.
J Med Entomol ; 61(3): 686-700, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491994

RESUMEN

Forest management practices designed to meet varied landowner objectives affect wildlife habitat and may interrupt the life-cycle stages of disease vectors, including the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). Ixodes scapularis transmits multiple pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, which is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. There is evidence that a range of active forest management practices (e.g., invasive plant removal, prescribed burning) can alter tick densities and pathogen transmission. However, few studies have investigated relationships between forest stand structural variables commonly manipulated by timber harvesting and tick ecology. Foresters may harvest timber to create certain forest structural conditions like the mean number of trees, or basal area, per hectare. This study used a spatially replicated experiment in a blocked design to compare forest stands with a range of overstory structures and document variations in the midstory, understory, and forest floor, as well as microclimate conditions within tick off-host habitat. Greater numbers of trees or basal area per hectare correlated with greater canopy closure but less understory cover, stabilized microclimate temperature, higher microclimate humidity, and greater I. scapularis nymph densities. A random forest model identified understory forest structure as the strongest predictor of nymph densities. There was no relationship between the number of trees or basal area per hectare and daily deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) activity or nymphal infection prevalence. These findings provide a deeper understanding of tick-habitat associations within a forest stand and have the potential to inform forest management decisions.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Ixodes , Microclima , Densidad de Población , Animales , Ixodes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ixodes/fisiología , Ninfa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ninfa/fisiología
7.
Environ Manage ; 73(4): 814-825, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217696

RESUMEN

Changes in tree cover and impervious surfaces have been observed across many cities in the United States over the past 70 years. Many municipalities are implementing tree planting programs in efforts to increase tree cover. A detailed understanding of historical changes in land cover can inform urban forest management. I applied a convolutional neural network image segmentation approach to historical aerial imagery to delineate changes in land cover in 1957, 1974, and 2017 in Utica, New York, a small, postindustrial city. The model predicted tree, pavement, and building land cover in each year with overall accuracies ranging from 82-87%. From 1957 to 2017, tree cover declined in many areas and impervious surface cover (buildings and pavement) increased. Tree cover gains largely occurred in uninhabited, natural areas; whereas, the greatest declines in tree coverage occurred in many residential areas following the start of the urban renewal efforts in 1957. Current tree planting efforts targeted at homeowners could drive disparities in future tree cover since several areas of Utica with low tree have a high proportion of renter occupied homes and a low median household income. Convolutional Neural Network approaches for image segmentation of aerial imagery are a helpful tool in understanding patterns in changes in tree and impervious surfaces. A better understanding of the legacies of historical policies and neighborhood-scale changes in land cover can assist in highlighting priorities for urban forest management and justice-oriented urban forestry approaches to urban tree planting.


Asunto(s)
Árboles , Remodelación Urbana , Ciudades , Bosques , Agricultura Forestal
8.
Fire Ecol ; 20(1): 1, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186675

RESUMEN

Background: Wildfires are recognized as an important ecological component of larch-dominated boreal forests in eastern Siberia. However, long-term fire-vegetation dynamics in this unique environment are poorly understood. Recent paleoecological research suggests that intensifying fire regimes may induce millennial-scale shifts in forest structure and composition. This may, in turn, result in positive feedback on intensifying wildfires and permafrost degradation, apart from threatening human livelihoods. Most common fire-vegetation models do not explicitly include detailed individual-based tree population dynamics, but a focus on patterns of forest structure emerging from interactions among individual trees may provide a beneficial perspective on the impacts of changing fire regimes in eastern Siberia. To simulate these impacts on forest structure at millennial timescales, we apply the individual-based, spatially explicit vegetation model LAVESI-FIRE, expanded with a new fire module. Satellite-based fire observations along with fieldwork data were used to inform the implementation of wildfire occurrence and adjust model parameters. Results: Simulations of annual forest development and wildfire activity at a study site in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) since the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 20,000 years BP) highlight the variable impacts of fire regimes on forest structure throughout time. Modeled annual fire probability and subsequent burned area in the Holocene compare well with a local reconstruction of charcoal influx in lake sediments. Wildfires can be followed by different forest regeneration pathways, depending on fire frequency and intensity and the pre-fire forest conditions. We find that medium-intensity wildfires at fire return intervals of 50 years or more benefit the dominance of fire-resisting Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.), while stand-replacing fires tend to enable the establishment of evergreen conifers. Apart from post-fire mortality, wildfires modulate forest development mainly through competition effects and a reduction of the model's litter layer. Conclusion: With its fine-scale population dynamics, LAVESI-FIRE can serve as a highly localized, spatially explicit tool to understand the long-term impacts of boreal wildfires on forest structure and to better constrain interpretations of paleoecological reconstructions of fire activity. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s42408-023-00238-8.


Antecedentes: Los incendios de vegetación son reconocidos como un componente importante de los bosques boreales dominados por alerces en el este de Siberia. Sin embargo, la dinámica a largo plazo entre fuegos y vegetación en este ambiente único es pobremente entendido. Estudios paleo-ecológicos recientes sugieren que la intensificación de regímenes de fuego puede inducir cambios, a escala de milenos, en la estructura y composición de estos bosques. Estos pueden, a su vez, resultar en una retroalimentación positiva en la intensificación de los incendios y en la degradación del permafrost, aparte de amenazar la vida humana. Los modelos de fuego-vegetación más comunes, no incluyen específicamente detalles basados en la dinámica poblacional de árboles individuales, aunque el enfocarnos en los patrones de la estructura forestal que emerge de interacciones entre árboles individuales puede proveer de una perspectiva beneficiosa sobre los impactos de los cambios en los regímenes del fuego en el este de Siberia. Para simular estos impactos en la estructura forestal a escalas de milenios, aplicamos el modelo espacialmente explícito, individualmente basado, LAVESI-FIRE, expandido en un nuevo módulo de fuego. Observaciones de fuego basadas en imágenes satelitales junto con datos de campo fueron usados para informar la implementación de la ocurrencia de fuegos de vegetación y ajustar los parámetros del modelo. Resultados: Las simulaciones del desarrollo anual de los bosques y de la actividad de los incendios en un sitio de estudio de la República de Sakha (Yakutia) desde el Último Máximo Glacial (c. 20.000 años atrás), resaltan los impactos variables de los regímenes de fuegos en la estructura forestal a través del tiempo. La probabilidad modelada de forma anual en la ocurrencia de incendios y subsecuentemente del área quemada durante el Holoceno se compara muy bien con la reconstrucción del flujo de carbón en los sedimentos lacustres. Los incendios de vegetación pueden verse mediante diferentes patrones de regeneración del bosque, dependiendo de la frecuencia e intensidad de los fuegos y de las condiciones del bosque en el pre-fuego. Encontramos que fuegos de mediana intensidad a intervalos de retorno de unos 50 años o más, benefician la persistencia del alerce dahurian (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.), especie resistente al fuego, mientras que los fuegos de reemplazo tienden a permitir el establecimiento de coníferas siempreverdes. Aparte de la mortalidad post-fuego, los fuegos de vegetación modulan el desarrollo del bosque, fundamentalmente a través de efectos de competencia y una reducción de la capa de mantillo predicho por el modelo. Conclusiones: Con sus características de detectar la dinámica de la población a una escala fina, el modelo LAVESI-FIRE puede servir como una herramienta altamente localizada y espacialmente explícita, para entender los impactos a largo plazo de los bosques boreales sobre la estructura forestal y para mejorar los condicionamientos de las interpretaciones de las reconstrucciones paleo ecológicas en la reconstrucción de la actividad de los incendios.

9.
Nature ; 626(7998): 327-334, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109939

RESUMEN

The pulp and paper industry is an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions1,2. Country-specific strategies are essential for the industry to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, given its vast heterogeneities across countries3,4. Here we develop a comprehensive bottom-up assessment of net greenhouse gas emissions of the domestic paper-related sectors for 30 major countries from 1961 to 2019-about 3.2% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the same period5-and explore mitigation strategies through 2,160 scenarios covering key factors. Our results show substantial differences across countries in terms of historical emissions evolution trends and structure. All countries can achieve net-zero emissions for their pulp and paper industry by 2050, with a single measure for most developed countries and several measures for most developing countries. Except for energy-efficiency improvement and energy-system decarbonization, tropical developing countries with abundant forest resources should give priority to sustainable forest management, whereas other developing countries should pay more attention to enhancing methane capture rate and reducing recycling. These insights are crucial for developing net-zero strategies tailored to each country and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050 for the pulp and paper industry.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Efecto Invernadero , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Industrias , Internacionalidad , Papel , Desarrollo Sostenible , Madera , Efecto Invernadero/prevención & control , Efecto Invernadero/estadística & datos numéricos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/análisis , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/aislamiento & purificación , Industrias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Metano/análisis , Metano/aislamiento & purificación , Reciclaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Reciclaje/tendencias , Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Bosques , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Clima Tropical
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artículo en Español | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514965

RESUMEN

Introducción: La gran diversidad de especies maderables tropicales demanda el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías de identificación con base en sus patrones o características anatómicas. La aplicación de redes neuronales convolucionales (CNN) para el reconocimiento de especies maderables tropicales se ha incrementado en los últimos años por sus resultados prometedores. Objetivo: Evaluamos la calidad de las imágenes macroscópicas con tres herramientas de corte para mejorar la visualización y distinción de las características anatómicas en el entrenamiento del modelo CNN. Métodos: Recolectamos las muestras entre el 2020 y 2021 en áreas de explotación forestal y aserraderos de Selva Central, Perú. Luego, las dimensionamos y, previo a la identificación botánica y anatómica, las cortamos en secciones transversales. Generamos una base de datos de imágenes macroscópicas de la sección transversal de la madera, a través del corte, con tres herramientas para ver su rendimiento en el laboratorio, campo y puesto de control. Resultados: Usamos tres herramientas de corte para obtener una alta calidad de imágenes transversales de la madera; obtuvimos 3 750 imágenes macroscópicas con un microscopio portátil que corresponden a 25 especies maderables. El cuchillo ''Tramontina'' es duradero, pero pierde el filo con facilidad y se necesita una herramienta para afilar, el cúter retráctil ''Pretul'' es adecuado para madera suave y dura en muestras pequeñas de laboratorio; el cuchillo ''Ubermann'' es apropiado para el campo, laboratorio y puesto de control, porque tiene una envoltura duradera y láminas intercambiables en caso de pérdida de filo. Conclusiones: La calidad de las imágenes es decisiva en la clasificación de especies maderables, porque permite una mejor visualización y distinción de las características anatómicas en el entrenamiento con los modelos de red neuronal convolucional EfficientNet B0 y Custom Vision, lo cual se evidenció en las métricas de precisión.


Introduction: The great diversity of tropical timber species demands the development of new technologies capable of identifying them based on their patterns or anatomical characteristics. The application of convolutional neural networks (CNN) for the recognition of tropical timber species has increased in recent years due to the promising results of CNNs. Objective: To evaluate the quality of macroscopic images with three cutting tools to improve the visualization and distinction of anatomical features in the CNN model training. Methods: Samples were collected from 2020 to 2021 in areas of logging and sawmills in the Central Jungle, Peru. They were later sized and, after botanical and anatomical identification, cut in cross sections. A database of macroscopic images of the cross-section of wood was generated through cutting with three different tools and observing its performance in the laboratory, field, and checkpoint. Results: Using three cutting tools, we obtained high quality images of the cross section of wood; 3 750 macroscopic images were obtained with a portable microscope and correspond to 25 timber species. We found the ''Tramontina'' knife to be durable, however, it loses its edge easily and requires a sharpening tool, the ''Pretul'' retractable cutter is suitable for cutting soft and hard wood in small laboratory samples and finally the ''Ubermann'' knife is suitable for use in the field, laboratory, and checkpoint, because it has a durable sheath and interchangeable blades in case of dullness. Conclusion: The quality of the images is decisive in the classification of timber species, because it allows a better visualization and distinction of the anatomical characteristics in training with the EfficientNet B0 and Custom Vision convolutional neural network models, which was evidenced in the precision metrics.


Asunto(s)
Madera/análisis , Microscopía Electrónica , Ecosistema Tropical , Perú , Aprendizaje Automático
11.
Nature ; 620(7972): 110-115, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37407827

RESUMEN

After agriculture, wood harvest is the human activity that has most reduced the storage of carbon in vegetation and soils1,2. Although felled wood releases carbon to the atmosphere in various steps, the fact that growing trees absorb carbon has led to different carbon-accounting approaches for wood use, producing widely varying estimates of carbon costs. Many approaches give the impression of low, zero or even negative greenhouse gas emissions from wood harvests because, in different ways, they offset carbon losses from new harvests with carbon sequestration from growth of broad forest areas3,4. Attributing this sequestration to new harvests is inappropriate because this other forest growth would occur regardless of new harvests and typically results from agricultural abandonment, recovery from previous harvests and climate change itself. Nevertheless some papers count gross emissions annually, which assigns no value to the capacity of newly harvested forests to regrow and approach the carbon stocks of unharvested forests. Here we present results of a new model that uses time discounting to estimate the present and future carbon costs of global wood harvests under different scenarios. We find that forest harvests between 2010 and 2050 will probably have annualized carbon costs of 3.5-4.2 Gt CO2e yr-1, which approach common estimates of annual emissions from land-use change due to agricultural expansion. Our study suggests an underappreciated option to address climate change by reducing these costs.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Árboles , Madera , Carbono/metabolismo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Árboles/metabolismo , Madera/economía , Madera/metabolismo , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Agricultura/tendencias
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(36): 85545-85557, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37391559

RESUMEN

The shadow price of carbon emissions can measure the marginal output effect under the carbon emission regulation and is also one of the key indicators to construct a low-carbon development path for production units. Currently, international research on shadow price is focused on the industrial and energy sectors. However, in the context of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality targets in China, the use of shadow price to study the cost of reducing emissions from agricultural production, especially forestry fruit industries, is significant. In this paper, we use a parametric approach to construct the quadratic ambient directional distance function. Using the input-output data of peach, we then calculate the environmental technical efficiency and shadow price of carbon emissions from peach production in Guangxi, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Sichuan provinces, and further estimate the values of green output in each province. The results show that (i) the environmental technology efficiency of peach production in Jiangsu province, located in the coastal plain area of eastern China, is the highest among the four provinces, while that in Guangxi province, located in the hilly area of southeast China, is the lowest. (ii) Guangxi province has the smallest carbon shadow price of peach production among the four provinces, while Sichuan province, located in the mountainous area of southwest China, has the largest. (iii) The green output value of the peach production in Jiangsu province is the highest among the four provinces, and that in Guangxi province is the lowest. In order to effectively reduce carbon emissions in peach production without affecting economic benefits, the paper puts forward the following suggestions: for peach-producing areas in the southeast hills of China, it is necessary to increase the application of green environmental technology while reducing the input of production factors in peach production. For peach-producing areas in the northern plains of China, the input of production factors should be reduced. It is not easy for peach-producing areas in the southwest mountains of China to reduce the input of production factors while increasing the application of green technologies. Finally, for peach-producing areas in China's eastern coastal plain, the implementation of environmental regulations for peach production should be gradual.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Prunus persica , China , Carbono/análisis , Frutas/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico
13.
Conserv Biol ; 37(6): e14130, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37259599

RESUMEN

Reintroducing apex predators is an important approach in ecosystem restoration; however, it is challenging. Wolves (Canis lupus) were exterminated in Japan around 1900, and since then, there has been a lack of top predators throughout the country. Currently, the wild ungulate population is increasing, causing agricultural and forest damage. This has triggered an ongoing debate among researchers and nongovernmental organizations on whether wolves should be reintroduced to promote self-regulating biodiverse ecosystems. We conducted a nationwide survey to examine public attitudes toward wolf reintroduction (WR) in Japan. We sent online questionnaires to 88,318 citizens across the country. Among the 12,028 respondents, excluding those with invalid or incomplete answers and unqualified respondents, we obtained and analyzed 7500 responses that were representative of Japanese citizens in terms of some key sociodemographic attributes. More respondents disagreed with WR (39.9%) than agreed (17.1%), and many respondents (43.0%) were undecided. Structural equation modeling revealed that risk perceptions affected public attitudes, implying that the greater the perceived threat of wolf attacks, the less likely people are to support WR. In contrast, attitudes toward wolves (e.g., "I like wolves.") influenced by wildlife value orientation and beliefs about the ecological role of wolves (e.g., controlling deer populations) positively affected public attitudes toward WR. Those who had a positive attitude toward WR showed intentions to engage in behaviors that support WR. Our results suggest that the dissemination of information related to the ecological role of wolves and the development of a more mutualistic mindset in people could positively influence public support for WR in Japan.


Actitudes e intenciones públicas respecto a la reintroducción de lobos en Japón Resumen La reintroducción de superdepredadores es una estrategia importante para la restauración de los ecosistemas; sin embargo, representa muchos retos. Los lobos (Canis lupus) fueron exterminados en Japón alrededor de 1900 y desde entonces no ha habido superdepredadores en el país. Hoy en día, la población silvestre de ungulados está incrementando y ocasionando daño agrícola y forestal. Esto ha detonado un debate entre los investigadores y las organizaciones no gubernamentales sobre si se debiesen reintroducir lobos para promover ecosistemas biodiversos autorregulados. Realizamos una encuesta nacional para analizar las actitudes públicas respecto a la reintroducción de lobos (RL) en Japón. Enviamos 88,318 cuestionarios virtuales a ciudadanos de todo el país. De los 12,028 respondientes, excluyendo a aquellos con respuestas inválidas o incompletas y a los respondientes no calificados, obtuvimos y analizamos 7500 respuestas representativas del ciudadano japonés en términos de algunas características sociodemográficas importantes. Hubo más respondientes en contra (39.9%) que a favor (17.1%) de la RL y todavía más respondientes (43.0%) no estaban decididos. El modelo de ecuación estructural reveló que las percepciones de riesgo impactaron sobre las actitudes públicas, lo que implica que entre mayor sea la amenaza percibida de los ataques de lobos, es menos probable que la gente apoye la RL. Como contraste, la orientación del valor de la fauna que influyó sobre las actitudes (p. ej.: "me gustan los lobos") y las creencias sobre el papel ecológico de los lobos (p. ej.: controlar las poblaciones de venados) tuvieron un impacto positivo en las actitudes respecto a la RL. Quienes tuvieron una actitud positiva respecto a la RL mostraron intenciones de apoyarla. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la divulgación de información relacionada con el papel ecológico de los lobos y el desarrollo de una mentalidad más mutualista en las personas podrían influir positivamente en el apoyo público para la RL en Japón.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Lobos , Animales , Humanos , Lobos/fisiología , Ecosistema , Intención , Japón , Ciervos/fisiología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conducta Predatoria
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(16): 48168-48178, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36752917

RESUMEN

To achieve the goal of urban carbon dioxide emission reduction, how to increase carbon sequestration has become a top priority. The biological sink is mainly divided into green carbon sink and blue carbon sink. Coastal cities have two kinds of carbon sinks. There, the study of carbon sinks in coastal cities is the primary choice to cope with climate change. Therefore, this study chooses coastal cities with primary industries including agriculture, fishery, and forestry as the study subjects. The LMDI (Log-Mean Divisia Index) method and multiple regression prediction models were used to explore the low-carbon countermeasures which increase urban net carbon sink from the perspective of influencing factors and future potential. The study found that the average output value of employees in the primary industry is the main driving factor, and the change in the purchasing power of unit carbon sinks and the change in the proportion of employees in the primary industry have inhibited the increase in net carbon sinks. Projections based on the primary industry's output and afforestation area as independent variables show an overall upward trend in net carbon sinks, reaching 15.70 million tons of net carbon sinks in 2060, offsetting 10-20% of total carbon emissions in the same year. Based on the calculation results, this paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures to increase carbon sinks. This paper provides a theoretical reference for the low-carbon development of coastal cities in China, and the strategies can be also expanded to other cities with similar resources around the world.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Industrias , Humanos , Ciudades , China , Agricultura Forestal , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico
15.
Conserv Biol ; 37(3): e14066, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36751977

RESUMEN

Protecting structural features, such as tree-related microhabitats (TreMs), is a cost-effective tool crucial for biodiversity conservation applicable to large forested landscapes. Although the development of TreMs is influenced by tree diameter, species, and vitality, the relationships between tree age and TreM profile remain poorly understood. Using a tree-ring-based approach and a large data set of 8038 trees, we modeled the effects of tree age, diameter, and site characteristics on TreM richness and occurrence across some of the most intact primary temperate forests in Europe, including mixed beech and spruce forests. We observed an overall increase in TreM richness on old and large trees in both forest types. The occurrence of specific TreM groups was variably related to tree age and diameter, but some TreM groups (e.g., epiphytes) had a stronger positive relationship with tree species and elevation. Although many TreM groups were positively associated with tree age and diameter, only two TreM groups in spruce stands reacted exclusively to tree age (insect galleries and exposed sapwood) without responding to diameter. Thus, the retention of trees for conservation purposes based on tree diameter appears to be a generally feasible approach with a rather low risk of underrepresentation of TreMs. Because greater tree age and diameter positively affected TreM development, placing a greater emphasis on conserving large trees and allowing them to reach older ages, for example, through the establishment of conservation reserves, would better maintain the continuity of TreM resource and associated biodiversity. However, this approach may be difficult due to the widespread intensification of forest management and global climate change.


Importancia de conservar los árboles viejos y grandes para la continuidad de los microhábitats relacionados Resumen La protección de las características estructurales, como los microhábitats relacionados a los árboles (MhAr), es una herramienta económica importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad que puede aplicarse en los paisajes boscosos extensos. Aunque el diámetro, especie y vitalidad del árbol influyen sobre el desarrollo de los MhAr, todavía se sabe poco sobre las relaciones entre la edad del árbol y el perfil. Modelamos los efectos de la edad y diámetro del árbol y las características del sitio sobre la riqueza y presencia de los MhAr en algunos de los bosques primarios más preservados de Europa, incluyendo los bosques mixtos de hayas y abetos, con una estrategia basada en los anillos de crecimiento y un conjunto con datos de 8038 árboles. Observamos un incremento generalizado en la riqueza de MhAr en los árboles viejos y grandes en ambos tipos de bosques. La presencia de grupos específicos de MhAr tuvo una relación variada con el diámetro y la edad del árbol, aunque algunos grupos de MhAr (p. ej.: epífitas) tuvieron una relación positiva más fuerte con la elevación y la especie del árbol. Mientras que muchos grupos de MhAr estuvieron asociados positivamente con la edad y diámetro del árbol, sólo dos grupos de MhAr en los abetos reaccionaron exclusivamente a la edad del árbol (galerías de insectos y savia expuesta) sin responder al diámetro. Por lo tanto, la retención de los árboles con fines de conservación basada en los diámetros parece ser una estrategia plausible con un riesgo bajo de subrepresentación de los MhAr. Ya que a mayor edad y diámetro del árbol hubo efectos positivos en el desarrollo de los MhAr, poner un mayor énfasis sobre la conservación de los árboles grandes y permitirles alcanzar una edad mayor, por ejemplo, a través del establecimiento de reservas de conservación, mantendría de mejor manera la continuidad del MhAr y de la biodiversidad asociada. Sin embargo, esta estrategia puede ser complicada debido a la intensificación generalizada de la gestión forestal y el cambio climático mundial.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Árboles , Animales , Bosques , Biodiversidad , Insectos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767989

RESUMEN

This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment in forestry, a prominent phenomenon in China, on forestry industry structure upgrading, using comprehensive economic theory and the panel data of 27 provinces from 2003 to 2019 in China. We used fixed and moderating effect models, and regional heterogeneity tests were conducted. Our results indicate that, at the national level, foreign direct investment in forestry and labor migration promotes forestry industry structural upgrading. In addition, our results indicate that labor migration as a moderating variable weakly promotes forestry industry structural upgrading via foreign direct investment in forestry, and these effects have regional heterogeneity. Finally, different control variables also have influence on forestry industry structural upgrading, such as the number of forestry stations. Based on these empirical results, we provide an explanation and give policy implications, such as developing secondary and tertiary forestry industries, building forestry infrastructure, and improving the efficiency of forestry foreign investment utilization to promote the optimization of the forestry industry structure in China.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración , Agricultura Forestal , Inversiones en Salud , China , Industrias , Desarrollo Económico
17.
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 030096

RESUMEN

The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.


Ciencia para el desarrollo, cuidado o cultivo de bosques.


Ciência do desenvolvimento, cuidados ou cultivo de florestas.

18.
Nature ; 612(7941): 707-713, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517596

RESUMEN

Old-growth tropical forests are widely recognized as being immensely important for their biodiversity and high biomass1. Conversely, logged tropical forests are usually characterized as degraded ecosystems2. However, whether logging results in a degradation in ecosystem functions is less clear: shifts in the strength and resilience of key ecosystem processes in large suites of species have rarely been assessed in an ecologically integrated and quantitative framework. Here we adopt an ecosystem energetics lens to gain new insight into the impacts of tropical forest disturbance on a key integrative aspect of ecological function: food pathways and community structure of birds and mammals. We focus on a gradient spanning old-growth and logged forests and oil palm plantations in Borneo. In logged forest there is a 2.5-fold increase in total resource consumption by both birds and mammals compared to that in old-growth forests, probably driven by greater resource accessibility and vegetation palatability. Most principal energetic pathways maintain high species diversity and redundancy, implying maintained resilience. Conversion of logged forest into oil palm plantation results in the collapse of most energetic pathways. Far from being degraded ecosystems, even heavily logged forests can be vibrant and diverse ecosystems with enhanced levels of ecological function.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Metabolismo Energético , Cadena Alimentaria , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Mamíferos , Clima Tropical , Animales , Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Aves/fisiología , Borneo , Mamíferos/fisiología , Aceite de Palma , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ecología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293638

RESUMEN

Based on the theories of welfare economics, this paper analyzed the mechanism of agricultural insurance (AI) affecting agricultural economic growth (AEG), theoretically, and carried out an empirical analysis by using the random effects model and thirteen years of panel data, which included the annual data of 11 cities in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2007 to 2019. The gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery (GOVA) of 11 cities in Zhejiang Province is selected as the explained variable, agricultural insurance premium income (AIPI) as an explanatory variable. We selected area of waterlogging removal (AWR), rural electricity consumption (REC), total power of agricultural machinery (TPAM), and crop-sown area (CSA) as control variables. The study shows that: (1) the AIPI has a significant positive impact on the growth of GOVA. When other conditions remain unchanged, a 1% increase in AIPI increases the GOVA by 0.166%, accordingly; (2) The control variables of REC, TPAM, and CSA are statistically significant for the growth of the GOVA. The elasticity coefficient of REC is 0.325, the elastic coefficient of the TPAM is 0.287, and the elasticity coefficient of CSA is -0.281.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Seguro , Agricultura , China , Agricultura Forestal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9951214, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120680

RESUMEN

With the rapid development of economy, environmental problems become more and more serious, and people begin to pay attention to ecological construction. Forestry is an important industry related to the long-term survival and development of mankind. It undertakes the important tasks of forest product supply and ecological construction. Therefore, the quality of its development has a direct impact on all aspects of ecological economic construction. It is related to China's ecological construction and sustainable development and plays an important role in social development. The corresponding evaluation index system and evaluation model were established to deeply analyze the economic development trend of ecological forestry system. It has certain guiding significance to provide theoretical guidance for the future development direction of ecological forestry.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Agricultura Forestal , Ecosistema , Humanos
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