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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2057165, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558683

RESUMEN

Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a highly prevalent global public health problem and a robust predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and suicidality. A large percentage are drug or alcohol facilitated (DFSA), impairing trauma memory and affecting the application of evidence-based treatments. Despite these problems, few have investigated DFSA-specific mental health (MH) needs. Objective: Goals of this study were (1) to identify psychological sequelae characterizing DFSA towards explaining why symptoms have been treatment-refractory, comparing survivors with involuntary substance ingestion (forced, covert: DFSA-I), voluntary ingestion (DFSA-V), and non-DFSA; and (2) to determine how impaired trauma memory relates to the development of PTSD and depression symptoms. Method: Data from a retrospective chart review of 74 adults receiving SA MH services at an outpatient trauma center are presented. The sample includes a 2-year cohort seen acutely at an urban rape treatment center. The study is one of the first to examine therapy records beyond case studies for DFSA. Logistic, Poisson, and negative binomial regression analyses of quantitative data and qualitative thematic analysis of trauma cognitions and treatment foci were conducted. Results: DFSA-V had five times greater odds of SUD, and notable substance-related self-blame compared to DFSA-I. DFSA-I had prominent relationship distress and self-blame for missing danger of perpetrator drugging. Survivors with impaired trauma memory had significantly fewer hyper-arousal and overall PTSD symptoms, and specifically less hypervigilance. No differences were found in re-experiencing symptoms. Conclusion: Impaired trauma memory is common in DFSA and is associated with fewer baseline hyper-arousal and overall PTS. Despite this, DFSA issues including re-experiencing symptoms that are particularly distressing without the ability to cognitively connect the intrusions contribute to increased treatment needs. Impaired memory limits the application of evidence-based treatments, and collectively these findings call for the development of trauma-specific treatment protocols to enhance recovery for DFSA survivors. HIGHLIGHTS: Survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault have prominent PTSD including reexperiencing, though trauma memory may not be encoded. • Those absent trauma memory have less hyperarousal, but DFSA complications explain why it is treatment refractory and inform treatment development.


Antecedentes: La agresión sexual (AS) es un problema de salud pública mundial de alta prevalencia y es un sólido predictor del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT), del trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) y de suicidalidad. Un gran porcentaje de AS son facilitadas por drogas o alcohol (ASFDA), deteriorando la memoria del trauma y afectando la aplicación de tratamientos basados en la evidencia. A pesar de estos problemas, pocos han investigado las necesidades de salud mental (SM) específicas de los ASFDA.Objetivo: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron; primero, identificar las secuelas psicológicas que caracterizan a las ASFDA para explicar por qué los síntomas han sido refractarios al tratamiento. Para ello, se comparó a sobrevivientes a una ingestión involuntaria de sustancias (forzada, encubierta: ASFDA-I), a una ingestión voluntaria (ASFDA-V), y a una AS no-ASFDA; y, segundo; determinar cómo el deterioro de la memoria del trauma se relaciona con el desarrollo de síntomas del TEPT y depresión.Método: Se presentan los datos de una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de 74 adultos que recibieron servicios de SM por AS en un centro de trauma para pacientes ambulatorios. La muestra incluye a una cohorte de 2 años en donde los casos de AS fueron vistos de forma aguda en un centro urbano de tratamiento para violación. El estudio es uno de los primeros, más allá de los estudios de casos, en examinar los registros de terapia por ASFDA. Se realizaron análisis de regresión logística, Poisson y binomial negativa de datos cuantitativos y un análisis temático cualitativo de las cogniciones del trauma y los puntos clave del tratamiento.Resultados: Los ASFDA-V tuvieron cinco veces más probabilidades de TUS y de un notable sentimiento de culpa relacionado con las sustancias comparado con los ASFDA-I. Las ASFDA tenían problemas de relación importantes y sentimientos de culpa por haber pasado por alto el peligro de que el agresor se drogara. Los sobrevivientes con deterioro de la memoria traumática tuvieron significativamente menos síntomas de hiperactivación y del TEPT en general y, específicamente, menos hipervigilancia. No se encontraron diferencias en los síntomas de reexperimentación.Conclusión: El deterioro de la memoria traumática es común en las ASFDA y se asocia con menos hiperactivación de base y síntomas postraumáticos en general. A pesar de esto, los problemas de los ASFDA incluyen a los síntomas de reexperimentación que son particularmente angustiantes y que restan la capacidad de conectar cognitivamente las intrusiones, por lo que contribuyen a aumentar las necesidades de tratamiento. El deterioro de la memoria limita la aplicación de tratamientos basados en la evidencia y, en conjunto, estos hallazgos exigen el desarrollo de protocolos de tratamiento específicos para trauma para mejorar la recuperación de los sobrevivientes a las ASFDA.

2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 409, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524889

RESUMEN

Land use/land cover (LULC) changes due to urban growth on the regional scale affect land surface temperature (LST). The present study aims to assess the LULC changes and their impact on LST over Mardan and Charsadda districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan, in the period from 1990 to 2019. Landsat satellite (TM& ETM +) datasets in the period from 1990 to 2010 and Sentinel-2 images from 2016 to 2019 were used in this study. All the datasets were pre-processed and the LULC types were classified by maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The vegetation degradation was computed from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the LST was derived based on the LULC changes. The results showed that the overall accuracy of LULC classification was 87.84%. Dramatic LULC changes were observed during the last three decades, where the vegetation degradation area was decreased from 1307.8 (59.27%) to 1147.6 km2 (52.1%) and the barren land area increased from 816.6 (37.07%) to 961.4 km2 (42.64%). Similarly, the built-up area has also increased from 57.2 (2.5%) to 104.3 km2 (4.73%) in the years 1990 and 2019, respectively. These variations in LULC types have significantly influenced the LST from 1990 to 2019; specifically, the LST of built-up area, barren land, and vegetation cover increased from 20.1 to 32.1 °C, 21.5 to 35.5 °C, and 17.1 to 28.2 °C, respectively. The regression line plotted defines that the LST has a negative correlation with NDVI and a positive correlation with normalized difference of built-up index (NDBI). In particular, the vegetation and land covers dramatically transformed to barren land and/or to urban development over the study area in the period from 1990 to2019, which has severely affected the LST and the natural resources of the study area. Therefore, our study will be very helpful for managing the rapid environmental changes and urban planning.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Remodelación Urbana , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Pakistán , Temperatura , Urbanización
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266063, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507556

RESUMEN

With the progress of urbanization and urban-rural integration (URI), the interaction between URI and urban-rural transport network is becoming stronger, thus it is necessary to investigate the interactive relationship between URI and transport network. By assuming certain functions and principles, evolution model was proposed to explain the relationship between URI space development scale and urban-rural transport network scale, and then by considering the interaction between URI and transport network, dynamic evolution model was presented. Stability analysis was performed to verify the interaction relations with three patterns and elasticity simulation provided the optimal value of urban-rural transport network scale configuration. The results may provide potential insights on URI development and transport network.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural , Urbanización , Humanos , Planificación Social , Población Urbana , Remodelación Urbana
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 867407, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433573

RESUMEN

The stability of social network structure (SSNS) in historical towns is influenced by changes in built environments and demographic factors. The historical towns in China have evolved into massive rural-urban migration under the rapid urbanization over the past forty years. In this context, many of these historical towns experienced "declining built environment and disintegrating social networks," which does not contribute to the adaptive renewal of the built environment and social networks in historical towns, as well as the psychological health of residents. This article intends to explore the adaptive renewal of the built environment and social networks of historical towns based on the SSNS. Data on "households" and "social ties" (i.e., kinship, geographic, and job relationship) among households were collected via a field survey in seven historical towns in Chongqing, China. K-core models of social network analysis (SNA) were calculated to analyze SSNS. The result shows that the social networks of historical towns with centripetal-shaped structures were more stable than historical towns with divergent-shaped structures. Moreover, spatial layout forms and functions of households might affect the stability of social networks in historical towns. Based on the results of the analysis of SSNS, strategies for adaptive renewal of the built environments and social networks were put forward in two aspects. The built environment, such as the classification of public spaces and service facilities, can be designed based on the k-core indicator for increasing the spatial connection of households in the historical towns. In addition, increased social activities in historical towns with weak SSNS may promote social connection of households, and are also helpful in boosting public health in psychological aspects.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Red Social , China , Ciudades , Demografía , Geografía , Humanos , Población Urbana
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6765, 2022 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474086

RESUMEN

Cycling is a promising solution to unsustainable urban transport systems. However, prevailing bicycle network development follows a slow and piecewise process, without taking into account the structural complexity of transportation networks. Here we explore systematically the topological limitations of urban bicycle network development. For 62 cities we study different variations of growing a synthetic bicycle network between an arbitrary set of points routed on the urban street network. We find initially decreasing returns on investment until a critical threshold, posing fundamental consequences to sustainable urban planning: cities must invest into bicycle networks with the right growth strategy, and persistently, to surpass a critical mass. We also find pronounced overlaps of synthetically grown networks in cities with well-developed existing bicycle networks, showing that our model reflects reality. Growing networks from scratch makes our approach a generally applicable starting point for sustainable urban bicycle network planning with minimal data requirements.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo , Transportes , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades , Remodelación Urbana
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6009, 2022 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397648

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to use a pedodiversity index (PI) to assess changes in the spatial structure of soil cover in Inowroclaw, Poland during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. An original cartographic approach based on landscape metrics was implemented using GIS techniques and statistical calculations. Based on maps of urban soil complexes and pedodiversity, it was revealed that land and soil cover changes in two studied periods (1934-1978 and 1978-2016) significantly affected pedodiversity in the city. In general, the spatio-temporal increase of the pedodiversity index was observed. The percentage of highest values of the PI ranged from 15.9% in 1934, 17.3% in 1978 to 20.9% in 2016. We revealed that pedodiversity index (PI) values are highly spatially and temporally variable and are associated with urban development and changes in the city's internal structure. The applied approach allowed for the identification of both spatial patterns of changes in soil cover that closely reflect the successive stages of the city's development, and problem areas that require revitalization and the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, the proposed method can be recommended for landscape monitoring and in determining ecosystem services in urban and landscape planning, and environmental management.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Suelo , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Remodelación Urbana
8.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439383

RESUMEN

The article, on the basis of analysis of scientific publications, presents brief overview of principles and technologies of development of cities considering impact on population health. The particular attention is paid to analysis of being built areas and careful use of available resources. The definition of the term "sustainable development of territory" and description of necessary measures for its application in practice are given. The actual trend of "coronavirus" transformation of architectural urban environment is presented, including availability for each family member of one's own space, room, house and flat with terrace, balcony, separate entrances (in case when apartment is located on the first floor), expanded house territory, life outside the city. At that, reduction of social relationships is established. To control effectiveness of city management corresponding indices are presented.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Desarrollo Sostenible , Ciudades
9.
Soc Sci Res ; 104: 102667, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400383

RESUMEN

Students with learning disabilities (LDs) experience heightened levels of social isolation, but researchers have not fully explored its various dimensions at school or determined which aspects contribute to educational gaps associated with LDs. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that middle and high school students with LDs are more likely to experience most types of isolation. Student with LDs have fewer friends, their friends are less educationally ambitious, they feel more detached and disliked at school, and they are more likely to avoid friendships, though surprisingly not more likely to be actively rejected. Mediation analyses indicate that the aspect of social isolation that contributes most to the LD-gap in high school graduation is one's number of school friends and their educational expectations. Perceptions of social isolation are also consequential, and together these account for nearly one-quarter of the LD-gap in high school graduation, net of past grades.


Asunto(s)
Logro , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Aislamiento Social , Estudiantes
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 682, 2022 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the impact of fertility during the childbearing period on the longevity of older rural Chinese women and verifies whether any trade-off exists between women's longevity and their number of children to provide empirical evidence for improving health intervention policies and formulating active fertility policies in low-fertility countries. METHODS: Based on the data of the deaths of 1623 older adults aged 65 and above during 2014-2018 in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, this study explores the relationship between the number of children born and older rural women's longevity using the ordinary least squares method. Furthermore, the impact of fertility on the longevity of men and women in rural and urban areas, along with other reproductive behaviours on older rural women's longevity, were analysed. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the number of children born and women's longevity (ß = - 0.555, p < 0.05). Additionally, their longevity exhibited a decreasing trend with having birthed more sons and an increasing trend with more daughters. Age at first and last births had a significant positive relationship with rural women's longevity; however, the effect of fertility on the longevity of older rural and urban men and older urban women was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: It is confirmed that there is a trade-off between fertility and longevity for rural women in China. Future research should focus on compensating for the decline in female longevity caused by the number of children born and promote the concept of a healthy pregnancy, scientific nurture, and gender equality in fertility.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Población Rural , Anciano , Niño , China , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Longevidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Dinámica Poblacional , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 378, 2022 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438376

RESUMEN

Cities that have become the most crowded living spaces in all over the world are facing numerous problems and challenges such as environmental pollution, heavy traffic, urban dilapidation, lack of facility provision, and economic decline. Urban regeneration, which is an important agenda for both academia and politicians, aims to address these urban problems which are mostly caused by overpopulation. As the urban regeneration is a complex issue that requires to consider numerous components, regeneration initiatives cannot always achieve sustainable urban applications, which are causing new urban and social problems. Previous research have mainly focused on one aspect of urban renewal, in which a comprehensive perspective is lacking by just considering the physical aspects of the regeneration areas while lacking the social aspects and current global issues such as climate change and urban adaptation. A multi-criteria decision-making process for site selection and sustainable regeneration plan would contribute to better regeneration outcomes. Therefore, this study proposes a multi-criteria decision-making process which combines the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS) at site selection phase of urban regeneration on a case study that includes all the physical and social components of the study area as well as focusing on sustaining ecological, economic, and social features.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Ciudades , Turquia , Remodelación Urbana
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 176: 105608, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358909

RESUMEN

Seagrass meadows store significant carbon stocks at a global scale, but land-use change and other anthropogenic activities can alter the natural process of organic carbon (Corg) accumulation. Here, we assessed the carbon accumulation history of two seagrass meadows in Zanzibar (Tanzania) that have experienced different degrees of disturbance. The meadow at Stone Town has been highly exposed to urban development during the 20th century, while the Mbweni meadow is located in an area with relatively low impacts but historical clearing of adjacent mangroves. The results showed that the two sites had similar sedimentary Corg accumulation rates (22-25 g m-2 yr-1) since the 1940s, while during the last two decades (∼1998 until 2018) they exhibited 24-30% higher accumulation of Corg, which was linked to shifts in Corg sources. The increase in the δ13C isotopic signature of sedimentary Corg (towards a higher seagrass contribution) at the Stone Town site since 1998 points to improved seagrass meadow conditions and Corg accumulation capacity of the meadow after the relocation of a major sewage outlet in the mid-1990s. In contrast, the decrease in the δ13C signatures of sedimentary Corg in the Mbweni meadow since the early 2010s was likely linked to increased Corg run-off of mangrove/terrestrial material following mangrove deforestation. This study exemplifies two different pathways by which land-based human activities can alter the carbon storage capacity of seagrass meadows (i.e. sewage waste management and mangrove deforestation) and showcases opportunities for management of vegetated coastal Corg sinks.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Remodelación Urbana , Carbono , Ecosistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Aguas del Alcantarillado
13.
J Environ Manage ; 312: 114922, 2022 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325740

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic activities can lead to the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) or improve its storage, hence they have the potential to exacerbate or help mitigate climate change. Urban expansion results in an initial loss of soil carbon, but long-term SOC changes during urban development are poorly understood. Herein, we studied SOC changes in the suburban and urban areas of cities with high levels of urbanization based on a long-term resampling campaign in Beijing, and a compilation of SOC content data from 21 other cities with high levels of urbanization across China over the past three decades. Our results revealed that the SOC of topsoils decreased by 17.2% in the suburban areas and increased by 104.4% in the urban areas of cities with high levels of urbanization. The changes in SOC were positively correlated with the changes in vegetation coverage and productivity. Partial least square method structural equation model analyses showed that changes in vegetation could directly affect SOC changes, and the changes in vegetation coverage and productivity were induced by human activities and climate changes in Beijing. The topsoils in the urban areas of cities with high levels of urbanization can act as carbon sinks due to the increase in vegetation. This study can help improve our understanding of the role of the SOC content of cities within the global C cycle and provide suggestions for achieving the goal of carbon neutrality in China.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Carbono/análisis , Secuestro de Carbono , China , Humanos , Suelo/química , Remodelación Urbana , Urbanización
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328888

RESUMEN

In the context of rapid urbanisation and an emerging need for a healthy urban environment, revitalising urban spaces and its effects on the urban eco-environment in Chinese cities have attracted widespread attention. This study assessed urban vibrancy from the dimensions of density, accessibility, liveability, diversity, and human activity, with various indicators using an adjusted spatial TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution) method. The study also explored the effects of urban vibrancy on the urban eco-environment by interpreting PM 2.5 and land surface temperature using "big" and "dynamic" data, such as those from mobile and social network data. Thereafter, spatial modelling was performed to investigate the influence of urban vibrancy on air pollution and temperature with inverted and extracted remote sensing data. This process identified spatial heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The majority of the dimensions, such as density, accessibility, liveability, and diversity, are negatively correlated with PM 2.5, thereby indicating that the advancement of urban vibrancy in these dimensions potentially improves air quality. Conversely, improved accessibility increases the surface temperature in most of the districts, and large-scale infrastructure construction generally contributes to the increase. Diversity and human activity appear to have a cooling effect. In the future, applying spatial heterogeneity is advised to assess urban vibrancy and its effect on the urban eco-environment, to provide valuable references for spatial urban planning, improve public health and human wellbeing, and ensure sustainable urban development.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Remodelación Urbana , China , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades/métodos , Humanos , Material Particulado , Urbanización
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(4): 258, 2022 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257225

RESUMEN

Urbanization affects the local wind and water cycle by changing the natural surface and atmospheric conditions, which further changes the local climate and climate system. Assessment of built-up-area changes in a rapidly growing urban area within a short time is a prime factor for administrators for better environmental assessment and sustainable development of urban areas. Traditional survey approaches, on the other hand, are unable to meet the demand for rapid urban land management development, and there is a pressing need to develop new methods to address the limitations of existing ones. This study compares various urban spectral indices to other existing approaches in order to determine which index provides a better representation of the impervious area in the urban watershed. Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) satellite images acquired on 15 March 2014 and 31 March 2020 are used in the present study. Indices, namely Modified Built-up Index (MBUI), SwiRed Index (SwiRed), and Enhanced Built-up and Bareness Index (EBBI), were utilized to extract impervious areas. Thresholding of indices is done by comparing them with 1000 reference points taken from Google Earth imagery of the respective years. The accuracy of the urban indices is assessed by comparing the results with high-resolution Google Earth Satellite Images. The impervious area is extracted from spectral indices and other remote sensing techniques such as maximum likelihood classification and support vector machine classification techniques. The overall accuracy of SVM, MLC, MBUI, EBBI, and SwiRed for the 2014 dataset was found to be 95.1%, 90.8%, 83.9%, 78.9%, and 87.3%, respectively, and the overall accuracy of SVM, MLC, MBUI, EBBI, and SwiRed was found to be 96%, 89.2%, 89.1%, 85.5%, and 92.6%, respectively. Impervious areas in the heterogeneous urban environment can be monitored in a better way and within lesser time by using spectral indices generated using Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) satellite data.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Remodelación Urbana , Urbanización
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153872, 2022 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157866

RESUMEN

In this paper, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method was applied to investigate the environmental impact of the electrification of the urban bus fleet. Public bus transport in large urban agglomerations is one of the main sources of pollution. To reduce the generation of pollution, electrification of the bus fleet is considered as one of the potential solutions. The authors developed three models of buses with different power units: diesel bus, diesel hybrid bus, and electric bus. The impacts of model buses were analysed at the stage of their production and operation in the city, as well as the impact of diesel fuel and electricity production. Furthermore, a case study was conducted based on the example of the Polish city of Krakow, demonstrating three possible scenarios for the electrification of the urban bus fleet. Moreover, an analysis of the environmental impact of the current and future Polish national energy production system until 2040 was carried out. Using the IMPACT 2002+ Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method, the results were reported in four damage endpoint categories: human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources. It was shown that increasing the share of electric buses in urban fleets can be highly beneficial in all four categories if the electricity used to power the electric buses is produced from enough low- and zero-emission energy sources. In addition, the level of environmental burden generated by the different phases of the life cycle of the bus was characterised. Overall, the advantages and possible problems of urban bus fleet electrification were highlighted, and recommendations for future sustainable development strategies were suggested. Thus, this study can be useful as an algorithm to support decision-making related to the electrification of city bus fleets.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Emisiones de Vehículos , Animales , Ecosistema , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Vehículos a Motor , Remodelación Urbana , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263331, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176053

RESUMEN

This study investigates the satisfaction and adequacy of citizens through the expected quality and perceived quality in the areas of planning and territorial viability, experience in the provision of municipal services and citizen experience in environmental issues, in order to provide tools for territorial decision making for the citizens' well-being. In our research PLS software is used for the analysis of hypotheses. A questionnaire was delivered to a sample of 521 citizens, representing the spectrum of the population, and the statistical study of the responses yielded results on citizen satisfaction and loyalty. Our research includes the study of moderating effects on the causal ratio of perceived value and satisfaction in territorial planning and viability, the perceived quality in the provision of municipal services and the perceived quality in the citizen experience in the environmental management of the territory on the value relationship perceived by the citizen and general satisfaction. A second objective of the study is to see if there are significant differences in the hypotheses raised by gender by performing a multigroup analysis. This difference has been appreciated in two of the hypotheses. The study shows that the policies exercised by the territorial managers of the different areas have a significant influence on the value perceived by citizens, satisfaction and loyalty, which shape their general well-being. Areas for improvement in territorial policies and municipal services such as citizen security, air quality, public lighting and sports services have been identified. Knowing these shortcomings allows politicians to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life in cities.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Ciudadana , Planificación de Ciudades/normas , Planificación Ambiental/normas , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/normas , Calidad de Vida , Salud Urbana/normas , Adulto , Ecuador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Participación del Paciente , Percepción , Desarrollo Sostenible
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814656, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35223738

RESUMEN

In today's world, sustainability has become a major concern. The current study attempts to look into the impact of six sustainable development values on economic growth and emissions of carbon footprints: freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, and shared mobility. The moderating importance of urban development in regulating the relationship of economic growth and carbon footprints has also been investigated in this study. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis technique was utilized to confirm pathways and verify path modeling in this work. Overall, 302 responses were selected for data analysis, and data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire with a random sampling technique. The study found that two of the six sustainable development values (tolerance and solidarity) have a beneficial impact on a country's economic growth. However, freedom, equality, respect for nature, and shared mobility are not indicators of a country's economic progress. Similarly, economic expansion helps to mediate the relationship between tolerance, solidarity, and carbon emissions. Although urban growth did not play a moderating role, it has a positive impact on carbon emissions. The current study suggests various implications for long-term development to improve an economy's or country's economic performance. Furthermore, complete emphasis must be paid to sustainable development values, which are more closely linked to economic growth but also help cut carbon emissions. Future research should look into the current model in other countries.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Desarrollo Sostenible , Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Remodelación Urbana
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 399, 2022 02 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216580

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: From 1982 to 2010, the country's crude death rate (CDR) dropped sharply, fluctuated, and finally slightly declined. There is a big difference in CDR between urban and rural areas. From 1982 to 1990, the CDR in the country and the countryside declined, and the CDR in cities and towns rose. After 1990, the CDR in cities gradually decreased, the CDR in towns first fell and then rose, and the CDR in the countryside steadily increased. The CDR is affected by changes in the age-specific death rate (ASDR) and age structure. METHODS: This paper decomposes CDR changes into the influence of declines in ASDR and the impact of age structure changes based on 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010 census data. RESULTS: The decline in ASDR reduces the CDR, and the aging population increases the CDR (including cities, towns, and the countryside). At the same time, decomposing the difference between the countryside and cities (or the countryside and towns) CDRs found that after 1990, the influence of ASDR differences and age structure differences increased with time. Our results revealed a more significant effect of ASDR differences. The combined effect of two factors (ASDR and age structure) makes the 0, 1-14, 15-64 age groups reduce the CDR, and the 65+ age group increases the CDR. In addition, the 0-year-old group has a not negligible impact on the changes in CDR, although it accounts for a small proportion of the total population. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of ASDR and age structure differs over time (1982 to 1990, 1990 to 2000, and 2000 to 2010) and across regions (cities, towns, the countryside). Considering the slow decline in ASDR and the accelerated aging population, we can infer that the CDR in 2020 will stabilize or even rise slightly instead of dropping significantly (compared with the CDR in 2010). This study provides a basis for the formulation of relevant public health policies.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Demografía , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Dinámica Poblacional , Población Urbana
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153673, 2022 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131248

RESUMEN

Natural capital plays a central role in urban functioning, reducing flooding, mitigating urban heat island effects, reducing air pollution, and improving urban biodiversity through provision of habitat space. There is also evidence on the role played by blue and green space in improving physical and mental health, reducing the burden on the health care service. Yet from an urban planning and development view, natural capital may be considered a nice to have, but not essential element of urban design; taking up valuable space which could otherwise be used for traditional built environment uses. While urban natural capital is largely recognised as a positive element, its benefits are difficult to measure both in space and time, making its inclusion in urban (re)development difficult to justify. Here, using a London case study and information provided by key stakeholders, we present a system dynamics (SD) modelling framework to assess the natural capital performance of development and aid design evaluation. A headline indicator: Natural Space Performance, is used to evaluate the capacity of natural space to provide ecosystem services, providing a semi-quantitative measure of system wide impacts of change within a combined natural, built and social system. We demonstrate the capacity of the model to explore how combined or individual changes in development design can affect natural capital and the provision of ecosystem services, for example, biodiversity or flood risk. By evaluating natural capital and ecosystem services over time, greater justification for their inclusion in planning and development can be derived, providing support for increased blue and green space within cities, improving urban sustainability and enhancing quality of life. Furthermore, the application of a SD approach captures key interactions between variables over time, showing system evolution while highlighting intervention opportunities.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Remodelación Urbana , Ciudades , Calor , Londres , Calidad de Vida , Crecimiento Sostenible
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