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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 674, 2024 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886789

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The human rights of dental hygiene students should be guaranteed during practice at medical institutions for their mental and physical health as well as professionalism, for patient safety. Safe and well guaranteed clinicians can perform their work in a more stable way. This study investigated the human rights circumstances of dental hygiene students during their hospital clinical practice at dental institutions. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Convenience sampling was conducted on 121 third- and fourth-year dental hygiene students from universities in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon. The survey used the Human Rights Indicators for Dental Hygiene Students to investigate the rights to safety, equality, and personality to understand participants' experiences of guaranteed fundamental rights. Data were collected from October 31 to November 8, 2019. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in experience according to general characteristics. RESULTS: During dental hygiene practice at dental institutions, less than 50% of students felt safe. When human rights violations occurred in dental institutions, only 42.4% of students received guidance on response measures from their universities. While 72.1% of students who practiced at dental university hospitals were given information on first aid supplies (facilities) within dental institutions, only approximately 45% of students who practiced at lower-scale dental institutions were given this information (p < 0.05). Regarding equality rights, only 52.5% of trainees reported that they had received equal treatment from healthcare workers during hospital clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: During dental practice at dental institutions, Korean dental hygiene students confirmed that human rights (including safety rights, equality rights, and personality rights) were guaranteed to varying degrees. Dental hygiene students' rights during hospital clinical practice in dental institutions should be guaranteed across institutions regardless of their scale. This is necessary for dental hygiene students' human rights and safe policies and guidelines in dental institution clinical practice and regular monitoring systems.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , República de Corea , Higienistas Dentales/educación , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1361901, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873314

RESUMEN

With the acceleration of urbanization, the risk of urban population exposure to environmental pollutants is increasing. Protecting public health is the top priority in the construction of smart cities. The purpose of this study is to propose a method for identifying toxicological biological indicators of human exposure in smart cities based on public health data and deep learning to achieve accurate assessment and management of exposure risks. Initially, the study used a network of sensors within the smart city infrastructure to collect environmental monitoring data, including indicators such as air quality, water quality, and soil pollution. Using public health data, a database containing information on types and concentrations of environmental pollutants has been established. Convolutional neural network was used to recognize the pattern of environmental monitoring data, identify the relationship between different indicators, and build the correlation model between health indicators and environmental indicators. Identify biological indicators associated with environmental pollution exposure through training optimization. Experimental analysis showed that the prediction accuracy of the model reached 93.45%, which could provide decision support for the government and the health sector. In the recognition of the association pattern between respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and environmental exposure factors such as PM2.5 and SO2, the fitting degree between the model and the simulation value reached more than 0.90. The research design model can play a positive role in public health and provide new decision-making ideas for protecting public health.


Asunto(s)
Ciudades , Aprendizaje Profundo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Salud Pública , Humanos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad
4.
Microb Biotechnol ; 17(6): e14486, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858805

RESUMEN

Social habits and economies driven by profit are opposing efforts to reach a path of sustainable development. In addition, many communities worldwide have diverged away from nature through consumerism and technology. In the context of the escalating risks and consequences related to global challenges such as the climate crisis and ecosystem degradation, education for sustainable development and science-driven decision-making offer tremendous opportunities for improvement.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos , Cambio Climático , Educación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
5.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 703-709, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865626

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To analyze the dynamics of ambient air pollution by surface O3 (in pre-war and wartime periods) and assess its impact on public health in order to provide proposals aimed at developing preventive programs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: Physical and chemical methods of analysis (О3 - gas analyzers APDA-370 HORIBA, meteorological sensor WS-600); health risk assessment (AirQ+); statistical data processing methods (StatSoft STATISTICA 10.0 portable, MicrosoftR Excel). RESULTS: Results: Air quality monitoring in peak season 2021 and 2022 detected exceedances of the daily maximum 8-hour ozone (O3) concentration. This resulted in a health risk for the exposed population during 70 % (174 days) and 84 % (181 days) of observations, respectively. The maximum exceedance levels were 1.7 and 2.1 times higher than the recommended limit. Estimated number of excess cases of natural and respiratory mortality in the population over 30 years due to long-term O3 exposure: 227 (95 % CI: 0; 450) and 22 (95 % CI: 0; 54), respectively. Predictive assessments of ozone (O3) air pollution's impact during wartime activities suggest an average increase of 40 % in additional deaths from non-communicable diseases. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Obtained results can serve as a basis for development of medical and environmental measures aimed at implementing adaptation proposals for public health in conditions of global climate change and wartime.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Salud Pública , Ozono/análisis , Ozono/efectos adversos , Ucrania/epidemiología , Humanos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355613, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859897

RESUMEN

Introduction: In Ethiopia, despite major improvements seen in health service delivery system, the country continues to be significantly affected by cholera outbreaks. Cholera remains a significant public health problem among the vulnerable populations living in many resource-limited settings with poor access to safe and clean water and hygiene practices. Recurring cholera outbreaks are an indication of deprived water and sanitation conditions as well as weak health systems, contributing to the transmission and spread of the cholera infection. Objective: To assess the cholera outbreak, its challenges, and the way forward on public health interventions to solve the knowledge and health service delivery gaps related to cholera control in Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: Active surveillance of the cholera outbreak was conducted in all kebeles and town administrative of Guraghe zone from 7/8/2023 to 30/10/2023. A total of 224 cholera cases were detected during the active surveillance method. Data obtained from Guraghe zone offices were exported to SPSS version 25 for additional analysis. The case fatality rate, incidence of the cases, and other descriptive variables were presented and described using figures and tables. Result: A total of 224 cholera cases were detected through an active surveillance system. In this study, the case fatality rate of cholera outbreak was 2.6%. To tackle the cholera outbreak, the Guraghe zone health office collaborated with other stakeholders to prepare four cholera treatment centers. The absence of OCV, inaccessible safe water, low latrine coverage, inappropriate utilization of latrines, and absence of cholera laboratory rapid diagnostics test in Guraghe Zone are barriers to tackling the outbreak. Conclusion: Ethiopia National Cholera Plan targeted eradicating cholera by 2030, 222 cholera outbreak occurred in Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia. To minimize and control cholera mortality rate oral cholera vaccinations should be employed in all areas of the region. Sustainable WASH measures should be guaranteed for the use of safe water and good hygiene practices. Early diagnosis and treatment should be initiated appropriately for those who are infected.


Asunto(s)
Cólera , Brotes de Enfermedades , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Masculino , Saneamiento , Salud Pública , Adulto , Niño , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Preescolar , Incidencia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892416

RESUMEN

BPA has demonstrated enormous multisystem and multi-organ toxicity shown mainly in animal models. Meanwhile, the effects of its exposure in humans still require years of observation, research, and answers to many questions. Even minimal and short-term exposure contributes to disorders or various types of dysfunction. It is released directly or indirectly into the environment at every stage of the product life cycle, demonstrating its ease of penetration into the body. The ubiquity and general prevalence of BPA influenced the main objective of the study, which was to assess the toxicity and health effects of BPA and its derivatives based on the available literature. In addition, the guidelines of various international institutions or regions of the world in terms of its reduction in individual products were checked. Bisphenol A is the most widely known chemical and perhaps even the most studied by virtually all international or national organizations, but nonetheless, it is still controversial. In general, the level of BPA biomonitoring is still too high and poses a potential threat to public health. It is beginning to be widely argued that future toxicity studies should focus on molecular biology and the assessment of human exposure to BPA, as well as its substitutes. The effects of its exposure still require years of observation, extensive research, and answers to many questions. It is necessary to continue to deepen the knowledge and interest of many organizations, companies, and consumers around the world in order to make rational purchases as well as future choices, not only consumer ones.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Fenoles , Salud Pública , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/toxicidad , Fenoles/toxicidad , Fenoles/efectos adversos , Humanos , Animales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Medición de Riesgo , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos
8.
Br Dent J ; 236(11): 900-906, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877261

RESUMEN

The practice of dentistry contributes to 3% of the carbon footprint of the NHS. As awareness and concern about climate change increases, all dental care professionals must play their part in reducing the environmental impact of the care they provide. This paper aims to describe a novel method of teaching, both the theory and practical application of sustainable dentistry, by integrating sustainable quality improvement methods into the existing management and leadership requirements of dental core training.


Asunto(s)
Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Humanos , Reino Unido , Educación en Odontología/métodos , Educación en Odontología/normas , Medicina Estatal , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Odontología Estatal , Huella de Carbono , Liderazgo
9.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 200(9): 848-861, 2024 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836604

RESUMEN

Due to wide prevalence of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in human surrounding, EMF-level measurements and corresponding exposure assessment have imposed as an important topic. With an intention to present an approach to the long-term exposure assessment in EMF RATEL network, this paper conveys a high-level statistical analysis of the high-frequency exposure data, acquired during the 5-y time period, for the case study of monitoring sensor installed in the area of the Novi Sad University campus. Time series of exposure values were averaged on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis, and their yearly comparison was performed. Results showed clear differences between the day and night hours, as well between working and weekend days. Regarding exposure values, averaged on the monthly basis, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 can be noticed. Finally, the highest obtained exposure values (electric field squared) were 22 times below the maximal allowable level, according to the Serbian legislation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Campos Electromagnéticos , Monitoreo de Radiación , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Universidades , Serbia , Pandemias , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis
10.
BMJ ; 385: q1241, 2024 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857922
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 204: 107645, 2024 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838466

RESUMEN

Variable speed limit (VSL) control benefits freeway operations through dynamic speed limit adjustment strategies for specific operation scenarios, such as traffic jams, secondary crash prevention, etc. To develop optimal strategies, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has been employed to map the traffic operation status to speed limits with the corresponding control effects. Then, VSL control strategies were obtained based upon memories of these complex mapping relationships. However, under multi-scenario conditions, DRL trained VSL faces the challenge of performance decay, where the control strategy effects drop sharply for early trained "old scenarios". This so-called scenario forgetting problem is attributed to the fact that DRL would forget the learned old scenario mapping memories after new scenario trainings. To tackle this issue, a continual learning approach has been introduced in this study to enhance the multi-scenario applicability of VSL control strategies. Specifically, a gradient projection memory (GPM) based neural network parameter updating method was proposed to keep the mapping memories of old scenarios during new scenario trainings by imposing constraints on the direction of gradient updates for new tasks. The proposed method was evaluated using three typical freeway operation scenarios developed in the simulation platform SUMO. Experimental results showed that the continual learning approach has substantially reduced the performance decay in old scenarios by 17.76% (valued using backward transfer metrics). Furthermore, the multi-scenario VSL control strategies successfully reduced the speed standard deviation and average travel time by 28.77% and 7.25% respectively. Moreover, the generalization of the proposed continual learning based VSL approach were evaluated and discussed.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Humanos , Conducción de Automóvil/educación , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Aprendizaje Profundo , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Simulación por Computador , Planificación Ambiental , Refuerzo en Psicología
13.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 30(4): E184-E187, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833669

RESUMEN

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes, and early life exposure is particularly damaging. Households with pregnant people and young children drinking from unregulated wells in arsenic-prevalent regions are therefore a public health priority for outreach and intervention. A partnership between Columbia University, New Jersey government partners, and Hunterdon Healthcare has informed Hunterdon County residents of the risks faced from drinking arsenic-contaminated water and offered free well testing through a practice-based water test kit distribution and an online patient portal outreach. Encouraged by those successes, Hunterdon Healthcare incorporated questions about drinking water source and arsenic testing history into the electronic medical record (EMR) template used by most primary care practices in Hunterdon County. The new EMR fields allow for additional targeting of risk-based outreach and water test kit distribution, offering promising new opportunities for public health and environmental medicine outreach, surveillance, and research.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Salud Pública , New Jersey , Humanos , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Agua Potable/análisis , Salud Pública/métodos , Arsénico/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos
15.
Cairo; World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; 2024-05.
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376750

RESUMEN

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a vision of healthy lives and well-being for all at all ages. This major report provides an update on progress towards the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. It presents regional trends between 2010 and 2022 for 50 health-related SDG indicators using available data from WHO and estimates from other United Nations agencies. The report reveals some successes at the country level amid a marked slowdown regionally with setbacks across indicators on health health risks and determinants and access to services. We are at the halfway point for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: to reverse current trends and ensure the health and well-being of our population we must take bold steps now.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Objetivos , Pobreza , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Trastornos Nutricionales , Hambre , Promoción de la Salud , Agricultura , Educación , Equidad de Género , Abastecimiento de Agua , Saneamiento , Derecho al Trabajo , Desarrollo Económico , Justicia Social , Región Mediterránea
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 937: 173182, 2024 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740192

RESUMEN

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used as alternatives to brominated flame retardants in a variety of consumer products and their consumption has continuously increased in recent years. However, their concentrations and human exposures in indoor microenvironments, particularly in a university environment, have received limited attention. In this study, the concentrations and seasonal variations of 15 OPFRs were assessed in typical microenvironments of two universities, including dormitories, offices, public microenvironments (PMEs: classroom, dining hall, gymnasium and library), and laboratories on the northern coast of China. Analysis of the OPFRs in both air and dust samples indicated widespread distribution in college campuses. The average concentration of ∑15OPFRs in the winter (12,774.4 ng/g and 5.3 ng/m3 for dust and air, respectively) was higher than in the summer (2460.4 ng/g and 4.6 ng/m3 for dust and air, respectively). The dust and air samples collected from PMEs and laboratories exhibited higher concentrations of OPFRs, followed by offices and dormitories. An equilibrium was reached between dust and air in all collected microenvironments. The daily intakes of OPFRs were significantly lower than the reference dose. Dust ingestion was the primary intake pathway in the winter, while inhalation and dust ingestion were the main intake pathways in the summer. The non-carcinogenic hazard quotients fell within the range of 10-7-10-3 in both the summer and winter, which are below the theoretical risk threshold. For the carcinogenic risk, the LCR values ranged from 10-10 to 10-8, indicating no elevated carcinogenic risk due to TnBP, TCEP, and TDCP in indoor dust and air.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Polvo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Retardadores de Llama , Organofosfatos , Estaciones del Año , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , China , Polvo/análisis , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Universidades , Organofosfatos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
17.
Behav Processes ; 218: 105045, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692461

RESUMEN

Growing evidence reveals notable phenotypic plasticity in cognition among teleost fishes. One compelling example is the positive impact of enriched environments on learning performance. Most studies on this effect have focused on juvenile or later life stages, potentially overlooking the importance of early life plasticity. To address this gap, we investigated whether cognitive plasticity in response to environmental factors emerges during the larval stage in zebrafish. Our findings indicate that larvae exposed to an enriched environment after hatching exhibited enhanced habituation learning performance compared to their counterparts raised in a barren environment. This work underscores the presence of developmental phenotypic plasticity in cognition among teleost fish, extending its influence to the very earliest stages of an individual's life.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Larva , Aprendizaje , Pez Cebra , Animales , Pez Cebra/fisiología , Larva/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Habituación Psicofisiológica/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Conducta Animal/fisiología
18.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303077, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809834

RESUMEN

Good water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) enhance healthy living and safe environments for child development. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on WASH status, knowledge, attitudes and practices in early child development (ECD) centres in low socio-economic areas in the Nelson Mandela Bay in 2021. This quasi-experimental, one group, pre-post-test study elicited responses from 51 ECD practitioners (1 per ECD centre). Telephonic structured knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) questionnaires were used. KAP was good among participants. The educational intervention significantly improved mean knowledge (p<0.001, 95% CI: 0.58-1.11) attitudes (p<0.001, 95% CI: 0.39-0.67) and practices (p = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.20-0.74). WASH knowledge was significantly impacted by toilet facilities ventilation status (p = 0.083) while WASH attitudes scores were significantly impacted by ventilation where the potties are kept (p = 0.041). WASH practice scores were significantly impacted by across the bush/field (no facility) (p = 0.021) and plastic potties usage (p = 0.057). The educational intervention significantly improved WASH-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among ECD practitioners. WASH conditions in the ECD centres in the study area require additional interventions targeted to sustainable strategies to enhance behavioural modifications for acceptability and sustainability of intervention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Higiene , Saneamiento , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Higiene/educación , Femenino , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar
19.
Environ Int ; 187: 108698, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735078

RESUMEN

Air pollution is known to be one of the major risk factors for premature morbidity and mortality globally, which are preventable. Therefore, the public is informed about air pollution through the Air Quality Index (AQI). The AQI represents integrated data of selected pollutants and produces a combined overall index for specific locations and time. The AQI algorithm generates a range of numbers and categories of colors that indicate likely health risks from air pollutants and the public's actions to minimize the risks. However, it lacks emerging evidence on chemical toxicity or composition. Hence, policymakers may also consider addinga toxicity matrix of fine particles to refine the algorithm, such as oxidative potential. Further, the risk is commonly communicated in numbers and not in color as dictated by the AQI. The AQI values and categories vary significantly between countries for the same pollution concentration, leading to confusion. Hence, we recommend developing a universal AQI (UAQI) with a consistent relationship between colors, concentrations, and toxicity to communicate air pollution risks to the public. Further, communication media should be encouraged to use universal color-coding rather than AQI values, i.e., numbers. Therefore, a global policy framework for regulatory authorities and policymakers is needed to communicate air pollution risk information consistently and to minimize public health exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Humanos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Medición de Riesgo , Material Particulado/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Algoritmos , Salud Pública
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 937: 173272, 2024 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763190

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic presented the most challenging global crisis in recent times. A pandemic caused by a novel pathogen such as SARS-CoV-2 necessitated the development of innovative techniques for the monitoring and surveillance of COVID-19 infections within communities. Wastewater surveillance (WWS) is recognized as a non-invasive, cost-effective, and valuable epidemiological tool to monitor the prevalence of COVID-19 infections in communities. Seven municipal wastewater sampling sites representing distinct sewershed communities were selected for the surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada over 8 months from March 2021 to October 2021. Viral RNA fragments of SARS-CoV-2 and the normalization target pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were concentrated from wastewater influent using the PEG/NaCl superspeed centrifugation method and quantified using RT-qPCR. Strong significant correlations (Spearman's rs = 0.749 to 0.862, P < 0.001) were observed between SARS-CoV-2 gene copies/mL of wastewater and clinical cases reported in each delineated sewershed by onset date. Although raw wastewater offered higher correlation coefficients with clinical cases by onset date compared to PMMoV normalized data, only one site had a statistically significantly higher Spearman's correlation coefficient value for raw data than normalized data. Implementation of community stay-at-home orders and vaccinations over the course of the study period in 2021 were found to strongly correspond to decreasing SARS-CoV-2 wastewater trends in the wastewater treatment plants and upstream pumping stations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aguas Residuales , Aguas Residuales/virología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Ontario/epidemiología , Humanos , Densidad de Población , Salud Pública , Monitoreo Epidemiológico Basado en Aguas Residuales , ARN Viral/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos
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