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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 57, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989889

RESUMEN

In this paper, Changji, Xinjiang, northwest China, was selected as the study area, and platinum group elements (PGEs) in PM2.5 were quantified by ICP-MS using microwave digestion. The results indicated that the average concentrations (and range) of Rh, Pd, and Pt in PM2.5 were 0.21 (n.d. -1.41) ng/m3, 8.09 (n.d. -59.50) ng/m3, and 0.12 (n.d. -0.83) ng/m3, respectively. The concentration of Pd was significantly higher than Rh and Pt. Moreover, the seasonal variations of Rh and Pd were the same: highest in summer and lower in other seasons. However, the seasonal variation of Pt was opposite to that of Rh and Pd: highest in winter and lower in other seasons. Seasonal differences in emission sources of PGEs and the climatic characteristics of arid regions played important roles in the seasonal changes of PGEs. Rh and Pd had a common source and similar diurnal variation. The major influencing factors were traffic volume and meteorological conditions. The diurnal variation regularity of Pt was different from Rh and Pd. The superimposed effect of vehicle exhaust emissions and coal-fired emissions was the main reason why the diurnal variation of Pt was more complicated than those of Rh and Pd. The diurnal concentration of Pt varied with the seasons. It is caused by seasonal coal combustion and meteorological conditions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Polvo , China , Carbón Mineral , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado , Platino (Metal)/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
2.
Environ Int ; 158: 106990, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991251

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological evidence suggests that motorized vehicle users have a higher air pollutant exposure (especially from vehicle exhaust) than active (walking or cycling) transport users. However, studies often relied on insufficiently diverse sample and ignored that minute ventilation has an effect on individuals' inhaled dose. This study examined commuters' breathing zone concentration and inhaled doses of black carbon (BC) when travelling by different transport modes in the Grand Paris region. METHODS: Personal exposure to BC was continuously measured with MicroAethalometer (MicroAeth AE51) portable monitors strapped on participants' shoulder with tube inlet at the level of the neck (breathing zone), and inhaled doses were derived from several methods estimating ventilation [based on metabolic equivalents from accelerometry [METs], heart rate, and breathing rate]. Trip stages and transport modes were assessed from GPS and mobility survey data. Breathing zone concentrations and inhaled doses of BC were compared across transport modes at the trip stage level (n = 7495 for 283 participants) using linear mixed effect models with a random intercept at individual level. RESULTS: Trip stages involving public transport and private motorized transport were associated with a 2.20 µg/m3 (95% CI: 1.99, 2.41) and 2.29 µg/m3 (95% CI: 2.10, 2.48) higher breathing zone concentration to BC than walking, respectively. Trip stages with other active modes had a 0.41 µg (95% CI: 0.25, 0.57) higher inhaled dose, while those involving public transport and private motorized transport had a 0.25 µg (95% CI: -0.35, -0.15) and 0.19 µg (95 %CI: -0.28, -0.10) lower inhaled dose of BC per 30 min than walking. CONCLUSION: The ranking of transport modes in terms of personal exposure was markedly different when breathing zone concentrations and inhaled doses were considered. Future studies should take both into account to explore the relationship of air pollutants in transport microenvironments with physiological response.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Carbono , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación , Material Particulado/análisis , Hollín/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 61-73, 2022 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989490

RESUMEN

China has always suffered from serious atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) pollution in winter, and PM2.5 in Wuhan is particularly affected by regional transportation. Based on the hourly monitoring dataset of chemical components during the winter period, this study identified the real-time sources of PM2.5 in Wuhan using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. A cluster analysis of backward trajectories and the concentration weighted trajectory were applied to obtain the potential source regions and transportation routes. During the observation period, ρ(PM2.5) was (75.1±29.2) µg·m-3, and there were two pollution episodes, one of which was mainly affected by the air masses coming from the northwest direction. In the first pollution episode, the increasing concentration of water-soluble ions was the main reason for the high PM2.5 value, and the concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- were 1.6, 1.7, and 2.1 times those during the cleaning period, respectively. The other episode was affected by the air masses coming from the east direction, and the secondary organic components were clearly formed. Secondary inorganic aerosol contributed the most (34.1%) to PM2.5, followed by vehicular exhaust (23.7%), coal combustion (11.5%), road dust (10.9%), iron- and steel-producing processes (8.7%), and firework displays (5.7%). Biomass burning contributed the least (5.3%). Our examination of the diurnal variation revealed that the maximum contribution of iron- and steel-producing processes appeared at 08:00[(17.5±18.8) µg·m-3], and the lowest was at 01:00[(10.4±10.9) µg·m-3], which stayed high in the daytime and low at night. The contribution of vehicular exhaust showed a double peak at 09:00[(42.1±24.8) µg·m-3] and 20:00[(41.6±19.5) µg·m-3]. In the first pollution period, the contribution rate of secondary inorganic aerosol increased significantly, indicating that the long-distance transport under the northwest air mass promoted the generation of secondary components. In the second pollution period, the contribution rates of vehicular exhaust, coal combustion, iron- and steel-producing processes, and road dust increased, mainly located in the local area, the northwest of Jiangxi and the south of Anhui province. This reflected the influence of industrial processes, road transportation, and dust contribution along the Yangtze River on PM2.5. Biomass burning had a relatively high contribution for air masses from the northern regions, including Henan, Anhui, the south of Hebei, and the southwest of Shanxi provinces. The regional transport of pollutants from biomass combustion in the North China Plain during the winter would have an impact on Wuhan. This study can provide scientific and technological support for identifying the causes of atmospheric haze pollution in Wuhan during the winter and for the joint prevention and control of atmospheric particulate matter.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010834

RESUMEN

High NO2 concentrations (long term average of 383 µg/m3 in 2016/2017) recorded at Birmingham New Street railway station have resulted in the upgrade of the bi-directional fan system to aid wind dispersion within the enclosed platform environment. This paper attempts to examine how successful this intervention has been in improving air quality for both passengers and workers within the station. New air pollution data in 2020 has enabled comparisons to the 2016/2017 monitoring campaign revealing a 23-42% decrease in measured NO2 concentrations. The new levels of NO2 are below the Occupational Health standards but still well above the EU Public Health Standards. This reduction, together with a substantial decrease (up to 81%) in measured Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations, can most likely be attributed to the new fan system effectiveness. Carbon Monoxide levels were well below Occupational and Public Health Standards at all times. The COVID-19 pandemic "initial lockdown" period has also allowed an insight into the resultant air quality at lower rail-traffic intensities, which produced a further reduction in air pollutants, to roughly half the pre-lockdown concentrations. This study shows the scope of improvement that can be achieved through an engineering solution implemented to improve the ventilation system of an enclosed railway station. Further reduction in air pollution would require additional approaches, such as the removal of diesel engine exhaust emissions via the adoption of electric or diesel-electric hybrid powered services.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 215-226, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969449

RESUMEN

Particulate matter emissions (PM10) from the combustion, in a residential stove, of two commercial brands of certified (ENplus A1) pellets, a non-certified brand and laboratory made pellets of acacia were tested for their ability to induce ecotoxic, cytotoxic, and mutagenic responses in unicellular organisms and a human cell line. Ecotoxicity was evaluated through the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay. Moreover, cytotoxicity was assessed at two time points (24- and 48-hr) through two complementary techniques in order to evaluate the cellular metabolic activity and membrane integrity of human lung epithelial cells A549. The Ames test using two Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA100 and TA98) was employed to assess the mutagenic potential of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the PM10 samples. Results obtained with the bioluminescent bacteria indicated that only particles from the combustion of acacia pellets were toxic. All samples induced impairment on the A549 cells metabolic activity, while no significant release of lactate dehydrogenase was recorded. PM10 emissions from acacia pellets were the most cytotoxic, while samples from both certified pellets evoked significant cytotoxicity at lower doses. Cytotoxicity time-dependency was only observed for PM10 from the combustion of acacia pellets and one of the brands of certified pellets. Mutagenic activity was not detected in both S. typhimurium strains. This study emphasises the role of the raw material for pellet manufacturing on the toxicological profile of PM emissions. Alternative raw materials should be deeply investigated before their use in pelletisation and combustion in residential appliances.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Humanos , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad , Mutágenos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Emisiones de Vehículos , Madera/química
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150654, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597568

RESUMEN

Carbonaceous aerosols are major components in PM2.5 of both polluted and clean atmosphere. Accurate source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols may support effective PM2.5 control. Dual-carbon isotope method (14C and 13C) was adopted to identify the contribution of three main air pollution sources biogenic and biomass (fbb), liquid fossil (fliq.fossil) and coal (fcoal). The aerosol samples were collected at three types of sites with distinctly different degree of air pollution: urban, rural and regional background. The seasonal variation of source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosols in urban Beijing was discussed. Modern biogenic and biomass made an absolute dominance of 92.9 ± 0.5% contribution to the carbonaceous aerosols at the background site Mt. Yulong due to long-range transport from Southeast Asia. The three main sources contributed jointly to the atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols at the rural site Wangdu and the urban site Beijing. The biogenic and biomass source was the major contribution in summer (47.0 ± 0.3%) and autumn (49.3 ± 0.3%) of Beijing, while coal source increased from summer (26.8 ± 13.8%) to autumn (34.7 ± 11.5%). Heating significantly increased the coal source to the dominant contribution (47.0 ± 16.9%) in winter of Beijing. Separate day and night time coal contributions were used to evaluate the two origins of coal combustion: industrial use vs. residential use. The results of source apportionment for carbonaceous aerosols provide scientific support for the prevention and control of air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Carbono/análisis , Isótopos de Carbono , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150591, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597580

RESUMEN

The fingerprints and source origins of marine PM2.5 at two background islands in the South China Sea were clustered via trajectory analysis and positive matrix factorization. High PM2.5 concentrations at the Dongsha Islands occurred for the north routes, while Nansha Islands had similar PM2.5 concentrations amongst the transport routes. However, the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 varied with the transport routes. Secondary inorganic aerosols (NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+) were abundant in water-soluble ions which dominated PM2.5. Crustal metals were the abundant metals in PM2.5, while trace metals were primarily originated from man-made sources. Organic carbon was superior to elemental carbon, and high concentrations of levoglucosan and organic acids were observed for the north routes. Overall, marine PM2.5 at the Dongsha Islands was highly influenced by long-range transport of Asian continental outflows, while particulate air quality at the Nansha Islands was mainly governed by clean air parcels blown from the SCS.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Análisis por Conglomerados , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150590, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597581

RESUMEN

In this study, we employed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) to identify the most significant sources contributing to the toxicity of PM10 in the city center of Riyadh. PM10 samples were collected using a medium-volume air sampler during cool (December 2019-March 2020) and warm (May 2020-August 2020) seasons, including dust and non-dust events. The collected filters were analyzed for their chemical components (i.e., water-soluble ions, metals, and trace elements) as well as oxidative potential and elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) contents. Our measurements revealed comparable extrinsic oxidative potential (P-value = 0.30) during the warm (1.2 ± 0.1 nmol/min-m3) and cool (1.1 ± 0.1 nmol/min-m3) periods. Moreover, we observed higher extrinsic oxidative potential of PM10 samples collected during dust events (~30% increase) compared to non-dust samples. Our PCA-MLR analysis identified soil and resuspended dust, secondary aerosol (SA), local industrial activities and petroleum refineries, and traffic emissions as the four sources contributing to the ambient PM10 oxidative potential in central Riyadh. Soil and resuspended dust were the major source contributing to the oxidative potential of ambient PM10, accounting for 31% of the total oxidative potential. Secondary aerosols (SA) were the next important source of PM10 toxicity in the area as they contributed to about 20% of the PM10 oxidative potential. Results of this study revealed the major role of soil and resuspended road dust on PM10 toxicity and can be helpful in adopting targeted air quality policies to reduce the population exposure to PM10.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estrés Oxidativo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Arabia Saudita , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150927, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655639

RESUMEN

Vehicle exhaust gases are important sources of nitrous acid (HONO). In this study, HONO in diesel vehicle exhaust was measured by incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a chassis dynamometer system. The mean HONO concentrations in exhaust gases emitted by passenger cars and light-duty trucks were high when the after treatment devices were not fully working during the warming up period. The HONO/NOx ratio is a good index of HONO formation. The HONO/NOx ratios were 9.7 × 10-3-18.1 × 10-3, and were higher than what we found in a previous study. The estimated HONO emission factors were 7.71-64.70 mg (kg fuel)-1, and were lower than were found in previous studies. The results indicated that the frequency particulate matter is removed from a diesel particle filter affects the HONO concentration in the emitted gases and the HONO emission factor.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ácido Nitroso , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Vehículos a Motor , Ácido Nitroso/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149832, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525712

RESUMEN

The share of non-exhaust particles, including tire wear particles (TWP), within the airborne dust and particularly within PM10 has increased in recent years due to a significant reduction of other particles including exhaust road traffic emissions. However, the quantification of TWP is a demanding task due to the non-specificity of tracers, and the fact that they are commonly contained in analytically challenging low concentrations (e.g. Zn, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, vinylcyclohexene). This difficulty is amplified by the chemical and morpho-textural heterogeneity of TWP resulting from the interaction between the tires and the road surface. In contrast to bulk techniques, automated single particle SEM/EDX analysis can benefit from the ubiquitous heterogeneity of environmental TWP as a diagnostic criterion for their identification and quantification. For this purpose, we follow a machine-learning (ML) approach that makes use of an extensive number (67) of morphological, textural (backscatter-signal based) and chemical descriptors to differentiate environmental particles into the following classes: TWP, metals, minerals and biogenic/organic. We present a ML-based model developed to classify airborne samples (trained by >100,000 environmental particles including 6841 TWP), and its application within a one-year monitoring campaign at two Swiss sites. In this study, the mass concentrations of TWP in the airborne fractions PM80-10, PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-1 were determined. Furthermore, the particle size distribution and shape characteristics of 5621 TWP were evaluated. A cut through a TWP by means of FIB-SEM evidences that the mineral and metal particles typically found in TWP are not only present on the particle surface but also throughout the complete TWP volume. At the urban background site, the annual average mass fraction of TWP and micro-rubber in PM10 was 1.8% (0.28 µg/m3) and 0.9%, respectively. At the urban kerbside site, the corresponding values were 6 times higher amounting to 10.5% (2.24 µg/m3) for TWP, and 5.0% for micro-rubber.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Polvo , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Imagen Individual de Molécula , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150171, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537714

RESUMEN

Different powertrains passenger cars, homologate in compliance with Euro 6 standard, were compared in a life cycle perspective for assessing both environmental and human health impacts. For this latter aspect, some correlation between the emission of heavy metals, elemental carbon, organic carbon, the oxidative potential of particulate matter and the adverse effect on human health were also analyzed and discussed. Battery electric vehicle (BEV) showed the lower greenhouse gases emissions, from 0.1 kgCO2eq/km to 0.2 kgCO2eq/km but were charged by the higher emissions of freshwater eutrophication and freshwater ecotoxicity, about 6 × 10-6 kgPeq/km and 4 CTUe/km, respectively. Lower resource depletion was detected for cars powered by internal combustion and hybrid powertrains. Amount of particulate matter (PM) emitted resulted lower for petrol-hybrid electric vehicles (Petrol-HEV), of about 5 × 10-5 kgPM2.5eq/km. BEV were charged by the higher values of human toxicity cancer, from about 2 × 10-5 CTUh/km to about 5 × 10-5 CTUh/km whereas Petrol-HEV were credited by the lower impact on human health (DALY/km). The large contribution to PM emission from all the analyzed cars was from tyre and brake wear. Main PM components were elemental (ElC) and organic carbon (OC) compounds. ElC is also a specific marker of PM emitted from traffic. Both ElC and OC were characterized by a strong correlation with the oxidative potential of PM, indicating a threat for human respiratory tract only marginally decreased by the transition from conventional to electric poweretrains vehicles.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Animales , Automóviles , Gasolina , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Vehículos a Motor , Estrés Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150214, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571223

RESUMEN

Fuel exhaust particulate matter (FEPM) is an important source of air pollution worldwide. However, the comparative and mechanistic toxicity of FEPMs emitted from combustion of different fuels is still not fully understood. This study employed pathway-based approaches via human cells to evaluate mechanistic toxicity of FEPMs. The results showed that FEPMs caused concentration-dependent (0.1-200 µg/mL) cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. FEPMs at low concentration (10 µg/mL) induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2 phases, while high level of FEPMs (200 µg/mL) caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Different FEPMs induced distinct expression profiles of toxicity-related genes, illustrating different toxic mechanisms. Furthermore, FEPMs inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), which related with reproductive toxicity. Spearman rank correlations among the chemicals carried by FEPMs and the toxic effects revealed that PAHs and metals promoted cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and suppressed PKA activity. Furthermore, PAHs (Nap and Acy) and metals (Al and Pb) in FEPMs were highly and positively correlated with the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, ER stress, metal stress and inflammation. Our findings offered more mechanistic information of FEPMs at the level of subcellular toxicity and help to better understand their potential health effects.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132309, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601373

RESUMEN

This study aims to determine the inorganic and carbonaceous components depending on the seasonal variation and size distribution of urban air particles in Kuala Lumpur. Different fractions of particulate matter (PM) were measured using a Nanosampler from 17 February 2017 until 27 November 2017. The water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) and carbonaceous components in all samples were analysed using ion chromatography and carbon analyser thermal/optical reflectance, respectively. Total PM concentration reached its peak during the southwest (SW) season (70.99 ± 6.04 µg/m3), and the greatest accumulation were observed at PM0.5-1.0 (22%-30%, 9.55 ± 1.03 µg/m3) and PM2.5-10 (22%-25%, 10.34 ± 0.81 µg/m3). SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were major contributors of WSIIs, and their formation was favoured mainly during SW season (80.5% of total ions). PM0.5-1.0 and PM2.5-10 exhibited the highest percentage of WSII size distribution, accounted for 28.4% and 13.5% of the total mass, respectively. The average contribution of carbonaceous species (OC + EC) to total carbonaceous concentrations were higher in PM0.5-1.0 (35.2%) and PM2.5-10 (26.6%). Ultrafine particles (PM<0.1) consistently indicated that the sources were from vehicle emission while the SW season was constantly dominated by biomass burning sources. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, secondary inorganic aerosol and biomass burning (30.3%) was known as a significant source of overall PM. As a conclusion, ratio and source apportionment indicate the mixture of biomass burning, secondary inorganic aerosols and motor vehicle contributed to the size-segregated PM and seasonal variation of inorganic and carbonaceous components of urban air particles.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Malasia , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
14.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118303, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626703

RESUMEN

Fine particulate matter cause profound adverse health effects in Iran. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in urban areas, and has a large contribution in PM2.5 and organic carbon concentration, in Tehran, Iran. The composition of fine PM vehicle emission is poorly known, so this paper aims to determine the mixed fleet source profile by using the analysed data from the two internal stations and the emission factor for PM light-duty vehicles emission. Tunnels are ideal media for extraction vehicle source profile and emission factor, due to vehicles are the only source of pollutant in the urban tunnels. In this study, PM samples were collected simultaneously in two road tunnel stations and at a background site in Niyayesh tunnel in Tehran, Iran. The tunnel samples show a large contribution for some elements and ions, such as Fe (0.23 µg µg-1 OC), Al (0.02 µg µg-1 OC), Ca (0.055 µg µg-1 OC), SO4 (0.047 µg µg-1 OC), Docosane (0.0017 µg µg-1 OC), Triacontane (0.016 µg µg-1 OC), Anthracenedione (0.0003 µg µg-1 OC) and Benzo-perylene (0.0002 µg µg-1 OC). In overall, on-road gasoline vehicle fleets source profile extracted in this study is similar to composite profiles derived from roadside tunnel measurment performed in other countries during the last decades. The PM2.5 emission factor for Tehran's light-duty vehicle fleet has been extracted 16.23 mg km-1. vehicle-1and 0.09 g kg-1. The profile would be used for Chemical Mass Balance Model studies for Iran and other countries with a similar road traffic fleet mix. Also, it would be very suitable for use in emission inventories improvement. The results of this study can be used for choosing the best management strategies and provide comperhensive insight to fine PM traffic emission in Tehran.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Gasolina , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gasolina/análisis , Irán , Vehículos a Motor , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
15.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118278, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634405

RESUMEN

SOx Emissions Control Areas (SECAs) have been established to reduce harmful effects of atmospheric sulfur. Typical technological changes for ships to conform with these regulations have included the combustion of low-sulfur fuels or installment of SOx scrubbers. This paper presents experimental findings from high-end real-time measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants onboard a Roll-on/Roll-off Passenger ship sailing inside a SECA equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a scrubber as the exhaust aftertreatment. The ship operates between two ports and switched off the SOx scrubbing when approaching one of the ports and used low-sulfur fuel instead. Measurement results showed that the scrubber effectively reduced SO2 concentrations with over 99% rate. In terms of fuel, the engine-out PM was higher for heavy fuel oil than for marine gas oil. During open sea cruising (65% load) the major chemical components in PM having emission factor of 1.7 g kgfuel-1 were sulfate (66%) and organics (30%) whereas the contribution of black carbon (BC) in PM was low (∼4%). Decreased engine load on the other hand increased exhaust concentrations of BC by a factor exceeding four. As a novel finding, the secondary aerosol formation potential of the emitted exhaust measured with an oxidation flow reactor and an aerosol mass spectrometer was found negligible. Thus, it seems that either DOC, scrubber, or their combination is efficient in eliminating SOA precursors. Overall, results indicate that in addition to targeting sulfur and NOx emissions from shipping, future work should focus on mitigating harmful particle emissions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Gasolina/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Navíos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
16.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118285, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634409

RESUMEN

Air pollution has become a major issue in China, especially for traffic-related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Current studies in China at the national scale were less focused on NO2 exposure and consequent health effects than fine particulate exposure, mainly due to a lack of high-quality exposure models for accurate NO2 predictions over a long period. We developed an advanced modeling framework that incorporated multisource, high-quality predictor data (e.g., satellite observations [Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2, TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument NO2, and Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction aerosol optical depth], chemical transport model simulations, high-resolution geographical variables) and three independent machine learning algorithms into an ensemble model. The model contains three stages: (1) filling missing satellite data; (2) building an ensemble model and predicting daily NO2 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 across China at 1×1 km2 resolution; (3) downscaling the predictions to finer resolution (100 m) at the urban scale. Our model achieves a high performance in terms of cross-validation to assess the agreement of the overall (R2 = 0.72) and the spatial (R2 = 0.85) variations of the NO2 predictions over the observations. The model performance remains moderately good when the predictions are extrapolated to the previous years without any monitoring data (CV R2 > 0.68) or regions far away from monitors (CV R2 > 0.63). We identified a clear decreasing trend of NO2 exposure from 2013 to 2019 across the country with the largest reduction in suburban and rural areas. Our downscaled model further improved the prediction ability by 4%-14% in some megacities and captured substantial NO2 variations within 1-km grids in the urban areas, especially near major roads. Our model provides flexibility at both temporal and spatial scales and can be applied to exposure assessment and epidemiological studies with various study domains (e.g., national or citywide) and settings (e.g., long-term and short-term).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127133, 2022 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530274

RESUMEN

The ferry service of the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is one of the busiest in the world. However, a disadvantage of this mass transportation is the large emissions of hazardous substances from diesel combustion. We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC), particle number (PN) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) while commuting by double-decker ferries. The particulate concentrations were larger in the lower than in the upper decks, attributed to the infiltration of smoke when ferries were docked and leakage through openings around the door frames during cruising. Boarding/alighting were the most polluted phases (eBC, PM2.5 and PN were 3.3-, 1.4- and 2.7-fold larger than during cruising), due to the high engine load to keep the ferries locked in position, while TVOCs showed no statistically significant differences. Particulate concentrations on naturally ventilated vessels were between 2.5- and 3.5-fold larger than on the air-conditioned ones, but TVOCs were 150-fold higher in the latter, attributed to emissions from furniture and cleaning products. Mean eBC and PM2.5 concentrations on-board the ferries surpassed those at the kerbside. Modernising or retrofitting the vessels could diminish the emissions of hazardous substances, while jet bridges could reduce the commuters' exposure during boarding.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sustancias Peligrosas , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
18.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118356, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653582

RESUMEN

The inorganic components of particulate matter (PM), especially transition metals, have been shown to contribute to PM toxicity. In this study, the spatial distribution of PM elements and their potential sources in the Greater Los Angeles area were studied. The mass concentration and detailed elemental composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were assessed at 46 locations, including urban traffic, urban community, urban background, and desert locations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs), roadside enrichments (REs), and bivariate correlation analysis revealed that Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Sb, Zn, and Zr were associated with traffic emissions in both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, while Fe, Li, Mn, and Ti were affected by traffic emissions mostly in PM2.5. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mo, Sb, Zr (brake wear tracers), Pd (tailpipe tracer), and Zn (associated with tire wear) were higher at urban traffic sites than urban background locations by factors of 2.6-4.6. Both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 elements showed large spatial variations, indicating the presence of diverse emission sources across sampling locations. Principal component analysis extracted four source factors that explained 88% of the variance in the PM2.5 elemental concentrations, and three sources that explained 86% of the variance in the PM2.5-10 elemental concentrations. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, the contribution of traffic emissions (27%) to PM2.5 was found to be higher than mineral dust (23%), marine aerosol (18%), and industrial emissions (8%). On the other hand, mineral dust was the dominant source of PM2.5-10 with 45% contribution, followed by marine aerosol (22%), and traffic emissions (19%). This study provides novel insight into the spatial variation of traffic-related elements in a large metropolitan area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Los Angeles , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
19.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118468, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748887

RESUMEN

Maternal exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, but little is known about which constituents and sources are most relevant to glycemic effects. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1148 pregnant women to investigate associations of PM2.5 chemical components with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to identify the most harmful sources in Heshan, China from January 2015 to July 2016. We measured PM2.5 using filter-based method and analyzed them for 28 constituents, including carbonaceous species, water-soluble ions and metal elements. Contributions of PM2.5 sources were assessed by positive matrix factorization (PMF). Logistic regression model was used to estimate composition-specific and source-specific effects on GDM/IGT. Random forest algorithm was applied to evaluate the relative importance of components to GDM and IGT. PM2.5 total mass and several chemical constituents were associated with GDM and IGT across the early to mid-gestation periods, as were the PM2.5 sources fossil fuel/oil combustion, road dust, metal smelting, construction dust, electronic waster, vehicular emissions and industrial emissions. The trimester-specific associations differed among pollutants and sources. The third and highest quartile of elemental carbon, ammonium (NH4+), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) across gestation were consistently associated with higher odds of GDM/IGT. Maternal exposures to zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti) and vehicular emissions during the first trimester, and vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), road dust and fossil fuel/oil combustion during the second trimester were more important for GDM/IGT. This study provides important new evidence that maternal exposure to PM2.5 components and sources is significantly related to elevated risk for abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Intolerancia a la Glucosa , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Glucemia , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150255, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818776

RESUMEN

Air quality deterioration due to vehicular emissions in smaller Indian cities and rural areas remains unacknowledged, even though the situation is alarmingly similar to megacities. The resulting lack of knowledge on travel behavior and vehicle characteristics impacts accuracy of emission studies in these regions. This study uses a novel approach and appropriate primary and secondary data sets to allocate vehicular activities (vehicle population and vehicle kilometer travelled) and associated emissions at a high spatial resolution for estimation and dispersion analysis of vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust PM2.5 emission in an Indian urban-rural landscape. The study indicates that using approaches that do not allocate vehicles kilometers travelled to areas of their expected travel results in underestimating the percent share of PM2.5 emissions from rural roads and motorways while overestimating overall PM2.5 emissions. Particulate matter resuspension is the dominant form of PM2.5 emissions from the vehicular sector on all road types, constituting an even higher fraction on rural roads. Two-wheelers contribute a high fraction of PM2.5 emissions (exhaust and non-exhaust combined), followed by heavy commercial vehicles and four-wheelers on urban roads. Light commercial vehicles, especially agricultural tractors dominate these emissions on rural roads. PM2.5 hotspots are prevalent in urban areas, but several rural areas also experience heavy particulate matter concentrations. Thus, vehicle movement incorporation results in more accurate emission estimation, especially in an urban-rural landscape.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
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