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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149914, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474293

RESUMEN

The increasing production and application of graphene oxide (GO, a popular carbon nanomaterial), makes their release into aqueous environment inevitably. The capability of GO to enhance the toxicity of background contaminants has been widely concerned. However, the effect of GO on heavy metal accumulation in fish embryos remains unclear. Here, we show that GO-promoted chromium (Cr) uptake by zebrafish embryos with multiple effects. The adsorption accelerated the aggregation and settlement of Cr6+-adsorbed GO and decreased the Cr6+ concentration in the upper water, which enhanced the interaction of chorions and contaminants (Cr6+, GO and Cr6+-adsorbed GO). In the presence of GO, the Cr content in chorions and intra-chorion embryos was increased by four times and 57% respectively, compared to that of the single Cr6+ exposure. Furthermore, GO+Cr6+ increased the oxygen consumption rates, embryonic acid extrusion rates and ATP production, induced more serious oxidative stress, and disturbed amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and TCA cycle. These findings provide new insights into the effect of GO on heavy metal bioaccumulation and toxicity during embryogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Grafito , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Animales , Cromo/toxicidad , Metabolismo Energético , Grafito/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Pez Cebra
2.
Gene ; 807: 145934, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478820

RESUMEN

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measurement of feed efficiency, and is inversely correlated with feed efficiency. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with RFI vary substantially among studies, posing great challenges in finding the RFI-related marker genes. This study attempted to resolve this issue by integrating and comparing the multiple transcriptome sequencing data associated with RFI in the cattle liver, using differential, functional enrichment, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, weighted co-expression network (WGCNA), and gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) to identify the candidate genes and functional enrichment pathways that are closely associated with RFI. Four candidate genes namely SHC1, GPX4, ACADL, and IGF1 were identified and validated as the marker genes for RFI. Four functional enrichment pathways, namely the fatty acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, energy metabolism, and protein ubiquitination were also found to be closely related to RFI. This study identified several genes and signaling pathways with shared characteristics, which will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms related to the regulation of feed efficiency, and provide basis for molecular markers related to feed efficiency in beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Hígado/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/genética , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/genética , Hígado/fisiología , Fosfolípido Hidroperóxido Glutatión Peroxidasa/genética , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas/genética , Transducción de Señal/genética , Proteína Transformadora 1 que Contiene Dominios de Homología 2 de Src/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Ubiquitinación/genética , Secuenciación del Exoma Completo/métodos
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131866, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391112

RESUMEN

Tralopyril (TP), an antifouling biocide, is widely used to prevent heavy biofouling, and can have potential risks to aquatic organisms. In this study, the effect of TP on locomotor activity and related mechanisms were evaluated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. TP significantly reduced locomotor activity after 168 -h exposure. Adverse modifications in tail muscle tissue, the nervous system, and energy metabolism were also observed in larvae. TP caused thinning of the muscle bundle in the tail of larvae. In conjunction with the metabolomics results, changes in dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the expression of genes involved in neurodevelopment, indicate that TP may disrupt the nervous system in zebrafish larvae. The change in metabolites (e.g., glucose 6-phosphate, cis-Aconitic acid, acetoacetyl-CoA, coenzyme-A and 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA) involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism indicates that TP may disrupt energy metabolism. TP exposure may inhibit the locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae by impairing tail muscle tissue, the nervous system, and energy metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Pez Cebra , Acetilcolinesterasa , Animales , Metabolismo Energético , Larva , Locomoción , Músculos , Sistema Nervioso , Pirroles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(3): e20200816, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339662

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated physical characteristics, chemical composition, content of vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and minerals in biribiri fruits (Averrhoa bilimbi) from the Middle Doce River region (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Titratable acidity was determined by volumetric neutralization, pH by direct potentiometry, soluble solids by refractometry, humidity by gravimetry, ash by calcination in muffle, proteins by the micro-Kjeldahl method, dietary fiber by non-enzymatic gravimetric method and lipids using a Soxhlet extractor. Carotenoids and vitamin C were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detector. Fourteen minerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Biribiri showed high yield of edible portion (100%), low lipid, protein and carbohydrate content, and; consequently, low total energy value (25.36 kcal 100 g-1). The fruit also showed low dietary fiber content (0.62 g 100 g-1), total vitamin E (17.62 µg 100 g-1), total carotenoids (0.32 g 100 g-1), and high vitamin C, zinc, copper, iron content, manganese, molybdenum and chrome content. Regarding the heavy metals, the fruit showed no cadmium, and traces of aluminum and nickel. In conclusion, biribiri presented low energy value and expressive contents of dietary fibers, vitamin C, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, and copper.


RESUMO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as características físicas, a composição química, teor de vitamina C, vitamina E, carotenoides e minerais em frutos de biribiri (Averrhoa bilimbi) do território do Médio Rio Doce (Minas Gerais, Brasil). A acidez titulável foi determinada por neutralização volumétrica, o pH por potenciometria direta, os sólidos solúveis por refratometria, a umidade por gravimetria, as cinzas por calcinação em mufla, as proteínas pelo método micro-Kjeldahl, as fibras alimentares pelo método gravimétrico não enzimático e os lipídios usando um extrator Soxhlet. Os carotenoides e a vitamina C foram analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A vitamina E foi analisada por CLAE com detector de fluorescência e quatorze minerais foram analisados por espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado. O biribiri apresentou alto rendimento de porção comestível (100%), baixos teores de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos e, consequentemente, baixo valor total de energia (25,36 kcal 100 g-1). Os frutos também apresentaram baixos teores de fibra alimentar (0,62 g 100 g-1), vitamina E total (17,62 µg 100 g-1), carotenoides totais (0,32 g 100 g-1) e altos teores de vitamina C, zinco, cobre, ferro, manganês, molibdênio e conteúdo cromado. Em relação aos metais pesados, os frutos não apresentaram cádmio e tiveram vestígios de alumínio e níquel. Em conclusão, o biribiri apresentou baixo valor energético e conteúdos expressivos de fibras alimentares, vitamina C, ferro, manganês, molibdênio, cromo, zinco e cobre.

5.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 173-197, 20210630. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282510

RESUMEN

Exergames são jogos virtuais que funcionam por meio de movimentos corporais e aumentam o gasto energético significativamente em comparação ao repouso. No presente estudo, analiso as temáticas, reporte e métodos de revisões sistemáticas (RSs) brasileiras sobre exergames. Por meio de uma revisão guarda-chuva (revisão de RSs) selecionei 16 estudos que atenderam critérios de elegibilidade pré-estabelecidos. Analisei o conteúdo das RSs para mapear suas temáticas e utilizei a ferramenta AMSTAR 2 para avaliar seus métodos e reporte. Exergames foram relacionados a diversos temas (p.ex., dispêndio energético, reabilitação, ensino e aprendizagem) e nenhuma RS abordou a mesma questão de pesquisa. Infelizmente, todas as RSs apresentaram limitações no reporte e métodos. Essas limitações dificultam a avaliação dessas RSs e diminuem a confiança nas conclusões alcançadas por seus autores.


Exergames are virtual games that work through body movements and increase energy expenditure significantly in comparison to rest. In the present study, I analyze the topics, study's report, and methods of Brazilian systematic reviews (SRs) about exergames. Through an umbrella review (review of SRs), I selected 16 studies that met pre-established eligibility criteria. I analyzed the contents of these SRs to map their topics and used the AMSTAR 2 tool to evaluate their methods and report. Exergames were related to several themes (e.g. energy expenditure, rehabilitation, teaching, and learning), and no SR addressed the same research question. Unfortunately, all SRs have limitations in their report and methods. These limitations hinder the evaluation of these SRs and decrease the confidence in the conclusions reached by their authors.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1050-1053, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153444

RESUMEN

Abstract The number of individuals with empty stomachs in a population (i.e. the proportion of individuals "running on empty") can be used as a simple index of instantaneous energy balance of some organisms such as lizards and fishes. In this study, we aimed to analyze the proportion of empty stomachs in 16 populations of five cnemidophorine species (Glaucomastix abaetensis, Ameivula ocellifera, Glaucomastix littoralis, Contomastix lacertoides and Ameivula nativo) along approximately 5,000 km the Brazilian coast. A total of 550 individuals had their stomach contents removed and identified in the laboratory. Our results showed that the proportion of individuals "running on empty" varied from 0 to 11.1% among the different populations and species. These proportions are suggestive that the five studied species would be in an overall positive energy balance at the time of the study.


Resumo O número de indivíduos com estômagos vazios em uma população (i.e. a proporção de indivíduos "correndo no vazio") pode ser usado como um índice simples do balanço energético instantâneo de organismos como lagartos e peixes. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a proporção de estômagos vazios em 16 populações pertencentes a cinco espécies de cnemidophorines (Glaucomastix abaetensis, Ameivula ocellifera, Glaucomastix littoralis, Contomastix lacertoides e Ameivula nativo) ao longo de cerca de 5,000 km da costa leste do Brasil. Um total de 550 indivíduos tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais removidos e analisados em laboratório. Nossos resultados mostraram que a proporção de indivíduos "correndo no vazio" variou entre 0 a 11.1% entre as diferentes populações e espécies. Essas proporções sugerem que as cinco espécies estudadas estariam em geral em um balanço energético positivo, quando da realização deste estudo.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770294

RESUMEN

Blood glucose (BG) concentration monitoring is essential for controlling complications arising from diabetes, as well as digital management of the disease. At present, finger-prick glucometers are widely used to measure BG concentrations. In consideration of the challenges of invasive BG concentration measurements involving pain, risk of infection, expense, and inconvenience, we propose a noninvasive BG concentration detection method based on the conservation of energy metabolism. In this study, a multisensor integrated detection probe was designed and manufactured by 3D-printing technology to be worn on the wrist. Two machine-learning algorithms were also applied to establish the regression model for predicting BG concentrations. The results showed that the back-propagation neural network model produced better performance than the multivariate polynomial regression model, with a mean absolute relative difference and correlation coefficient of 5.453% and 0.936, respectively. Here, about 98.413% of the predicted values were within zone A of the Clarke error grid. The above results proved the potential of our method and device for noninvasive glucose concentration detection from the human wrist.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia , Glucosa , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770334

RESUMEN

This research was undertaken to perform and evaluate the temperature measurement in the ground utilized as an energy source with the goal to determine whether significant temperature variations occur in the subsurface during the heating season. The research infrastructure situated on our University campus was used to assess any variations. The observations were made at the so called "Small Research Polygon" that consists of 8 monitoring boreholes (Borehole Heat Exchangers) situated around a borehole used as an energy source. During the heating season, a series of monthly measurements are made in the monitoring boreholes using a distributed temperature system (DTS). Raman back-scattered light is analysed using Optical Frequency Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). Our results indicate that no noticeable changes in temperature occur during the heating season. We have observed an influence of long-term variations of the atmospheric conditions up to the depth of a conventional BHE (≈100 m). The resulting uncertainty in related design input parameters (ground thermal conductivity) was evaluated by using a heat production simulation. Production data during one heating season at our research facilities were evaluated against the design of the system. It is possible to construct smaller geothermal installations with appropriate BHE design that will have a minimal impact on the temperature of the surrounding rock mass and the system performance.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Calefacción , Calor , Humanos , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770365

RESUMEN

Wearable technologies are known to improve our quality of life. Among the various wearable devices, shoes are non-intrusive, lightweight, and can be used for outdoor activities. In this study, we estimated the energy consumption and heart rate in an environment (i.e., running on a treadmill) using smart shoes equipped with triaxial acceleration, triaxial gyroscope, and four-point pressure sensors. The proposed model uses the latest deep learning architecture which does not require any separate preprocessing. Moreover, it is possible to select the optimal sensor using a channel-wise attention mechanism to weigh the sensors depending on their contributions to the estimation of energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR). The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Moreover, the RMSE was 1.05 ± 0.15, MAE 0.83 ± 0.12 and R2 0.922 ± 0.005 in EE estimation. On the other hand, and RMSE was 7.87 ± 1.12, MAE 6.21 ± 0.86, and R2 0.897 ± 0.017 in HR estimation. In both estimations, the most effective sensor was the z axis of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors. Through these results, it is demonstrated that the proposed model could contribute to the improvement of the performance of both EE and HR estimations by effectively selecting the optimal sensors during the active movements of participants.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Zapatos , Metabolismo Energético , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
10.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(5): 323-329, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719618

RESUMEN

Energy intake (EI) has been identified as a key factor of health controlled by exercise. Aerobic dance exercise (ADEX) is a popular exercise for fitness that one can enjoy. This present study aims to examine the influence of ADEX on moods, appetite, and EI. Thirty-one young female college students completed two 1-h experimental conditions: sedentary (SED) and ADEX followed by an ad libitum lunch. Visual analog scales and measurement of salivary α-amylase activity were used to assess appetite, fatigue, and stress at pre act, post act, and pre lunch, respectively. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of the SED or ADEX activities was measured using the Borg scale (range, 6-20). The participants completed the Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition-Adult Short at pre and post act only on the ADEX experimental day to assess the degree to which total mood disturbance (TMD), negative mood disturbance (NMD), and positive mood disturbance (PMD) have correlations with EI. In results, ADEX increased in RPE but did not affect TMD, NMD, PMD, hunger, fullness, appetite, and EI. Additionally, the ADEX-induced relative changes in EI were not determined to be significantly correlated with RPE in ADEX or the change in TMD, NMD, or PMD by ADEX. Our study suggests that ADEX does not affect mood, appetite, and EI. In addition, individual mood changes caused by ADEX do not correlate with EI in young adult women.


Asunto(s)
Apetito , Baile , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven
11.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(5): 330-338, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719619

RESUMEN

The Dietary Reference Intakes 2020 divided the older population into those aged 65-74 y and those over 75 y old. However, physical activity level in each age group was not specified. This study examined age-related differences in physical activity level among healthy Japanese older people, and the effect of lifestyles on these differences. In total, 70 people (22 men, 48 women) aged 65-85 y old participated in this study. Total energy expenditure was measured using the doubly labeled water method, and basal metabolic rate using expired gas concentration and volume. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and a triaxial accelerometer were used to assess physical activities. Physical activity level was significantly higher among 65-74 y old (median 1.86) than those over 75 y old (1.76). However, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly did not show any significant differences between the age groups. The duration of physical activity with 3.0-5.9 metabolic equivalents was longer for both locomotive and household activities among 65-74 y old than those over 75 y old. Younger participants walked a median of 6,364 steps a day, compared with 4,419 steps for older people. The 65-74 y old participants involved in paid work or who habitually exercised, and those over 75 y old taking more than 40 min a day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and walking more than the median level for their sex and age group had significantly higher physical activity levels.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Ejercicio Físico , Anciano , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Caminata
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639006

RESUMEN

Breast cancer development is associated with macrophage infiltration and differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. Our previous study highlights the crucial function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in enhancing macrophage infiltration during the disruption of mammary tissue polarity. However, the regulation of ROS and ROS-associated macrophage infiltration in breast cancer has not been fully determined. Previous studies identified retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) as a potential tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. In the present study, we showed that retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) significantly decreased ROS levels and inhibited ROS-mediated cytokine expression in breast cancer cells. RORα expression in mammary epithelial cells inhibited macrophage infiltration by repressing ROS generation in the co-culture assay. Using gene co-expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, we identified complex I subunits NDUFS6 and NDUFA11 as RORα targets that mediated its function in suppressing superoxide generation in mitochondria. Notably, the expression of RORα in 4T1 cells significantly inhibited cancer metastasis, reduced macrophage accumulation, and enhanced M1-like macrophage differentiation in tumor tissue. In addition, reduced RORα expression in breast cancer tissue was associated with an increased incidence of cancer metastasis. These results provide additional insights into cancer-associated inflammation, and identify RORα as a potential target to suppress ROS-induced mammary tumor progression.


Asunto(s)
Complejo I de Transporte de Electrón/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Miembro 1 del Grupo F de la Subfamilia 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores , Respiración de la Célula , Citocinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Inflamación/genética , Inflamación/metabolismo , Inflamación/patología , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patología , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Asociados a Tumores/inmunología , Macrófagos Asociados a Tumores/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639199

RESUMEN

The neuropeptide oxytocin is produced in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition to its extensively studied influence on social behavior and reproductive function, central oxytocin signaling potently reduces food intake in both humans and animal models and has potential therapeutic use for obesity treatment. In this review, we highlight rodent model research that illuminates various neural, behavioral, and signaling mechanisms through which oxytocin's anorexigenic effects occur. The research supports a framework through which oxytocin reduces food intake via amplification of within-meal physiological satiation signals rather than by altering between-meal interoceptive hunger and satiety states. We also emphasize the distributed neural sites of action for oxytocin's effects on food intake and review evidence supporting the notion that central oxytocin is communicated throughout the brain, at least in part, through humoral-like volume transmission. Finally, we highlight mechanisms through which oxytocin interacts with various energy balance-associated neuropeptide and endocrine systems (e.g., agouti-related peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, leptin), as well as the behavioral mechanisms through which oxytocin inhibits food intake, including effects on nutrient-specific ingestion, meal size control, food reward-motivated responses, and competing motivations.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Oxitocina/farmacología , Conducta Social , Animales , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos
15.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111045, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620443

RESUMEN

The present study provides a visual insight into the effects of simulated microgravity (MG) on somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Begonia through the analysis of phytohormone fluctuations and energy metabolism. To investigate this relationship, thin cell layer culture model was first used. The results showed that MG changed the phytohormone content and stimulated starch biosynthesis to convert into sugar to release energy needed for regeneration and proliferation. Moreover, from the results it is likely that MG accelerated the initiation and subsequently maturation and aging of SE via decrease of AUX and increase of ABA. High content of GA, CKs, starch, sugar and low ABA as well as high CKs/ABA ratio were responsible for the increase in the number of embryos under clinorotation which was 1.57-fold higher than control after 90 days. The increase in fresh and dry weight of somatic embryos and chlorophyll content under MG were confirmed as their adaptive responses to gravitational stress. However, long-term exposure to MG (120 days) stimulated biosynthesis of ABA levels 1.85-fold higher than controls, which resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll content, increase in number of mature embryos and stomata length. These results revealed that MG regulated the induction, differentiation and senescence of somatic embryos via a biochemical interaction pathway.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Begoniaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Begoniaceae/metabolismo , Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Técnicas de Embriogénesis Somática de Plantas
16.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153761, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Premna herbacea Roxb., a perennial herb is well documented for its therapeutic uses among the traditional health care-givers of Assam, India. Scientific validation on the traditional use of the medicinal plant using modern technology may promote further research in health care. PURPOSE: This study evaluates the therapeutic potential of methanolic extract of P. herbacea (MEPH) against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its phytochemical(s) in ameliorating insulin resistance (IR), thereby endorsing the plant bioactives as effective anti-hyperglycemic agents. METHODS: The anti-diabetic potential of the plant extract was explored both in L6 muscle cells and high fructose high fat diet (HF-HFD) fed male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation procedure yielded Verbascoside and Isoverbascoside (ISOVER) as bioactive and major phytochemicals in P. herbacea. The bioenergetics profile of bioactive ISOVER and its anti-hyperglycemic potential was validated in vitro by XFe24 analyzer, glucose uptake assay and intracellular ROS generation by flourometer, FACS and confocal microscopy. The potential of ISOVER was also checked by screening various protein markers via immunoblotting. RESULTS: MEPH enhanced glucose uptake in FFA-induced insulin resistant (IR) L6 muscle cells and decreased elevated blood glucose levels in HF-HFD fed rats. Isoverbascoside (ISOVER) was identified as most bioactive phytochemical for the first time from the plant in the Premna genus. ISOVER activated the protein kinase B/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling cascades and enhanced glucose uptake in IR-L6 muscle cells. ISOVER decreased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and increased that of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), thereby attenuating IR. However, molecular docking revealed that ISOVER increases insulin sensitivity by targeting the JNK1 kinase as a competitive inhibitor rather than mTOR. These findings were further supported by the bioenergetics profile of ISOVER. CONCLUSION: This study for the first time depicts the functional properties of ISOVER, derived from Premna herbacea, in ameliorating IR. The phytochemical significantly altered IR with enhanced glucose uptake and inhibition of ROS through JNK-AKT/mTOR signaling which may pave the way for further research in T2DM therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistencia a la Insulina , Animales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Metabolismo Energético , Glucosa , Glucósidos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Fenoles , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo
17.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 68, 2021 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An accurate estimation of athletes' energy needs is crucial in diet planning to improve sport performance and to maintain an appropriate body composition. This study aimed to develop and validate in elite athletes new equations for estimating resting energy expenditure (REE) based on anthropometric parameters as well as bioimpedance analysis (BIA)-derived raw variables and to validate the accuracy of selected predictive equations. METHODS: Adult elite athletes aged 18-40 yrs were studied. Anthropometry, indirect calorimetry and BIA were performed in all subjects. The new predictive equations were generated using different regression models. The accuracy of the new equations was assessed at the group level (bias) and at the individual level (precision accuracy), and then compared with the one of five equations used in the general population or three athletes-specific formulas. RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-six male athletes (age 26.9 ± 9.1 yrs; weight 71.3 ± 10.9 kg; BMI 22.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2) from different sport specialties were randomly assigned to the calibration (n = 75) or validation group (n = 51). REE was directly correlated with individual characteristics, except for age, and raw BIA variables. Most of the equations from the literature were reasonably accurate at the population level (bias within ±5%). The new equations showed a mean bias -0.3% (Eq. A based on anthropometric parameters) and -0.6% (Eq. B based on BIA-derived raw variables). Precision accuracy (individual predicted-measured differences within ±5%) was ~75% in six out of eight of the selected equations and even higher for Eq. A (82.4%) and Eq. B (92.2%). CONCLUSION: In elite athletes, BIA-derived phase angle is a significant predictor of REE. The new equations have a very good prediction accuracy at both group and individual levels. The use of phase angle as predictor of REE requires further research with respect to different sport specialties, training programs and training level.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Impedancia Eléctrica , Metabolismo Energético , Modelos Estadísticos , Deportes/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Calorimetría Indirecta , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Descanso , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the influence of energy balance on sleep in adolescents, particularly those with obesity, could help develop strategies to optimize sleep in these populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep under ad libitum-vs-controlled diets adjusted to energy requirement (eucaloric) among adolescents with obesity and their normal weight controls. METHODS: Twenty-eight male adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years, n = 14 adolescents with obesity (OB: BMI ≥ 90th centile) and n = 14 normal weight age matched controls (NW), completed an experimental protocol comprising ad libitum or eucaloric meals for three days, in random order. During the third night of each condition, they underwent in home polysomnography (PSG). RESULTS: An interaction effect of energy intake (EI) was detected (p < 0.001). EI was higher during ad libitum compared to the eucaloric condition (p < 0.001) and in OB compared to NW (p < 0.001) in the absence of any substantial modification to macronutrient proportions. Analyses of energy intake distribution throughout the day showed a significant interaction with both a condition and group effect during lunch and dinner. Sleep improvements were noted in OB group during the eucaloric condition compared to ad libitum with reduced sleep onset latency and N1 stage. Sleep improvements were correlated to reduced EI, especially during the evening meal. CONCLUSION: Simply adjusting dietary intake to energy requirement and reducing the energy proportion of the evening meal could have therapeutic effects on sleep in adolescents with obesity. However, positive energy balance alone cannot justify worsened sleep among adolescents with obesity compared to normal weight counterparts.


Asunto(s)
Restricción Calórica/métodos , Comidas/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/dietoterapia , Sueño/fisiología , Adolescente , Niño , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Polisomnografía , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684558

RESUMEN

Markers of iron metabolism are altered in new-onset diabetes, but their relationship with metabolic signals involved in the maintenance of energy balance is poorly understood. The primary aim was to explore the associations between markers of iron metabolism (hepcidin and ferritin) and markers of energy balance (leptin, ghrelin, and the leptin/ghrelin ratio) in both the fasted and postprandial states. These associations were also studied in the sub-groups stratified by diabetes status. This was a cross-sectional study of individuals without disorders of iron metabolism who were investigated after an overnight fast and, in addition, some of these individuals underwent a mixed meal test to determine postprandial responses of metabolic signals. The associations between hepcidin, ferritin, and leptin, ghrelin, leptin/ghrelin ratio were studied using several multiple linear regression models. A total of 76 individuals in the fasted state and 34 individuals in the postprandial state were included. In the overall cohort, hepcidin was significantly inversely associated with leptin (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -883.45 ± 400.94; p = 0.031) and the leptin/ghrelin ratio (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -148.26 ± 61.20; p = 0.018) in the fasted state. The same associations were not statistically significant in the postprandial state. In individuals with new-onset prediabetes or diabetes (but not in those with normoglycaemia or longstanding prediabetes or diabetes), hepcidin was significantly inversely associated with leptin (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -806.09 ± 395.44; p = 0.050) and the leptin/ghrelin ratio (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -129.40 ± 59.14; p = 0.037). Leptin appears to be a mediator in the link between iron metabolism and new-onset diabetes mellitus. These findings add to the growing understanding of mechanisms underlying the derangements of glucose metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Ayuno/sangre , Ferritinas/sangre , Hepcidinas/sangre , Periodo Posprandial/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Femenino , Ghrelina/sangre , Humanos , Leptina/sangre , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Comidas/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684605

RESUMEN

The application of metabolomics in neonatology offers an approach to investigate the complex relationship between nutrition and infant health. Characterization of the metabolome of human milk enables an investigation into nutrients that affect the neonatal metabolism and identification of dietary interventions for infants at risk of diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In this study, we aimed to identify differences in the metabolome of breast milk of 48 mothers with preterm infants with NEC and non-NEC healthy controls. A minimum significant difference was observed in the human milk metabolome between the mothers of infants with NEC and mothers of healthy control infants. However, significant differences in the metabolome related to fatty acid metabolism, oligosaccharides, amino sugars, amino acids, vitamins and oxidative stress-related metabolites were observed when comparing milk from mothers with control infants of ≤1.0 kg birth weight and >1.5 kg birth weight. Understanding the functional biological features of mothers' milk that may modulate infant health is important in the future of tailored nutrition and care of the preterm newborn.


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro/metabolismo , Metabolómica , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Madres , Aminoácidos/análisis , Amino Azúcares/análisis , Peso al Nacer , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Femenino , Glucólisis , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Oligosacáridos/análisis , Estrés Oxidativo , Análisis de Componente Principal
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