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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMEN

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMEN

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339387

RESUMEN

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.

4.
Talanta ; 236: 122871, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635252

RESUMEN

Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), including core-shell structure and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles, were synthesized and characterized using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). For the core-shell particles, a nominal 80 nm commercial core-shell AuAg bimetallic nanoparticle was used to examine the applicability of SP-ICP-MS to determine the core size of Au and shell thickness of Ag. Then, the method was applied to estimate the core size of Au and shell thickness of Ag for the laboratory synthesized particles. The results were compared with those obtained from TEM-EDS. For the alloy nanoparticles, two synthesis protocols, based on the galvanic replacement of Ag seed particles with Au, were used. One was to prepare a hollow AgAu particle by varying the volume of dissolved Au in basic solution (K-gold) to etch some parts of AgNPs to dissolved ionic silver with the formation of AuNPs covering the remaining AgNPs, producing a hole inside the core nanoparticles. Another protocol was to prepare AgAu alloy nanoparticles. SP-ICP-MS was used in combination with FlFFF to provide information on the changes of particle size with varying volume of K-gold reagent. Hydrodynamic diameter increased with increasing K-gold, as observed by FlFFF. With SP-ICP-MS without prior FlFFF, bimodal distributions were observed in the size distribution of Au and Ag. With prior FlFFF, monomodal distributions were observed by SP-ICP-MS, which allow the use of particle concentration and size to estimate the mass concentration of elements on the fractionated bimetallic nanoparticles. This study illustrates the potential use of SP-ICP-MS for gaining information about particle transformation during the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles.


Asunto(s)
Oro , Nanopartículas del Metal , Espectrometría de Masas , Plata/análisis , Espectrometría por Rayos X
5.
Talanta ; 236: 122890, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635269

RESUMEN

A novel computationally designed-spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of a unique antinarcoleptic drug; modafinil (MDF) in tablets and human plasma was theoretically and experimentally established. Firstly, a density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to investigate MDF-Tb3+ complex formation and to study the affinity of Tb3+ to MDF in aqueous solution. The computed formation energy of [Tb (MDF)4]3+ (ΔG= -246.0 kcal/mol) assured the ability of Tb3+ to recognize MDF in water and proved the strong nature of the Tb3+-O coordination bonds in addition to some contribution from inter-ligand hydrophobic interactions. Hence, a spectrofluorimetric method was optimized and validated depending on MDF quenching effect on Tb3+ fluorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Tb3+ to MDF. The formed [Tb (MDF)4]3+ complex was measured at λex. 222 nm/λem. 497 nm against a reagent blank. The Tb3+ fluorescence was significantly reduced upon addition of MDF (linearity range= 0.5-20.0 µg/mL). Detection and quantification limits were 0.129 and 0.391 µg/mL, respectively. Good recoveries (97.47-101.92%) were obtained upon application of the proposed method for the assessment of the target drug in bulk powder, tablets and plasma. According ICH guidelines, the results of the established method were statistically analyzed and validated.


Asunto(s)
Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Humanos , Modafinilo , Polvos , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia , Comprimidos
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126751, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343880

RESUMEN

One of the challenges in research into photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of pollutants is finding the appropriate photoanode material, which has a significant impact on the process efficiency. Among all others, photoelectrodes based on an ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays are a promising material due to well-developed surface area and efficient charge separation. To increase the PEC activity of this material, the SILAR method was used to decorate Ti/TiO2 nanotubes by PbS quantum dots (QD). The ifosfamide (IF) degradation rate constants was twice as higher for PbS-Ti/TiO2 (0.0148 min-1) than for Ti/TiO2 (0.0072 min-1). Our research showed the highest efficiency of PEC degradation of drugs using IIIPbS-Ti/TiO2 made with 3 SILAR cycles (PbS QD size mainly 2-4 nm). The 4 and 6 of SILAR cycles resulted in the aggregation of PbS nanoparticles on the Ti/TiO2 surface and decreased IF PEC degradation rate to 0.0043 and 0.0033 min-1, respectively. Research on PEC mechanism has shown that the drugs are degraded mainly by the activity of photogenerated holes and hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the identified drug intermediates made possible to propose a degradation pathways of anticancer drugs and the ecotoxicity test show no inhibition of Lemna minor growth of treated solutions.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Nanotubos , Puntos Cuánticos , Energía Solar , Titanio
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 547-555, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340039

RESUMEN

A quasi-solid-state Li-Te battery is developed by using a flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), porous carbon/tellurium cathode, and lithium metal anode. The ionic conductivity of GPE is controllable and reaches up to 8.0 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C. The good interfacial contact with Li metal ensures excellent cycling stability in Li/GPE/Li symmetric cells. Moreover, it is found that, compared to S and Se counterparts, the Li-Te battery exhibits good rate capability due to the high electrical conductivity of Te and excellent interfacial stability among GPE, Li, and Te. This work provides several facile strategies to develop safe and high-performance solid-state Li-Te batteries.


Asunto(s)
Litio , Telurio , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Iones , Polímeros
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120189, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352501

RESUMEN

Gastrodia elata is an obligate fungal symbiont used in traditional Chinese medicine. There are currently 4 grades of the plant based on the "Commodity Specification Standard of 76 Kinds of Medicinal Materials". The traditional discrimination methods for determining the medicinal grade of G. elata powders are complex and time-consuming which are not suitable for rapid analysis. We developed a rapid analysis method for this plant using attenuated total reflection and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) together with machine learning algorithms. The original spectroscopic data was first pre-treated using the multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) method and 4 principal components were extracted using extremely randomized trees (Extra-trees) and principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms, and different kinds of classification models were established. We found that multilayer perceptron classifier (MLPC) modeling was superior to support vector machine (SVM) and resulted in validation and prediction accuracies of 99.17% and 100%, respectively and a modeling time of 2.48 s. The methods established from the current study can rapidly and effectively distinguish the 4 different types of G. elata powders and thus provides a platform for rapid quality inspection.


Asunto(s)
Gastrodia , Medicina China Tradicional , Análisis de Componente Principal , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120275, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411769

RESUMEN

A turn on upconversion fluorescence probe based on the combination of ~32 nm NaYF4: Yb/Tm nanoparticles and MnO2 nanosheets has been established for rapid, sensitive detection of Fe2+ ions levels in aqueous solutions and serum. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption and emission spectra have been used to characterize the crystal structure, morphology and optical properties of the samples. MnO2 nanosheets on the surface of UCNPs act as a fluorescence quencher, resulting in the quenching of the blue fluorescence (with excitation/emission maximum of 980/476 nm) via fluorescence resonance energy transfer from upconversion nanoparticles to MnO2 nanosheets. With the adding of Fe2+, upconversion fluorescence of the nanocomposites recovers due to the reduction of MnO2 to Mn2+. Because of the low background of the probe offered by upconversion fluorescence, this probe can be used for detecting Fe2+ in aqueous solutions in the range of 0.1-22 µM with detection limit of 0.113 µM. The developed method has also been applied to detect 10 µM Fe2+ ions in serum with recoveries ranging from 97.6 to 105.3% for the five serum samples. Significantly, the probe shows fast response and stable signal, which is beneficial for long-time dynamic sensing. Thus, the proposed strategy holds great potential for disease diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Manganeso , Nanopartículas , Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Iones , Óxidos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113829, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592669

RESUMEN

The increasing carbon dioxide level in the earth's atmosphere and continuously changing climate creates a significant challenge to sustainability in the world. It is not easy to control pollution due to carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants into the atmosphere. However, carbon capture technology provides an advantage for capturing carbon from power plants. Various researchers suggested the non-linear optimization model with post-combustion carbon capture technology in coal-fired power plants to reduce carbon emission. However, in their research articles, most researchers did not include loss of power due to retrofitting carbon capture technology in power plants and carbon emission from the compensatory power plant. This paper proposes a linear optimization model that minimizes the emission release from the power plant and its compensatory plant by appropriate selection of carbon capture technology. Our proposed model incorporates loss of power due to adopting carbon capture technology and emission release from the power plant and compensatory power plant in the problem formulation. We have also generated the Pareto curve that determines the trade-off solutions between emission release and the overall electricity cost. The applicability of our model is illustrated through power sector data from two Indian states. The net reduction of emissions in the two states are 27.17 % and 26.29 %, achieved by a mixed integer linear programming approach in coal-fired power plants. The model developed is generic and provides a sustainable environment for the generation of electricity.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Electricidad , Centrales Eléctricas
11.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113871, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619589

RESUMEN

Membrane photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (MPMFC) utilizes O2, NO3- and NO2- as cathodic electron acceptors, enabling simultaneous treatment of nitrogen, CO2 and organic carbon in the cathode compartment. In this work, development of a novel cathodic process with in situ nitritation via microalgal photosynthesis during the light period is reported for achieving shortcut nitrogen removal (SNR) from ammonium-rich wastewater. Moreover, a tubular low-cost ceramic membrane was used to separate and recycle the microalgal-bacterial biomass to the cathode compartment during the continuous operation. The influence of NH4+ concentration and ratio of chemical oxygen demand to total nitrogen on the MPMFC performance was examined. Denitritation under dark and anoxic conditions occurred due to denitrifying bacteria (DNB) subsequent to nitritation under light and aerobic conditions by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the consortia. Final concentrations of NH4+ and NO2- in the effluent of 0.10 mg NH4+-L-1 and 0.02 mg NO2--L-1, respectively, were obtained using MPMFC which resulted in a nitrogen removal efficiency of 99 ± 0.5%. The maximum electricity production achieved using the MPMFC was 56 ± 0.1 mA. This study demonstrated that combining microalgal photosynthesis, nitritation and denitritation in the cathode compartment of MPMFC is advantageous for avoiding the cost due to external aeration and organic carbon source necessary for ammonium removal as well as utilization of NO2- or NO3- as an electron acceptor.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Microalgas , Bacterias , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Nitrógeno , Fotosíntesis , Aguas Residuales/análisis
12.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113890, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624576

RESUMEN

Universal energy access is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and thus the deployment of electricity grids is expected to expand globally in the coming decades. However, the installation of power lines is not biodiversity-friendly. In particular, electrocution on power pylons is a major cause of bird mortality worldwide, including for some severely endangered species. Over the last decades, different studies have improved our understanding of the factors influencing the risk of electrocution in birds, but until now spatial gaps in our knowledge of these impacts and the factors driving global patterns of bird electrocution have not been assessed. In this study, we evaluated data from a total of 114 studies that provided information on bird mortality rates on power lines, and we analyzed the factors driving electrocution rates for all bird species, and then for all raptors and large eagles separately. Our results showed a high spatial distribution bias, as more than 80% of the studies were carried out in developed countries, mostly in Europe and North America. By contrast, no systematic studies have been found for Oceania and very few for South America and Africa. Europe showed the highest electrocution rates for birds, South America for raptor species and Africa for eagles. Socio-economic factors best-explained bird and raptor electrocution rates, while climate-related factors were the most influential for eagles. Contrary to our expectations, factors related to pylon design were the least influential on overall electrocution rates. Variables related to study design showed highly variable levels of influence. This could be due to the lack of standardized protocols. Although bird electrocution has been extensively studied, there are large areas where no studies have been carried out or for which data are inaccessible. This could be because in these areas the power distribution network is still sparse, or that most studies are not public or accessible to the international community. Researchers and managers should promote the publication of studies, as awareness is the first step to solving these problems. The factors identified could be applied globally to the design and planning of power grids and the identification of mortality hotspots. This would help mitigate the creation of new mortality hotspots, especially in developing countries where the installation of new power lines has been growing exponentially in recent years.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Animales , Biodiversidad , Electricidad , Europa (Continente)
13.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113832, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624578

RESUMEN

Biomass-fuelled Combined Heat and Power Generation (CHP) systems can efficiently convert chemical energy contained in biomass into electricity and heat. Currently there is a large number of abandoned forests and biomass of agroforestry origin that is not being used. The use of residual biomass as a source of energy in CHP systems is presented as a particularly attractive alternative for energy obtention. This paper presents the results of a biomass boiler coupled to an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Three residual biomasses, named pruning vine, pruning kiwi and gorse have been selected due to their potentiality and availability in the Galicia-North Portugal Euroregion. For this purpose, micro-cogeneration tests at bench scale were performed, based fundamentally on varying dissipation conditions in the low-grade temperature range (below 100 °C). Micro-cogeneration performance was assessed based on the electrical power and efficiency obtained, along with the global efficiency achieved (electrical plus thermal). Combustion measurements comprised gaseous emissions analyses and determination of the efficiency of the process. Micro-cogeneration results obtained show that differences in temperature between the hot and the cold source have a significant influence. The higher the temperature difference, the higher the electrical power and efficiency, as well as the higher global performance obtained, with values close to the maximum of the ORC employed (i.e 4 kWe, 9% and 96% respectively). Thus, the technical feasibility of the system to simultaneously obtain heat and electricity from low grade heat sources in small-scale applications was demonstrated. Regarding to combustion, parameters regulated by European emission standards are under the limits using the biofuels (residual biomasses) studied. Thereby, the suitability of those biomasses in thermochemical valorization processes was demostrated.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Calor , Biomasa , Electricidad , Temperatura
14.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113882, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638040

RESUMEN

Due to its increasing demands for fossil fuels, Indonesia needs an alternative energy to diversify its energy supply. Landfill gas (LFG), which key component is methane (CH4), has become one of the most attractive options to sustain its continued economic development. This exploratory study seeks to demonstrate the added value of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) in generating sustainable energy, resulting from CH4 emissions in the Bantargebang landfill (Jakarta). The power generation capacity of a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant based on a mathematical modeling was investigated. This article critically evaluated the production of electricity and potential income from its sale in the market. The project's environmental impact assessment and its socio-economic and environmental benefits in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects were discussed. It was found that the emitted CH4 from the landfill could be reduced by 25,000 Mt annually, while its electricity generation could reach one million kW â‹…h annually, savings on equivalent electricity charge worth US$ 112 million/year (based on US' 8/kW ⋅ h). An equivalent CO2 mitigation of 3.4 × 106 Mt/year was obtained. The income from its power sale were US$ 1.2 ×106 in the 1st year and 7.7 ×107US$ in the 15th year, respectively, based on the projected CH4 and power generation. The modeling study on the Bantargebang landfill using the LFG extraction data indicated that the LFG production ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 m3 per kg of the landfilled MSW. The LFG could generate electricity as low as US' 8 per kW ⋅ h. With respect to the implications of this study, the revenue not only defrays the cost of landfill's operations and maintenance (O&M), but also provides an incentive and means to further improve its design and operations. Overall, this work not only leads to a diversification of primary energy, but also improves environmental protection and the living standard of the people surrounding the plant.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Eliminación de Residuos , Electricidad , Humanos , Indonesia , Metano/análisis , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
15.
Food Chem ; 368: 130809, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450498

RESUMEN

Cold plasma processing is a technique that uses electricity and reactive carrier gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, or helium, to inactivate enzymes, destroy microorganisms, preserve food, and maintain quality without employing chemical antimicrobial agents.The review collates the latest information on the interaction mechanism and impact of non-thermal plasma, as an emerging processing technology, on selected physical properties, low-molecular-weight functional components, and bioactive properties of food. Significant changes observed in the physicochemical and functional properties. For example, changes in pH, total soluble solids, water and oil absorption capacities, sensory properties such as color, aroma, and texture, bioactive components (e.g., polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants), and food enzymes, antinutrients, and allergens were elaborated in the present manuscript. It was highlighted that the plasma reactive species result in both constructive and antagonistic outcomes on specific food components, and the associated mechanism was different in each case. However, the design's versatility, characteristic non-thermal nature, better economic standards, and safer environmental factors offer matchless benefits for cold plasma over conventional processing methods. Even so, a thorough insight on the impact of cold plasma on functional and bioactive food constituents is still a subject of imminent research and is imperative for its broad recognition as a modern non-conventional processing technique.


Asunto(s)
Gases em Plasma , Alérgenos , Electricidad , Alimentos , Manipulación de Alimentos
16.
Food Chem ; 367: 130754, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384983

RESUMEN

N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is widely spread in many biologically significant glycans of mammals, commonly as a terminal α-glycoside. It is of great significance to develop analytical techniques for detection of Neu5Ac. Herein, a high-sensitive fluorescent biosensor for Neu5Ac has been developed based on FRET between CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and BHQ2, as well as exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted recycling amplification strategy. Employing the specially designed three-level FRET systems and fluorescent signal recovery mechanism, together with five-step recycling signal amplification chain reactions, an ultralow detection limit of 24 fM was achieved. Meanwhile, good linear response ranges within 0.2-12.5 pM and 12.5-1000 pM were founded. The assay has excellent performance in real sample detection, and thus offers great potential for detection of sialic acids modified glycans/lipids in the fields of medical diagnosis and food testing.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Cadmio , Puntos Cuánticos , Compuestos de Selenio , Animales , ADN , Exodesoxirribonucleasas , Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Límite de Detección , Ácidos Siálicos , Sulfuros , Compuestos de Zinc
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114428, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710727

RESUMEN

Quality control for Chinese patent medicine (CPM) containing animal-derived crude drug(s) is rather difficult. The methods based on chemical composition analysis, which are commonly used in CPM consisted of plant-derived crude drugs, are often not applicable for CPM containing animal-derived crude drug, because the effective constituents of most animal-derived crude drugs remain unknown. Even if there are such methods, they are usually qualitative rather than quantitative, and the specificity is generally poor. Here we proposed a molecular quantification method for CPM containing animal-derived crude drug, based upon the hypothesis that the amount of remnant DNA fragments could reflect feeding quantity of the crude drugs and thus ensure the quality of the CPM. Take Jinlong capsule [a hepatocellular carcinoma-resisting Chinese patent medicine comprising of three fresh animal drugs, i.e. Shougong (Peking gecko, Gekko swinhonis), Qi She (sharp-snouted pitviper, Deinagkistrodon acutus), and Jinqian Baihua She (many-banded krait, Bungarus multicinctus)] as an example, we established a qPCR assay for Qi She in the capsule, which verified the feasibility of the quality control method based on molecular quantification. Species-specific primers and TaqMan probe for Qi She were designed, and the qPCR assay system was then established. The assay exhibited a good specificity; there's a good linearity between Ct values and logarithm of the target amplicon copy numbers within the range of 8.8 × 101 to 8.8 × 106 copies/µL, and the limit of detection was 88 copies/µL. The method was validated through reproducibility, stability assessment. Recovery of spiked samples was between 91.59% and 101.69%. It was verified that the copy numbers reflected the original feeding amount of an animal-derived crude drug by self-made Jinlong capsules. The assay was successfully applied in Qi She-specific amplicon determination in 20 batches of Jinlong capsule. The study was expected to provide a new strategy for quality control of CPM containing animal-derived crude drug.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animales , China , Femenino , Medicina China Tradicional , Medicamentos sin Prescripción , Control de Calidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114415, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655988

RESUMEN

Licorice, a medicinal herb and food flavor ingredient, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the past 4000 years. In this study, we propose a new quality evaluation approach for licorice quality control based on the key quality attributes commonly used in TCM. The high quality of TCM formulations is ensured by verifying the genuine origin and implementing good agricultural and collection practices for each medicinal herb. In our study, the genuine production area, the harvest season, and the number of growth years were considered the key quality attributes of TCM. To ensure the representativeness of our analysis, we obtained a total of 158 licorice sample batches that differed in the number of growth years, the location of the production areas, and the season for harvesting. Initially, the 158 sample batches were subjected to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). A preliminary screen identified 11 licorice compounds related to the three key quality attributes of TCM . An analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS) verified the presence of 34 compounds in all licorice samples. These 34 compounds included the 11 compounds related to the three key quality attributes of the samples, along with other bioactive components identified in previous studies. After using UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS to assess the signal peak intensities of the 34 compounds, we selected 17 licorice compounds to establish sample content evaluation indices, which were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at four different wavelengths in all 158 licorice sample batches. Finally, the screen identified nine compounds that were closely associated with the quality attributes of licorice based on principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Our results suggested that liquiritin and eight other compounds could be used as quality control indicators of licorice, which provided a foundation to establish the TCM quality composite evaluation index (TCM QCEI). In summary, this research concept can serve as a reference for research on quality markers and the evaluation of TCM.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Glycyrrhiza , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Medicina China Tradicional , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149991, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482137

RESUMEN

The green powering of electrochemically-assisted soil remediation processes had been strongly discouraged. Low remediation efficiencies have been reported as a consequence of the reversibility of the transport processes when no power is applied to the electrodes, due to the intermittent powering of renewable sources. However, it has been missed a deeper evaluation from the environmental point of view. This work goes further and seeks to quantify, using life cycle assessment tools, the environmental impacts related to the electro-kinetic treatments powered by different sources: grid (Spanish energy mix), photovoltaic and wind sources. The global warming potential and the ozone depletion showed higher environmental impacts in case of using green energies, associated with the manufacturing of the energy production devices. In contrast to that, results pointed out the lowest water consumption for the treatment powered with solar panels. The huge water requirements to produce energy, considering a Spanish energy mix, drop the sustainability of this powering strategy in terms of water footprint. Regarding toxicities, the pollutant toxicity was highly got rid of after 15 days of treatment, regardless the powering source used. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of energy and green energy production devices has a huge impact into the toxicity of the remediation treatments, increasing massively the total toxicity of the process, being this effect less prominent by the electro-kinetic treatment solar powered. In view of the overall environmental impact assessed, according to mid and endpoint impact categories, it can be claimed that, despite the high energy requirements and affectation to the global warming potential, the use of solar power is a more sustainable alternative to remediate polluted soils by electrochemical techniques.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Energía Solar , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Ambiente , Suelo , Viento
20.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 54-59, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the use of simple vertebral trabecular attenuation values for opportunistic osteoporosis screening. Meanwhile, machine learning has been used to accurately segment large parts of the human skeleton. PURPOSE: To evaluate a fully automated deep learning-based method for lumbar vertebral segmentation and measurement of vertebral volumetric trabecular attenuation values. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A deep learning-based method for automated segmentation of bones was retrospectively applied to non-contrast CT scans of 1008 patients (mean age 57 years, 472 female, 536 male). Each vertebral segmentation was automatically reduced by 7 mm in all directions in order to avoid cortical bone. The mean and median volumetric attenuation values from Th12 to L4 were obtained and plotted against patient age and sex. L1 values were further analyzed to facilitate comparison with previous studies. RESULTS: The mean L1 attenuation values decreased linearly with age by -2.2 HU per year (age > 30, 95% CI: -2.4, -2.0, R2 = 0.3544). The mean L1 attenuation value of the entire population cohort was 140 HU ± 54. CONCLUSIONS: With results closely matching those of previous studies, we believe that our fully automated deep learning-based method can be used to obtain lumbar volumetric trabecular attenuation values which can be used for opportunistic screening of osteoporosis in patients undergoing CT scans for other reasons.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Osteoporosis , Absorciometría de Fotón , Densidad Ósea , Femenino , Humanos , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoporosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Dolor , Estudios Retrospectivos
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