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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMEN

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249280

RESUMEN

Abstract L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G - 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


Resumo A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G - 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237575, 2022. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249282

RESUMEN

Abstract Resource allocation to reproduction can change depending on size, as predicted by the size-dependent sex allocation. This theory is based on the fact that small individuals will invest in the allocation of sex with lower cost of production, usually male gender. In plants, there are some andromonoecy species, presence of hermaphrodite and male flowers in the same individual. Andromonoecy provides a strategy to optimally allocate resources to male and female function, evolving a reproductive energy-saving strategy. Thus, our objective was to investigate the size-dependent sex allocation in Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. We tested the hypothesis that plants with larger size will invest in the production of hermaphrodite flowers, because higher individuals have greater availability of resources to invest in more complex structures involving greater energy expenditure. The studied species was S. lycocarpum, an andromonoecious species. From June 2016 to March 2017 the data were collected in 38 individuals, divided in two groups: the larger plant group (n=18; height=3-5 m) and the smaller plant group (n=20; height=1-2 m).Our data show that there was effect of plant size on the flower production and the sexual gender allocation. The larger plants showed more flowers and higher production of hermaphrodite flowers. Furthermore, in the flower scale, we observed allometric relationship among the flower's traits with proportional investments in biomass, anther size and gynoecium size. Our results are in agreement with size-dependent sex allocation theory and andromonoecy hypothesis related to mechanisms for optimal resource allocation to male and female function.


Resumo A alocação de recursos para reprodução pode mudar dependendo do tamanho, conforme previsto pela alocação sexual dependente do tamanho. Essa teoria é baseada no fato de que indivíduos pequenos investirão na alocação sexual com menor custo de produção, geralmente do sexo masculino. Nas plantas, existem algumas espécies andromonoicas, presença de hermafrodita e flores masculinas no mesmo indivíduo. A andromonoicia fornece uma estratégia para alocar recursos de maneira ideal às funções masculina e feminina, desenvolvendo uma estratégia reprodutiva de economia de energia. Assim, nosso objetivo foi investigar a alocação sexual dependente do tamanho em Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. Testamos a hipótese de que plantas de maior tamanho investirão na produção de flores hermafroditas, pois indivíduos mais altos economizam mais disponibilidade de recursos para investir em estruturas mais complexas que envolvem maior gasto de energia. A espécie estudada foi S. lycocarpum, uma espécie andromonoica. De junho de 2016 a março de 2017, os dados foram coletados em 38 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: o maior grupo de plantas (n = 18; altura = 3-5 m) e o menor grupo de plantas (n = 20; altura = 1-2 m). Nossos dados mostram que houve efeito do tamanho da planta na produção de flores e na alocação sexual. As plantas maiores apresentaram mais flores e maior produção de flores hermafroditas. Além disso, observamos uma relação alométrica entre as características da flor, com investimentos proporcionais em biomassa, tamanho da antera e tamanho do gineceu. Nossos resultados estão de acordo com a teoria de alocação de sexo dependente de tamanho e a hipótese de andromonoicia relacionada a mecanismos para a alocação ótima de recursos para a função masculina e feminina.

4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020149, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250808

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the metabolic and nutritional repercussions of chronic liver disease (CLD), proposing strategies that optimize nutritional therapy in the pre- and post-liver transplantation (LT) period, in order to promote favorable clinical outcomes and adequate growth and development, respectively. Data sources: Bibliographic search in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases of the last 12 years, in English and Portuguese; target population: children from early childhood to adolescence; keywords in Portuguese and their correlates in English: "Liver Transplant," "Biliary Atresia," "Nutrition Therapy," "Nutritional Status," and "Child"; in addition to Boolean logics "and" and "or," and the manual search of articles. Data synthesis: Malnutrition in children with CLD is a very common condition and an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in energy and protein demand, as well as difficulties in the absorption of carbohydrates, lipids and micronutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and some minerals. An increase in the supply of energy, carbohydrates and proteins and micronutrients, especially fat-soluble vitamins, iron, zinc and calcium, is suggested, except in cases of hepatic encephalopathy (this restriction is indicated for a short period). Conclusions: Based on metabolic changes and anthropometric and body composition monitoring, a treatment plan should be developed, following the nutritional recommendations available, in order to minimize the negative impact of malnutrition on clinical outcomes during and after LT.


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar de forma descritiva as repercussões metabólicas e nutricionais da doença hepática crônica, propondo estratégias que aperfeiçoem a terapia nutricional nos períodos pré e pós transplante hepático (TxH), para promover desfechos clínicos favoráveis e crescimento e desenvolvimento adequados, respectivamente. Fontes de dados: Pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs e SciELO dos últimos 30 anos em língua inglesa e portuguesa; população-alvo: crianças da primeira infância até a adolescência; palavras-chave em português e seus correlatos em inglês: "transplante de fígado", "atresia biliar," "terapia nutricional", "estado nutricional" e "criança"; além das lógicas booleanas and e or e da busca manual de artigos. Síntese dos dados: A subnutrição em crianças com doença hepática crônica é uma condição muito comum e um importante fator de risco para a morbimortalidade. Ocorre aumento das demandas de energia e proteínas, bem como dificuldades na absorção de carboidratos, lipídeos e de micronutrientes como vitaminas lipossolúveis e alguns minerais. Sugere-se incremento no aporte de energia, carboidratos, proteínas e micronutrientes, sobretudo de vitaminas lipossolúveis, ferro, zinco e cálcio, exceto em casos de encefalopatia hepática (a restrição é indicada por um curto período). Conclusões: Com base nas alterações metabólicas, no monitoramento antropométrico e na composição corporal, um plano terapêutico deve ser elaborado, seguindo as recomendações nutricionais disponíveis, com o objetivo de minimizar o impacto negativo da subnutrição nos desfechos clínicos durante e após o transplante hepático.

5.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020148, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288036

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate associations between snacking and energy, nutrients and food source, and to identify the contribution of snacking across age, sex, weight status and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Methods: A sub-sample was calculated from the population-based cross-sectional study 2015-Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital). The survey "ISA-Nutrição" used a sample of non-institutionalized individuals aged >15 years. For this study, only adolescents (12-18 years old; n=418) and young adults (19-29 years old; n=218) were included. Snacks were identified, and their contribution to energy, nutrients, and food sources were calculated. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used. Results: Participants experienced an average of 2.9±0.6 snacking occasions per day. Young adults consumed more energy from morning and night snacks, and adolescents, from afternoon snacks. The top three food sources on snacking contributed to 30.5% of energy: cookies (11.8%), sugar sweetened beverages (9.4%), sweets and other desserts (9.3%). Although results were non-significant, being a female (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.36-1.49), meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR 0.75; 95%CI 0.25-1.25), and scoring higher for the healthy eating index (OR 0.88; 95%C 0.24-1.52) were all factors related to increased intake of snacks. Alternatively, overweight individuals (OR -0.54; 95%CI -1.00 to -0.08) consumed less snacks. Conclusions: Improving the quality of snacks should be considered in behavior-change strategies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar associações entre lanches e consumo de energia, nutrientes e fontes alimentares e identificar seus contribuintes por idade, sexo, status de peso e comportamentos de estilo de vida entre adolescentes e jovens adultos. Métodos: Subamostra calculada a partir do estudo de base-populacional transversal Inquéritos de Saúde de São Paulo (ISA-Capital, 2015). O ISA-Nutrição utilizou amostra de indivíduos não-institucionalizados com idade >15 anos. Para este estudo, apenas adolescentes (12-18 anos; n=418) e jovens adultos (19-29 anos; n=218) foram incluídos. Os "lanches" foram definidos, bem como foram calculadas a contribuição de energia e nutrientes, e as fontes alimentares. Estatística descritiva e regressões logísticas foram utilizadas. Resultados: Em média foram realizados 2,9±0,6 lanches por dia pelos participantes. Jovens adultos consumiram mais energia nos lanches da manhã e noite, enquanto adolescentes, à tarde. As três principais fontes de alimentos nos lanches contribuíram em 30,5% para o total de energia: biscoitos (11,8%), bebidas açucaradas (9,4%), e doces e outras sobremesas (9,3%). Apesar de os resultados não serem significantes, ser do sexo feminino (Odds Ratio [OR] 0,93, intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 0,36-1,49), atingir as recomendações de atividade física (OR 0,75, IC95% 0,25-1,25), e ter alta pontuação no índice do total da qualidade dieta (OR 0,88, IC95% 0,24-1,52) resultou em aumento na ingestão de lanches. Alternativamente, ter sobrepeso (OR -0.54, IC95% -1.00 a -0.08) está relacionado a menores chances de consumir lanches. Conclusões: Estratégias para melhorar a qualidade dos lanches deveriam ser consideradas nas intervenções de mudança de comportamentos.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243250, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278502

RESUMEN

Abstract The Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is a globally threatened wild sheep species. In Pakistan the species is legally protected and bred in captivity to release into natural habitats to reinforce wild populations. Vigilance and feeding are critical to survival, though the degree to which captive-bred animals exhibit these behaviours post-release has rarely been investigated. We monitored the daily behaviours of five adult urial after release and classifying behaviours from 0600 hrs to 1800 hrs, replicating each one-hour period twice and recording four observations of each animal per hour. At the herd level, vigilance and feeding behaviours were exhibited equally. Males and females invested equal time in feeding, males were more vigilant (p = 0.001) and more aggressive (p = 0.010), and females were more restful (p = 0.019) or engaged in grooming (p = 0.044) or locomotion (p = 0.002). Females spent more time feeding than being vigilant (p = 0.002). Males maintained high levels of vigilance throughout the day. Patterns of resting 1300 hrs to 1500 hrs and feeding in early morning and late afternoon were common for both sexes. Behaviours classified as 'other' were exhibited equally between sexes. Our results reveal positive indications of captive-bred urial balancing threat detection and energy acquisition post-release and exhibiting natural behaviours and activity patterns. We encourage assessment of survivorship to evaluate long-term effectiveness of captive breeding and release as a candidate restoration programme.


Resumo O Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) é uma espécie de ovelha selvagem ameaçada globalmente. No Paquistão, a espécie é legalmente protegida e criada em cativeiro para ser liberada em habitats para reforçar as populações selvagens. Vigilância e alimentação são essenciais para a sobrevivência, embora o grau de comportamento que os animais criados em cativeiro apresenta raramente tenha sido estudado. Cinco uriais adultos foram monitorados diariamente, após a liberação os comportamentos foram classificados das 6 h às 18 h, replicando cada período de uma hora por duas vezes e registrando quatro observações de cada animal por hora. Em nível do rebanho, os comportamentos de vigilância e alimentação foram exibidos igualmente. Machos e fêmeas investiam tempo igual na alimentação, enquanto os machos eram mais vigilantes (p = 0,001) e mais agressivos (p = 0,010), as fêmeas eram mais repousantes (p = 0,019) ou mais engajadas no asseio (p = 0,044) ou na locomoção (p = 0,002). As fêmeas passam mais tempo se alimentando do que vigiando (p = 0,002). Os machos mantiveram altos níveis de vigilância ao longo do dia. Padrões de descanso de 1300 a 1500 horas e alimentação no início da manhã e no final da tarde eram comuns para ambos os sexos. Comportamentos classificados como "outros" foram exibidos igualmente entre os sexos. Os resultados revelam indicações positivas na detecção de ameaça em relação ao equilíbrio de criação urial em cativeiro e em aquisição de energia pós-liberação, exibindo comportamentos naturais e padrões de atividade. Neste estudo, encorajou-se a utilização da avaliação de sobrevivência para avaliar a eficácia em longo prazo da reprodução em cativeiro e soltura como um programa de restauração dos candidatos.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244703, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278506

RESUMEN

Abstract In this study, oil degrading bacteria discovered from fish living near the oil ports at Karachi in Pakistan were characterized. The bacteria isolated from skin, gills, and gut in fish could consume crude oil as a source of carbon and energy. Total 36 isolates were tested using Nutrient Agar (NA) and MSA media with different crude oil concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 1%, 2%, and 5%) and 4 out of 36 isolates (two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria) were selected for further identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates are related to Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri and Pseudomonas azotoforman. Oil degrading potential of these bacteria was characterized by GC-MS analysis of degradation of oil components in crude oil as well as engine oil. We found that one (2, 6, 10, 14-Tetramethylpentadecane) out of 42 components in the crude oil was fully eliminated and the other oil components were reduced. In addition, 26 out of 42 oil components in the engine oil, were fully eliminated and the rest were amended. Taken together, these studies identify that B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri and P. azotoforman have high oil degrading potential, which may be useful for degradation of oil pollutants and other commercial applications.


Resumo Neste estudo, bactérias degradadoras de óleo descobertas em peixes que vivem perto dos portos de petróleo em Karachi, no Paquistão, foram caracterizadas. As bactérias isoladas da pele, guelras e intestinos dos peixes podem consumir petróleo bruto como fonte de carbono e energia. No total, 36 isolados foram testados usando Agar Nutriente (NA) e meio MSA com diferentes concentrações de óleo bruto (0,2%, 0,5%, 0,7%, 1%, 2% e 5%) e 4 de 36 isolados (dois Gram positivos e duas bactérias Gram negativas) foram selecionadas para posterior identificação. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA revelou que os isolados estão relacionados a Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri e Pseudomonas azotoforman. O potencial de degradação do óleo dessas bactérias foi caracterizado pela análise de GC-MS da degradação dos componentes do óleo no óleo cru, bem como no óleo do motor. Descobrimos que um (2, 6, 10, 14-tetrametilpentadecano) de 42 componentes do óleo cru foi totalmente eliminado e os outros componentes do óleo foram reduzidos. Além disso, 26 dos 42 componentes do óleo do motor foram totalmente eliminados e o restante corrigido. Juntos, esses estudos identificam que B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri e P. azotoforman têm alto potencial de degradação de óleo, o que pode ser útil para a degradação de poluentes de óleo e outras aplicações comerciais.

8.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201104, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1286050

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Continued unsustainable exploitation of natural resources promotes environmental degradation and threatens the preservation of dry forests around the world. This situation exposes the fragility and the necessity to study landscape transformations. In addition, it is necessary to consider the biomass quantity and to establish strategies to monitor natural and anthropic disturbances. Thus, this research analyzed the relationship between vegetation index and the estimated biomass using allometric equations in different Brazilian caatinga forest areas from satellite images. This procedure is performed by estimating the biomass from 9 dry tropical forest fragments using allometric equations. Area delimitations were obtained from the Embrapa collection of dendrometric data collected in the period between 2011 and 2012. Spectral variables were obtained from the orthorectified images of the RapidEye satellite. The aboveground biomass ranged from 6.88 to 123.82 Mg.ha-1. SAVI values were L = 1 and L = 0.5, while NDVI and EVI ranged from 0.1835 to 0.4294, 0.2197 to 0.5019, 0.3622 to 0.7584, and 0.0987 to 0.3169, respectively. Relationships among the estimated biomass and the vegetation indexes were moderate, with correlation coefficients (Rs) varying between 0.64 and 0.58. The best adjusted equation was the SAVI equation, for which the coefficient of determination was R² = 0.50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 and mean absolute error of prediction (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirming the importance of the Savi index in estimating the caatinga aboveground biomass.


RESUMO: A exploração contínua e insustentável dos recursos naturais promove a degradação ambiental e ameaça a conservação das florestas secas no mundo. Essa situação expõe a fragilidade e a necessidade de estudar as transformações da paisagem. É necessário considerar o quantitativo de biomassa e o estabelecimento de estratégias para monitorar distúrbios naturais e antrópicos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o índice de vegetação e a biomassa estimada por meio de equações alométricas em diferentes áreas da caatinga brasileira a partir de imagens de satélite. Este procedimento é realizado estimando-se a biomassa de nove fragmentos de floresta tropical seca com o uso em equações alométricas. As delimitações das áreas foram obtidas da coleção da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, a partir dos dados dendrométricos coletados no período entre 2011 e 2012. As variáveis espectrais foram obtidas a partir das imagens ortorretificadas do satélite RapidEye. A biomassa acima do solo variou de 6,88 a 123,82 Mg.ha-1. Os valores de SAVI para os coeficientes L = 1 e L = 0,5, NDVI e EVI variaram de 0,1835 a 0,4294, 0,2197 a 0,5019, 0,3622 a 0,7584 e 0,0987 a 0,3169, respectivamente. As relações entre a biomassa estimada e os índices de vegetação foram moderadas, com coeficiente de correlação (rs) variando entre 0,64 e 0,58. A equação mais bem ajustada foi a Equação do SAVI, com coeficiente de determinação foi R² = 0,50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 e erro médio absoluto de predição (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirmando a importância do índice SAVI na estimativa da biomassa aérea da Caatinga.

9.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210068, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1286060

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This research valorized Pachira aquatica Aubl.'s fruit shells (PAS) through its energetic characterization and flash pyrolysis for biofuels or chemicals production. The characterization was performed through proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, higher heating value (HHV), hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content, thermogravimetric analysis and absorption spectra in the infrared region obtained by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR). The analytical flash pyrolysis was performed at 500°C in a Py-5200 HP-R coupled to a gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The PAS biomass presents potential for thermochemical energy conversion processes due to its low moisture and ash content, 76.90% of volatile matter, bulk density of 252.6 kg/m3 and HHV of 16.24 MJ/kg. Flash pyrolysis products are mostly phenols or light organic acids derived from the decomposition of polysaccharides. Results confirmed the potential of PAS to produce bio-phenolics, such as 4-methoxyphenol which is an important active ingredient for skin depigmentation used in drugs and cosmetics, and as phenolic extract that can be used as a precursor to resins, applications that convert this forest waste into bio products for industry into a green circular economy.


RESUMO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo a valorização das cascas dos frutos da Pachira aquatica Aubl. (PAC) através da sua caracterização energética e pirólise flash para produção de biocombustíveis ou produtos químicos. A caracterização foi realizada através de análises imediata e final, densidade aparente, poder calorífico superior (PCS), conteúdos de hemicelulose, celulose e lignina, análise termogravimétrica e espectros de absorção na região do infravermelho obtidos pela técnica de espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR). A pirólise flash analítica foi realizada a 500 °C em equipamento Py-5200 HP-R acoplado a um cromatógrafo à gás (Py-GC/MS). A biomassa das PAC apresenta potencial para processos de conversão termoquímica de energia devido ao seu baixo teor de umidade e cinzas, além de 76,90% de materiais voláteis, densidade aparente de 252,6 kg/m3 e PCS igual a 16,24 MJ / kg. Os produtos da pirólise rápida são principalmente fenóis ou ácidos orgânicos leves derivados da decomposição de polissacarídeos. Os resultados confirmam o potencial das PAC para produzir bio-fenólicos, como o 4-metoxifenol que é um importante ingrediente ativo para despigmentação da pele usado em medicamentos e cosméticos, e como extrato fenólico que pode ser usado como precursor de resinas. Estas aplicações convertem esses resíduos florestais em produtos biológicos para a indústria em uma economia circular verde.

10.
Food Chem ; 367: 130754, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384983

RESUMEN

N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is widely spread in many biologically significant glycans of mammals, commonly as a terminal α-glycoside. It is of great significance to develop analytical techniques for detection of Neu5Ac. Herein, a high-sensitive fluorescent biosensor for Neu5Ac has been developed based on FRET between CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and BHQ2, as well as exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted recycling amplification strategy. Employing the specially designed three-level FRET systems and fluorescent signal recovery mechanism, together with five-step recycling signal amplification chain reactions, an ultralow detection limit of 24 fM was achieved. Meanwhile, good linear response ranges within 0.2-12.5 pM and 12.5-1000 pM were founded. The assay has excellent performance in real sample detection, and thus offers great potential for detection of sialic acids modified glycans/lipids in the fields of medical diagnosis and food testing.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Cadmio , Puntos Cuánticos , Compuestos de Selenio , Animales , ADN , Exodesoxirribonucleasas , Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Límite de Detección , Ácidos Siálicos , Sulfuros , Compuestos de Zinc
11.
Talanta ; 236: 122871, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635252

RESUMEN

Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), including core-shell structure and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles, were synthesized and characterized using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). For the core-shell particles, a nominal 80 nm commercial core-shell AuAg bimetallic nanoparticle was used to examine the applicability of SP-ICP-MS to determine the core size of Au and shell thickness of Ag. Then, the method was applied to estimate the core size of Au and shell thickness of Ag for the laboratory synthesized particles. The results were compared with those obtained from TEM-EDS. For the alloy nanoparticles, two synthesis protocols, based on the galvanic replacement of Ag seed particles with Au, were used. One was to prepare a hollow AgAu particle by varying the volume of dissolved Au in basic solution (K-gold) to etch some parts of AgNPs to dissolved ionic silver with the formation of AuNPs covering the remaining AgNPs, producing a hole inside the core nanoparticles. Another protocol was to prepare AgAu alloy nanoparticles. SP-ICP-MS was used in combination with FlFFF to provide information on the changes of particle size with varying volume of K-gold reagent. Hydrodynamic diameter increased with increasing K-gold, as observed by FlFFF. With SP-ICP-MS without prior FlFFF, bimodal distributions were observed in the size distribution of Au and Ag. With prior FlFFF, monomodal distributions were observed by SP-ICP-MS, which allow the use of particle concentration and size to estimate the mass concentration of elements on the fractionated bimetallic nanoparticles. This study illustrates the potential use of SP-ICP-MS for gaining information about particle transformation during the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles.


Asunto(s)
Oro , Nanopartículas del Metal , Espectrometría de Masas , Plata/análisis , Espectrometría por Rayos X
12.
Talanta ; 236: 122890, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635269

RESUMEN

A novel computationally designed-spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of a unique antinarcoleptic drug; modafinil (MDF) in tablets and human plasma was theoretically and experimentally established. Firstly, a density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to investigate MDF-Tb3+ complex formation and to study the affinity of Tb3+ to MDF in aqueous solution. The computed formation energy of [Tb (MDF)4]3+ (ΔG= -246.0 kcal/mol) assured the ability of Tb3+ to recognize MDF in water and proved the strong nature of the Tb3+-O coordination bonds in addition to some contribution from inter-ligand hydrophobic interactions. Hence, a spectrofluorimetric method was optimized and validated depending on MDF quenching effect on Tb3+ fluorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Tb3+ to MDF. The formed [Tb (MDF)4]3+ complex was measured at λex. 222 nm/λem. 497 nm against a reagent blank. The Tb3+ fluorescence was significantly reduced upon addition of MDF (linearity range= 0.5-20.0 µg/mL). Detection and quantification limits were 0.129 and 0.391 µg/mL, respectively. Good recoveries (97.47-101.92%) were obtained upon application of the proposed method for the assessment of the target drug in bulk powder, tablets and plasma. According ICH guidelines, the results of the established method were statistically analyzed and validated.


Asunto(s)
Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Humanos , Modafinilo , Polvos , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia , Comprimidos
13.
Food Chem ; 368: 130809, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450498

RESUMEN

Cold plasma processing is a technique that uses electricity and reactive carrier gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, or helium, to inactivate enzymes, destroy microorganisms, preserve food, and maintain quality without employing chemical antimicrobial agents.The review collates the latest information on the interaction mechanism and impact of non-thermal plasma, as an emerging processing technology, on selected physical properties, low-molecular-weight functional components, and bioactive properties of food. Significant changes observed in the physicochemical and functional properties. For example, changes in pH, total soluble solids, water and oil absorption capacities, sensory properties such as color, aroma, and texture, bioactive components (e.g., polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants), and food enzymes, antinutrients, and allergens were elaborated in the present manuscript. It was highlighted that the plasma reactive species result in both constructive and antagonistic outcomes on specific food components, and the associated mechanism was different in each case. However, the design's versatility, characteristic non-thermal nature, better economic standards, and safer environmental factors offer matchless benefits for cold plasma over conventional processing methods. Even so, a thorough insight on the impact of cold plasma on functional and bioactive food constituents is still a subject of imminent research and is imperative for its broad recognition as a modern non-conventional processing technique.


Asunto(s)
Gases em Plasma , Alérgenos , Electricidad , Alimentos , Manipulación de Alimentos
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 962-968, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153436

RESUMEN

Abstract The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a fish of primary importance in South American aquaculture, principally in the Amazon region and has a particularly unique diet in the wild. Oryza spp, or Wild rice as it is commonly known, is native to the floodplains of muddy rivers in the Amazon region. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical performance and the effects of dietary levels of Oryza spp. via the hematological parameters, total food intake, conversion efficiency, growth ratio and swimming performance of this fish. Diets containing 45% Oryza spp. induced the best performance in tambaqui. Diets containing 15% and 30% did not affect these indices, thus indicating that this amount of Oryza can be used as an alternative energy source for this important species within Brazilian aquaculture.


Resumo O tambaqui Colossoma macropomum é um peixe de importância na aquicultura brasileira, especialmente na região amazônica. O arroz silvestre é comum nas planícies inundadas dos rios de aguas barrentas da Amazônia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos combinados do treinamento físico e dos níveis dietéticos de Oryza spp. nos parâmetros hematológicos, consumo de alimentos, eficiência de conversão, taxa de crescimento e desempenho de natação deste peixe. Dietas contendo 45% de arroz apresentaram o melhor desempenho para tambaquis. As dietas contendo 15% e 30% não afetaram esses índices, indicando que alguma quantidade de arroz pode ser usada como fonte de energia alternativa para esta importante espécie dentro da aquicultura.

15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(34): 5775-5792, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629801

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A progressive reduction in the secretion of pancreatic enzymes in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) results in malabsorption and ultimate malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of malnutrition is multifactorial and other factors such as chronic inflammation, alcohol excess and poor dietary intake all contribute. Patients may restrict their dietary intake due to poor appetite or to avoid gastrointestinal symptoms and abdominal pain. Whilst up to half of patients with chronic pancreatitis are reportedly malnourished, the dietary intake of patients with CP is relatively understudied and has not been systematically reviewed to date. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dietary intakes of patients with CP compared to healthy controls, and to compare the dietary intake of patients with alcohol-related CP and non-alcohol-related CP. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane review on studies published between 1946 and August 30th, 2019. Adult subjects with a diagnosis of CP who had undergone dietary assessment were included in the systematic review (qualitative analysis). Studies on patients with other pancreatic diseases or who had undergone pancreatic surgery were not included. Studies comparing the dietary intake of patients with CP to that of healthy controls were included in the meta-analysis (quantitative analysis). Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess quality of studies. RESULTS: Of 6715 studies retrieved in the search, 23 were eligible for qualitative analysis while 12 were eligible for quantitative analysis. In the meta-analysis, the total energy (calorie) intake of patients with CP was similar to that of healthy controls [mean difference (MD): 171.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): -226.01, 568.5; P = 0.4], however patients with CP consumed significantly fewer non-alcohol calories than controls [MD: -694.1; 95%CI: -1256.1, (-132.1); P = 0.02]. CP patients consumed more protein, but carbohydrate and fat intakes did not differ significantly. Those with alcohol-related CP consumed more mean (standard deviation) calories than CP patients with a non-alcohol aetiology [2642 (1090) kcal and 1372 (394) kcal, respectively, P = 0.046], as well as more protein, fat, but not carbohydrate. CONCLUSION: Although patients with CP had similar calorie intake to controls, studies that analysed the contribution of alcohol to energy intake showed that patients with CP consumed fewer non-alcohol calories than healthy controls. A high calorie intake, made up to a large degree by alcohol, may in part contribute to poor nutritional status in CP.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Pancreatitis Crónica , Adulto , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Desnutrición/etiología
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1184: 339019, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625252

RESUMEN

High resolution mobility devices such as Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) and Differential Mobility spectrometers (DMS) use strong electric fields to gas concentration ratios, E/N, to separate ions in the gas phase. While extremely successful, their empirical results show a non-linear, ion-dependent relation between mobility K and E/N that is difficult to characterize. The one-temperature theory Mason-Schamp equation, which is the most widely used ion mobility equation, unfortunately, cannot capture this behavior. When the two-temperature theory is used, it can be shown that the K-E/N behavior can be followed quite closely numerically by equating the effect of increasing the field to an increase in the ion temperature. This is attempted here for small ions in a Helium gas environment showing good agreement over the whole field range. To improve the numerical characterization, the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potentials may be optimized. This is attempted for Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen at different degrees of theory up to the fourth approximation, which is assumed to be exact. The optimization of L-J improves the accuracy yielding errors of about 3% on average. The fact that a constant set of L-J potentials work for the whole range of E/N and for several molecules, also suggests that inelastic collisions can be circumvented in calculations for He. The peculiar K-E/N hump behaviors are studied, and whether mobility increases or decreases with E/N is shown to derive from a competition between relative kinetic energy and the interaction potentials.


Asunto(s)
Electricidad , Gases , Iones , Espectrometría de Masas , Nitrógeno
17.
Orv Hetil ; 162(40): 1601-1609, 2021 10 03.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601457

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. A neurológiai betegek körében a dysphagia elofordulása gyakori, és több oka van. Az utóbbi évek kutatásai a közvetlen neurológiai kórokok (beleértve a gyakori stroke) szerepét is részletesen feltárták. Felismerték az ún. néma aspiráció jelentoségét: ez gyakran áll az (aspirációs) pneumonia hátterében, amely sokszor halálos szövodmény lehet. Az ún. poststroke pneumonia fogalma gyökeresen más értelmezésbe helyezte a stroke-ot követo tüdogyulladások megítélését, jellegzetessége alapján egyértelmuen a stroke közvetlen cerebralis hatásaként alakul ki. Egyértelmuvé vált a nyelészavar korai felismerésének és ellátásának szükségessége. A stroke-betegek megfelelo tápláltsági állapota az eredményes rehabilitációnak, a szövodményszám csökkentésének, a rövidebb kórházi kezelésnek, az alacsonyabb mortalitásnak a záloga. A dysphagia a betegség kimenetelének független elorejelzoje lehet, különösen az elso három hónapban. A nyelészavar malnutritióval, kiszáradással és a kórházi tartózkodás hosszabb idotartamával jár együtt, emeli a gyógyszerköltségeket. A stroke-beteg ellátásának egyik elso eleme a dysphagia szurése. Táplálásterápiára akkor szorul a stroke-beteg, amikor magas a kóros tápláltsági állapot kialakulásának kockázata, és per os táplálással nem fedezheto biztonságosan a megfelelo energia-, tápanyag- és folyadékbevitel. A táplálásterápia módját, eszközeit, az energia- és tápanyagbeviteli célértékeket az orvos határozza meg, az alapbetegség súlyosságától, a társbetegségektol és a laborértékektol függoen. Az étrend minden esetben individuális és progresszív, azaz alkalmazkodik a beteg állapotához és annak változásához. A dietetikus feladata a megfelelo diéta összeállítása mellett a beteg, a hozzátartozó és a kezeloszemélyzet oktatása, az állapot követése, a beteg tápláltsági állapotának, tápanyagbeviteli értékeinek gyakori elemzése, szükség esetén tápszerek ajánlása. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(40): 1601-1609. Summary. Among neurological patients, the incidence of dysphagia is common and has several causes. Research in recent years has explored the role of direct neurological pathogens (including frequent strokes). The frequency of 'silent aspiration', which often underlies (aspirational) pneumonia and can be a fatal complication, has been recently discovered. The concept of 'post-stroke pneumonia' has drastically changed the assessment of post-stroke pneumonia. Based on its characteristics, it clearly develops as a direct cerebral effect of stroke. The need for early detection and early care of swallowing disorder has become clear. Adequate nutritional status of stroke patients is the key to successful rehabilitation, reduction of complications, shorter hospitalization, and lower mortality. Dysphagia can be an independent predictor of disease outcome, especially in the first three months. Swallowing disorder is associated with malnutrition, dehydration and longer lengths of hospital stay, increasing drug costs. One of the first elements in the care of a stroke patient is screening for dysphagia. The stroke patient needs nutritional therapy when the risk for abnormal nutritional condition is high or if the condition is already present, or when oral nutrition does not safely cover adequate energy, nutrient and fluid intake. The method and means of nutritional therapy, the goals of energy and nutrient intake are determined by the doctor, depending on the severity of the underlying disease, comorbidities and laboratory values.The diet is individual and progressive in each case. The dietitian's task is not only to compile a proper diet, but also to educate the patients and relatives. The dietitian is responsible for monitoring the patient's nutritional status. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(40): 1601-1609.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución , Terapia Nutricional , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Ingestión de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1182: 338959, 2021 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602190

RESUMEN

Volatile solvents are excellent extraction media for liquid-liquid extractions. However, their use in supported liquid membranes (SLMs) is limited by their evaporation from SLM and thus poor SLM stability and they have never been considered truly useful for electromembrane extraction (EME). In this contribution, volatile solvents were systematically investigated as liquid membranes for EME and their extraction characteristics were comprehensively examined for the first time. A short plug of a water immiscible volatile solvent (a free liquid membrane (FLM)) was sandwiched between two aqueous plugs (donor and acceptor solutions) in a narrow-bore polymeric tubing. Evaporation of the volatile FLM was thus completely avoided and excellent stability of the phase interface was ensured. Suitability of volatile FLMs for EMEs was justified by µ-EMEs of nortriptyline, haloperidol, loperamide and papaverine as model non-polar basic drugs. Extraction performance of µ-EME through ethyl acetate was comparable or better to that through standard non-volatile EME solvents and a high extraction selectivity was achieved for nortriptyline and haloperidol extracted through chloroform. µ-EMEs through the volatile FLMs were characterized by high extraction recoveries (62%-99% for standards and 40-89% for body fluids), low electric currents (10-1380 nA), no susceptibility to matrix ions and suitability for pretreatment of raw body fluids (human urine and serum). Resulting extracts were analysed by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (CE/UV). Repeatability of the µ-EME-CE/UV method was excellent with intra-day and inter-day RSD values 0.8-3.2% and 1.8-4.6%, respectively. Further experiments demonstrated additional advantages of volatile FLMs by nearly exhaustive µ-EMEs of atenolol as the polar basic drug with no need for FLM modification by ionic carriers. The presented comprehensive examination of volatile solvents has broadened the range of liquid membranes suitable for EME and it is believed that this proof-of-concept study will stimulate further interest in a deeper investigation of volatile phase interfaces in EME.


Asunto(s)
Membranas Artificiales , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Electricidad , Electroforesis Capilar , Humanos , Solventes
19.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(8): 768-773, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605417

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Pneumatic lithotripsy (PL) and Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy (LL) are the most widely accepted methods in the endoscopic treatment of ureteral lithiasis. The objective is to compare efficacy and safety of pneumatic lithotripsy vs. Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral lithiasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective, single-blind, multicenter study. Adult patients were recruited from August 2017 to March 2019, in 23 institutions throughout Argentina. Patient demographics, stone characteristics, presence of double J stent prior to the intervention, stonefree rate (SF) and postoperative complications were evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 366 patients with ureteral lithiasis were included, 204 in the PL group and 162 in the LL group. The SF rate was significantly higher in the LL group (77% vs. 92%), OR 3 .43 (1.76 to 6.70). The complication rate was significantly lower in the LL group (9.8% vs. 2.5%), OR 0.23 (0.07 to 0.71). In the multivariate analysis, the use of Ho: YAG energy, the location of the lithiasis in the distal ureter, and the preoperative placement of double J stent, were found to be predictors of SF status. CONCLUSIONS: Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy has a higher stone-free rate and a lower complication rate compared to pneumatic lithotripsy.


Asunto(s)
Láseres de Estado Sólido , Litotripsia por Láser , Litotricia , Cálculos Ureterales , Adulto , Holmio , Humanos , Láseres de Estado Sólido/uso terapéutico , Estudios Prospectivos , Método Simple Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento , Cálculos Ureterales/terapia , Ureteroscopía
20.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1060-1066, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605477

RESUMEN

Osteoporosis is an important systemic manifestation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of bone which may present as low bone mass and micro-architectural disarray that increases the risk of fracture. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as bone density ≥2.5 standard deviations below the bone density of a normal young adult. Osteopenia, a less severe form of bone loss, is defined as a bone density between 1 and 2.5 standard deviations below that reference point. The aetiology of osteoporosis in COPD patients remain unclear, but several factors significantly correspond to reduced bone density in COPD, including older age, female sex and body mass index (BMI). However, the relationship to other factors, such as FEV1, tobacco smoking, physical inactivity and corticosteroid therapy, are still an unresolved issue. This cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Respiratory Medicine, BSMMU from March 2018 to March 2019. A total of 86 patients of which prevalence of osteoporosis is 29.1%, osteopenia 50% and normal BMD in 20.9%, majority of them was belonging to age group 51-60 years. Male were predominant with male-female ratio of 3.5:1. The frequency of osteoporosis was 32.0%, 64.0% and 4.0% in moderate, severe and in very severe COPD patients, respectively. The frequency of osteopenia was 14.0% in mild, 53.5% in moderate, 20.9% in severe and 11.6% were in very severe COPD patients. The p value (p=0.018) was significant for prevalence osteoporosis and osteopenia with increase in severity of COPD. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was high in COPD patients under study. The frequency of osteoporosis and osteopenia was more with severity of COPD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas , Osteoporosis , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Neumología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Anciano , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/complicaciones , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
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