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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMEN

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243187, 2022. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278521

RESUMEN

Abstract In this study, we investigated the proline and protease production of different bacteria in several organic waste materials. Our aim was to produce proline and protease economically in waste that is abundantly available while reducing its environmental impact. 5 ml of different organic waste materials (OWW: Olive waste water; N.B: Nutrient Broth; EW: Eggshell; PBS: PBS buffer; PLW: Peach leaf wastes; TCW: Turkish coffee wastes; TWW: Tea waste water; WCW: Waste cheese whey; WFO: Waste frying oil) were placed in 10 ml grow tubes, inoculated and incubated for 24 h. Phosphate-buffered saline and 10% solutions of different organic wastes were added. These cultures were subsequently incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Cells were harvested at 24 h for L-proline assay. 1 ml of culture was transferred by pipette into an Eppendorf tube and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 20 min at room temperature. Cellular debris was removed by centrifuge and the supernatant was used for proline activity assays. Protease activity was determined using a modified method with casein as the substrate. We found that proline and protease can easily be produced economically using Turkish coffee wastes (TCW), Waste cheese whey (WCW) and Olive waste water (OWW) organic waste. We believe that this study will result in similar research leading to the economical use of these waste materials thus reducing their impact on the environment.


Resumo Neste estudo, investigamos a produção de prolina e protease de diferentes bactérias em diversos resíduos orgânicos. Nosso objetivo era produzir prolina e protease economicamente em resíduos que estão disponíveis em abundância, reduzindo seu impacto ambiental. Cinco ml de diferentes materiais de resíduos orgânicos (OWW: resíduos de azeitona; NB: caldo nutriente; EW: casca de ovo; PBS: tampão PBS; PLW: resíduos de folhas de pêssego; TCW: resíduos de café turco; TWW: resíduos de chá; WCW: resíduos de queijo soro de leite; WFO: óleo de fritura residual) foram colocados em tubos de cultivo de 10 ml, inoculados e incubados por 24 horas. Adicionaram-se solução salina tamponada com fosfato e soluções a 10% de diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Essas culturas foram subsequentemente incubadas a 37° C durante 24 h. As células foram colhidas às 24 h para o ensaio de L-prolina. Um ml de cultura foi transferido por pipeta para um tubo Eppendorf e centrifugado a 14.000 rpm, por 20 min, em temperatura ambiente. Os detritos celulares foram removidos por centrifugação e o sobrenadante foi usado para ensaios de atividade de prolina. A atividade da protease foi determinada usando um método modificado com caseína como substrato. Descobrimos que a prolina e a protease podem ser facilmente produzidas economicamente, usando resíduos de café turco (TCW), resíduos de soro de queijo (WCW) e resíduos orgânicos de água de oliva (OWW). Acreditamos que este estudo resultará em pesquisas semelhantes, levando ao uso econômico desses materiais residuais, reduzindo, assim, seu impacto no meio ambiente.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494187

RESUMEN

RESUMO: A agroindústria, alavancada pela alta demanda dos produtos do açaí, promove impacto ambiental por meio da geração de resíduos em diversos locais da Amazônia. O uso com fins bioenergéticos tem a capacidade de mitigar esse cenário. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar a biomassa de sementes de açaí e estabelecer os parâmetros técnicos de temperatura e pressão de trabalho para a produção de briquetes de qualidade física, mecânica e térmica. Foram estudadas as temperaturas de 120, 140 e 160 ° C e as pressões de 15, 20 e 25 MPa. Analisamos a resistência mecânica à compressão dos briquetes, a taxa de absorção de água, a taxa de expansão volumétrica e energética e a densidade aparente. Para a caracterização de in naturasementes, a análise centesimal, a composição química (teores de extrativos, holocelulose e lignina), maior, menor e valor calorífico útil foram determinados. A análise aproximada indicou resistência térmica da biomassa, potencial de queima direta e conversão por processos termoquímicos. O teor de lignina pode aumentar a resistência à compressão dos briquetes produzidos em altas temperaturas. Observou-se que a temperatura teve mais influência nas características dos briquetes avaliados do que a pressão. A resistência à compressão foi maior nos briquetes de 160 ° C e 15 MPa, indicando que a lignina funciona como um ligante nesta temperatura; entretanto, com a melhora da pressão, a resistência não é favorecida devido ao limite de resistência à compactação. A taxa de absorção de água diminuiu com o aumento da pressão e a temperatura foi estatisticamente afetada nos briquetes de 140 ° C. Observamos valores de expansão volumétrica em consonância com outros encontrados em biocombustíveis densos da literatura. Além disso, a densidade aparente e a densidade de energia foram favorecidas pela melhora da pressão, e a temperatura auxiliou no aumento da densidade aparente. Além disso, os briquetes produzidos apresentaram ganho na densidade aparente em relação aobiomassa in natura e possuía densidade energética comparável ao carvão e adequada para coqueima em caldeiras.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049690, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489285

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The use of personal protective equipment, especially medical masks, increased dramatically during the COVID-19 crisis. Medical masks are made of synthetic materials, mainly polypropylene, and a majority of them are produced in China and imported to the European market. The urgency of the need has so far prevailed over environmental considerations. OBJECTIVE: Assess the environmental impact of different strategies for the use of face mask. METHOD: A prospective analysis was conducted to assess the environmental impact of different strategies for the use of medical and community masks. Eight scenarios, differentiating the typologies of masks and the modes of reuse are compared using three environmental impact indicators: the Global Warming Potential (GWP100), the ecological scarcity (UBP method, from German 'Umweltbelastungpunkte') and the plastic leakage (PL). This study attempts to provide clear recommendations that consider both the environmental impact and the protective effectiveness of face masks used in the community. RESULTS: The environmental impact of single-use masks is the most unfavourable, with a GWP of 0.4-1.3 kg CO2 eq., depending on the transport scenario, and a PL of 1.8 g, for a 1 month protection against COVID-19. The use of home-made cotton masks and prolonged use of medical masks through wait-and-reuse are the scenarios with the lowest impact. CONCLUSION: The use of medical masks with a wait and reuse strategy seems to be the most appropriate when considering both environmental impact and effectiveness. Our results also highlight the need to develop procedures and the legal/operational framework to extend the use of protective equipment during a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Ambiente , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131183, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467940

RESUMEN

Air-water interfaces are ubiquitous in nature, as manifested in the form of the surfaces of oceans, lakes, and atmospheric aqueous aerosols. The aerosol droplets interface, in particular, plays a critical role in numerous atmospheric chemistry processes. Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR), two abundant volatile organic compounds, are the significant precursors of Criegee intermediates and secondary organic aerosol. In this work, the physicochemical properties of MVK and MACR at the air-water interface are studied from a theoretical perspective. The free energy wells of MVK and MACR occur at the air-water interface, and the absorption probabilities of them are 71% and 67%, respectively. Repulsion dominates the interactions between MVK/MACR and water molecules in the bulk region, while attraction is dominant at the interface. The two molecules tend to tilt at the interface, with the CC bond exposed at the outer interface. The most likely reaction scenario of O3-initiated MVK/MACR reaction in the troposphere is also determined for the first time. Based on the molecular dynamics simulation results, the activity sequence of MVK + O3 is given at four different environments by the density functional theory method: air-water interface, mineral clusters interface, bulk solution, and homogeneous gas. The interfacial water molecule can catalyze the reaction of MVK with O3, and the rate constant at the air-water interface is ~6 times larger than that on the mineral surface model. Compared with mineral particles, aqueous particles play a more significant role in modifying the reaction properties of atmospheric organic species.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Agua , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Adsorción , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Butanonas , Ambiente , Agua/análisis
7.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408

RESUMEN

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Obesidad/etiología , Agricultura/economía , Agricultura/tendencias , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/patología , Cambio Climático/historia , Comorbilidad , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Ambiente , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/historia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/toxicidad , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/metabolismo , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo
8.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00518, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing how population density (PD), aging index (AI), use of public transport (URPT), and PM10 concentration (PI) modulated the trajectory of the main COVID-19 pandemic outcomes in Italy, also in the recrudescence phase of the epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. METHODS: For each region, we recovered data about cases, deaths, and case fatality rate (CFR) recorded since both the beginning of the epidemic and September 1, 2020. Data about total hospitalizations were included as well. RESULTS: PD correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. Moreover, URPT correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total CFR. Besides, PI correlated significantly with total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: PD explains COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, and severity while URPT is the best predictor of disease lethality. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the ecological fallacy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización , Pandemias , Densidad de Población , Transportes , Factores de Edad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Italia , Tamaño de la Partícula , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 663, 2021 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537887

RESUMEN

Many toxicological studies revealed the deleterious effects on human health induced by trace metals in ambient particulate matter (PM). This study reports the season-dependent water-soluble and total metal mass in PM10 collected simultaneously over five microenvironments in a semi-arid urban region, Ahmedabad, located in western India. The mineral dust fraction in PM10 over Bapunagar, Narol, Paldi, Income Tax, and Science City was estimated to be around 39, 45, 47, 44, and 31% during summer (May-June 2017) and 24, 55, 28, 27, and 28% during winter (December 2017-January 2018), respectively, corroborating mineral dust is perennial in the air over Ahmedabad. The PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios over all the sites were higher during winter (40-60%) as compared to those during summer (30-40%), indicating the contribution from the anthropogenic sources to PM mass. Among the metals monitored, the estimated considerable amount of high masses of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Sb during winter can be ascribed to the anthropogenic inputs based on the estimated enrichment factors (EF). In contrast to the crustal source, these metals might have been possibly emitted from several other man-made sources, which were found to be more water-soluble during both seasons. As per the standards of incremental excess lifetime cancer risk (IELCR), it is estimated that the atmospheric mass concentration of carcinogenic metals such as Cr, Co, and As was higher in all these sites, whereas the metals such as Pb, Ni, and Cd are also found over the industrial site (Narol) in addition to the above-said metals. Notably, people are highly susceptible to these metals, leading to the potential risk of cancer during both seasons.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Humanos , India , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 567-584, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542092

RESUMEN

Investments in animal health and Veterinary Services can have a measurable impact on the health of people and the environment. These investments require a baseline metric that describes the burden of animal health and welfare in order to justify and prioritise resource allocation and from which to measure the impact of interventions. This paper is part of a process of scientific enquiry in which problems are identified and solutions sought in an inclusive way. It poses the broad question: what should a system to measure the animal disease burden on society look like and what value would it add? Moreover, it aims to do this in such a way as to be accessible by a wide audience, who are encouraged to engage in this debate. Given that farmed animals, including those raised by poor smallholders, are an economic entity, this system should be based on economic principles. These poor farmers are negatively impacted by disparities in animal health technology, which can be addressed through a mixture of supply-led and demand-driven interventions, reinforcing the relevance of targeted financial support from government and non-governmental organisations. The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) Programme will glean existing data to measure animal health losses within carefully characterised production systems. Consistent and transparent attribution of animal health losses will enable meaningful comparisons of the animal disease burden to be made between diseases, production systems and countries, and will show how it is apportioned by people's socio-economic status and gender. The GBADs Programme will produce a cloud-based knowledge engine and data portal, through which users will access burden metrics and associated visualisations, support for decisionmaking in the form of future animal health scenarios, and the outputs of wider economic modelling. The vision of GBADs, strengthening the food system for the benefit of society and the environment, is an example of One Health thinking in action.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales , Salud Única , Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Animales , Acuicultura , Ganado
11.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 585-595, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542093

RESUMEN

Within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, particularly those that livestock impact most significantly (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 15 and 17), this paper provides an overview of the livestock sector's impact on food system sustainability and opportunities for building solutions through sustainable livestock options that are supported by robust animal health services. The discourse is shaped by the experiences of the Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock, a multi-stakeholder partnership which facilitates policy dialogue and action among diverse stakeholders to make livestock systems more sustainable. The Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock adopted the aforementioned SDGs as the reference framework for its actions, which are organised under four domains (food and nutrition security, animal health and welfare, livelihoods and economic growth, and climate and natural resources). These domains are used to highlight the complexity and diversity of the livestock sector, its positive and negative relationships to development, the integral roles of animal health systems and the opportunities for livestock sector contributions towards a sustainable future.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Salud Global , Objetivos , Naciones Unidas
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 592-600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153379

RESUMEN

Abstract Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.


Resumo Compreender a relação entre os fatores de estresse ambiental e o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide (HPT) pode reduzir a suscetibilidade a doenças da tireoide. Em nosso estudo, a disfunção tireoidiana foi induzida em ratos fêmeas pela administração de 40 mg Na F/kg.bw/dia durante um mês. A administração concomitante do extrato aquoso de Arca noae (300 mg/kg.Pc) foi testada como tratamento para a disfunção tireoidiana induzida por Na F. Um grupo de ratos injetados apenas com extrato de Arca noae (300 mg/kg. Pc) foi pré-formado com o intuito de observar o impacto do extrato no eixo (HPT), além do grupo controle normal. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, proteína total e albumina no grupo suplementado com fluoreto, além de níveis anormais de TSH, (T4) e (T3) em comparação ao grupo controle. No grupo tratado, houve uma melhora no nível de proteínas e perfil lipídico. Os níveis séricos pseudocorrigidos (T4) e (T3) foram observados, além de um aumento contínuo no nível de TSH. Os achados histológicos confirmaram o efeito prejudicial do flúor nos grupos não tratado e tratado. Consequentemente, a suplementação de flúor é considerada um estresse prejudicial que pode afetar permanentemente o eixo HPT.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4807, 2021 08 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376641

RESUMEN

Across the tree of life, populations have evolved the capacity to contend with suboptimal conditions by engaging in dormancy, whereby individuals enter a reversible state of reduced metabolic activity. The resulting seed banks are complex, storing information and imparting memory that gives rise to multi-scale structures and networks spanning collections of cells to entire ecosystems. We outline the fundamental attributes and emergent phenomena associated with dormancy and seed banks, with the vision for a unifying and mathematically based framework that can address problems in the life sciences, ranging from global change to cancer biology.


Asunto(s)
Latencia en las Plantas/fisiología , Banco de Semillas , Plantones/fisiología , Semillas/fisiología , Ecosistema , Ambiente , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Humanos , Luz , Latencia en las Plantas/genética , Plantones/genética , Semillas/genética , Temperatura
14.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 151, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Crypsis by background-matching is a critical form of anti-predator defence for animals exposed to visual predators, but achieving effective camouflage in patchy and variable natural environments is not straightforward. To cope with heterogeneous backgrounds, animals could either specialise on particular microhabitat patches, appearing cryptic in some areas but mismatching others, or adopt a compromise strategy, providing partial matching across different patch types. Existing studies have tested the effectiveness of compromise strategies in only a limited set of circumstances, primarily with small targets varying in pattern, and usually in screen-based tasks. Here, we measured the detection risk associated with different background-matching strategies for relatively large targets, with human observers searching for them in natural scenes, and focusing on colour. Model prey were designed to either 'specialise' on the colour of common microhabitat patches, or 'generalise' by matching the average colour of the whole visual scenes. RESULTS: In both the field and an equivalent online computer-based search task, targets adopting the generalist strategy were more successful in evading detection than those matching microhabitat patches. This advantage occurred because, across all possible locations in these experiments, targets were typically viewed against a patchwork of different microhabitat areas; the putatively generalist targets were thus more similar on average to their various immediate surroundings than were the specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Demonstrating close agreement between the results of field and online search experiments provides useful validation of online citizen science methods commonly used to test principles of camouflage, at least for human observers. In finding a survival benefit to matching the average colour of the visual scenes in our chosen environment, our results highlight the importance of relative scales in determining optimal camouflage strategies, and suggest how compromise coloration can succeed in nature.


Asunto(s)
Pigmentación , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Ambiente , Humanos , Especialización , Percepción Visual
15.
Medwave ; 21(7): e8436, 2021 Aug 06.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369919

RESUMEN

Food choice impacts human health and planetary sustainability. The feeding patterns that reduce risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and various mortality causes are recognized as healthy eating habits. The average world population is far from reaching these habits due to the lack of access to healthy foods and a high prevalence of malnutrition. Understanding the impact of healthy sustainable food systems is growing worldwide to reach food security for the global population and future generations. A systemic perspective of this concept includes the health and well-being of individuals and the environmental, economic, socio-cultural, public policies context, besides food, agriculture, and ecological sciences. We need to confront the menaces and challenges represented by the ongoing changes of our era, which strongly generate global food insecurity. This issue is relevant not only for human health but also for climate change and other threats, based on modifications in production, handling, and consumption of foods that consider health and welfare impact at individual and planetary levels. In this review, some key concepts related to healthy and sustainable food systems are presented.

16.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 592-605, 2021 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387415

RESUMEN

The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), which is an economically important mariculture fish in China, is often exposed to environmental hypoxia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis is essential for the maintenance of normal physiological conditions in an organism. Direct evidence that environmental hypoxia leads to ROS overproduction is scarce in marine fish. Furthermore, the sources of ROS overproduction in marine fish under hypoxic stress are poorly known. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on redox homeostasis in L. crocea and the impact of impaired redox homeostasis on fish. We first confirmed that hypoxia drove ROS production mainly via the mitochondrial electron transport chain and NADPH oxidase complex pathways in L. crocea and its cell line (large yellow croaker fry (LYCF) cells). We subsequently detected a marked increase in the antioxidant systems of the fish. However, imbalance between the pro-oxidation and antioxidation systems ultimately led to excessive ROS and oxidative stress. Cell viability showed a remarkable decrease while oxidative indicators, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonylation, and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine, showed a significant increase after hypoxia, accompanied by tissue damage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS levels, alleviated oxidative damage, and improved cell viability in vitro. Appropriate uptake of ROS scavengers (e.g., NAC and elamipretide Szeto-Schiller-31) and inhibitors (e.g., apocynin, diphenylene iodonium, and 5-hydroxydecanoate) may be effective at overcoming hypoxic toxicity. Our findings highlight previously unstudied strategies of hypoxic toxicity resistance in marine fish.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peces/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Oxígeno/química , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Animales , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular , Ambiente , Homeostasis , NADP
17.
Waste Manag ; 134: 159-169, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419703

RESUMEN

The amount of building demolition waste produced in China is large, and waste treatment processes discharge many pollutants. Pre-evaluating waste's environmental damage at the design stage of building projects could provide an opportunity to understand and minimize potential environmental impacts. Tools that can conveniently estimate the amount of demolition waste and quantify its impacts are lacking. This study combines building information modeling (BIM), geographic information system (GIS), and life cycle assessment (LCA) to develop an estimation and evaluation system for building demolition waste. In this system, BIM digitizes the specific characteristics of the evaluated buildings and provides geometric and semantic information for waste estimation. GIS offers geographic information regarding waste treatment plants and landfill site, and is used to design waste transportation routes. LCA provides an environmental impact assessment framework and quantifies ecological damage impacts and resource depletion impacts due to demolition waste. The system includes five modules, which form the basis of an automated calculation tool. The evaluation tool can quickly quantify the amount of waste and assess its impacts, while achieving automated waste estimation and impact evaluation after a building is designed. A building in a middle school is taken as a case study to demonstrate and verify the system. This study provides an operable tool for waste evaluation and management at the design stage. With the increasing application of BIM technology in the construction industry, this tool is expected to gain popularity and promote efficient waste management.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Ambiente , Reciclaje , Transportes
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444583

RESUMEN

The tourism sector is a driver of economic development characterised by its environmental impact. It is a prevalent part of the 2030 Agenda, given its potential to help meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the same time, board gender diversity is considered essential for companies to implement environmentally sustainable initiatives. However, analysis of the relationship between the role of women on boards and environmental performance has been neglected in the tourism literature. This paper adopts a novel approach to the study of this sector by analysing the relationship between gender diversity on the board of directors and companies' environmental practices. A fixed effects model is estimated using an international sample of 120 listed tourism companies for the period 2002 to 2019. The results show that boards that are more gender diverse and have a greater female presence are associated with poorer environmental performance and a weaker implementation of policies and practices to reduce resource use and emissions. However, board gender diversity aids performance in environmental innovation.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Turismo , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Políticas , Desarrollo Sostenible
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 606, 2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453609

RESUMEN

The collapse of mining tailing dams in Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil, that occurred in 2019 was one of the worst environmental and social disasters witnessed in the country. In this sense, monitoring any impacted areas both before and after the disaster is crucial to understand the actual scenario and problems of disaster management and environmental impact assessment. In order to find answers to that problem, the aim of this study was to identify and analyze the spatiality of the impacted area by rupture of the tailing dam of the Córrego do Feijão mine in Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, by using orbital remote sensing. Land use and land occupation, phytoplankton chlorophyll-a, water turbidity, total suspended solids on water, and carbon sequestration efficiency by vegetation (CO2Flux) were estimated by orbital imagery from the Landsat-8/OLI and MSI/Sentinel-2 sensors in order to assess the environmental impacts generated by the disaster. Data were extracted from spectral models in which the variables that best demonstrated the land use variation over the years were sought. Mean comparison by t-test was performed to compare the time series analyzed, that is, before and after the disaster. Through the analysis of water quality, it was observed that the environmental impact was calamitous to natural resources, especially water from Córrego do Feijão.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Brasil , Ambiente , Minería
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148257, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412378

RESUMEN

Rare earth elements (REEs) are one of the most important elements used for transformation of the fossil era into a decarbonized future. REEs are essential for wind, electric and hybrid vehicles, and low-energy lighting. However, there is a general understanding that REEs come along with multiple environmental problems during their extraction and processing. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method for a holistic evaluation of environmental effects of a product system considering the entire life cycle. This paper reviews LCA studies for determining the environmental impacts of rare earth oxide (REO) production from Bayan Obo and ion adsorption clays (IAC) in China, and shows why some studies lead to over- and underestimated results. We found out that current LCA studies of REE production provide a good overall understanding of the underlying process chains, which are mainly located in China. However, life cycle inventories (LCI) appear often not complete. Several lack accuracy, consistency, or transparency. Hence, resulting environmental impacts are subject to great uncertainty. This applies in particular to radioactivity and the handling of wastewater and slurry in tailing ponds, which have often been neglected. This article reviews 35 studies to identify suitable LCAs for comparison. The assessment covers the world's largest REO production facility, located in Bayan Obo, as well as in-situ leaching of IACs in the Southern Provinces of China. A total of 12 studies are selected, 8 for Bayan Obo and IACs each. The LCIs of these studies are reviewed in detail. The effects of over- and underestimated LCIs on the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) are investigated. The partly controversial results of existing LCAs are analyzed thoroughly and discussed. Our results show that an increased consistency in LCA studies on REO production is needed.


Asunto(s)
Metales de Tierras Raras , Animales , China , Ambiente , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Metales de Tierras Raras/análisis , Investigación
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