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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257761, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555110

RESUMEN

Integrating Multibeam Echosounder (MBES) data (bathymetry and backscatter) and underwater video technology allows scientists to study marine habitats. However, use of such data in modeling suitable seagrass habitats in Malaysian coastal waters is still limited. This study tested multiple spatial resolutions (1 and 50 m) and analysis window sizes (3 × 3, 9 × 9, and 21 × 21 cells) probably suitable for seagrass-habitat relationships in Redang Marine Park, Terengganu, Malaysia. A maximum entropy algorithm was applied, using 12 bathymetric and backscatter predictors to develop a total of 6 seagrass habitat suitability models. The results indicated that both fine and coarse spatial resolution datasets could produce models with high accuracy (>90%). However, the models derived from the coarser resolution dataset displayed inconsistent habitat suitability maps for different analysis window sizes. In contrast, habitat models derived from the fine resolution dataset exhibited similar habitat distribution patterns for three different analysis window sizes. Bathymetry was found to be the most influential predictor in all the models. The backscatter predictors, such as angular range analysis inversion parameters (characterization and grain size), gray-level co-occurrence texture predictors, and backscatter intensity levels, were more important for coarse resolution models. Areas of highest habitat suitability for seagrass were predicted to be in shallower (<20 m) waters and scattered between fringing reefs (east to south). Some fragmented, highly suitable habitats were also identified in the shallower (<20 m) areas in the northwest of the prediction models and scattered between fringing reefs. This study highlighted the importance of investigating the suitable spatial resolution and analysis window size of predictors from MBES for modeling suitable seagrass habitats. The findings provide important insight on the use of remote acoustic sonar data to study and map seagrass distribution in Malaysia coastal water.


Asunto(s)
Acústica/instrumentación , Organismos Acuáticos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Magnoliopsida/crecimiento & desarrollo , Algoritmos , Ecosistema , Entropía , Malasia , Modelos Biológicos , Análisis Espacial
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14941, 2021 07 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294780

RESUMEN

In situ observations of pelagic fish and zooplankton with optical instruments usually rely on external light sources. However, artificial light may attract or repulse marine organisms, which results in biased measurements. It is often assumed that most pelagic organisms do not perceive the red part of the visible spectrum and that red light can be used for underwater optical measurements of biological processes. Using hull-mounted echosounders above an acoustic probe or a baited video camera, each equipped with light sources of different colours (white, blue and red), we demonstrate that pelagic organisms in Arctic and temperate regions strongly avoid artificial light, including visible red light (575-700 nm), from instruments lowered in the water column. The density of organisms decreased by up to 99% when exposed to artificial light and the distance of avoidance varied from 23 to 94 m from the light source, depending on colours, irradiance levels and, possibly, species communities. We conclude that observations from optical and acoustic instruments, including baited cameras, using light sources with broad spectral composition in the 400-700 nm wavelengths do not capture the real state of the ecosystem and that they cannot be used alone for reliable abundance estimates or behavioural studies.


Asunto(s)
Peces/fisiología , Luz/efectos adversos , Zooplancton/fisiología , Acústica/instrumentación , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos/fisiología , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Dispositivos Ópticos/efectos adversos , Grabación en Video/instrumentación
3.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252824, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133448

RESUMEN

Underwater video monitoring systems are being widely used in fisheries to investigate fish behavior in relation to fishing gear and fishing gear performance during fishing. Such systems can be useful to evaluate the catch composition as well. In demersal trawl fisheries, however, their applicability can be challenged by low light conditions, mobilized sediment and scattering in murky waters. In this study, we introduce a novel observation system (called NepCon) which aims at reducing current limitations by combining an optimized image acquisition setup and tailored image analyses software. The NepCon system includes a high-contrast background to enhance the visibility of the target objects, a compact camera and an artificial light source. The image analysis software includes a machine learning algorithm which is evaluated here to test automatic detection and count of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). NepCon is specifically designed for applications in demersal trawls and this first phase aims at increasing the accuracy of N. norvegicus detection at the data acquisition level. To find the best contrasting background for the purpose we compared the output of four image segmentation methods applied to static images of N. norvegicus fixed in front of four test background colors. The background color with the best performance was then used to evaluate computer vision and deep learning approaches for automatic detection, tracking and counting of N. norvegicus in the videos. In this initial phase we tested the system in an experimental setting to understand the feasibility of the system for future implementation in real demersal fishing conditions. The N. norvegicus directed trawl fishery typically has no assistance from underwater observation technology and therefore are largely conducted blindly. The demonstrated perception system achieves 76% accuracy (F-score) in automatic detection and count of N. norvegicus, which provides a significant elevation of the current benchmark.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Nephropidae/fisiología , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/métodos , Robótica/métodos , Alimentos Marinos/estadística & datos numéricos , Algoritmos , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Noruega , Dinámica Poblacional , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/instrumentación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Robótica/instrumentación
4.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1650-1658, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887800

RESUMEN

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting the environment and conservation research in fundamental ways. Many conservation social scientists are now administering survey questionnaires online, but they must do so while ensuring rigor in data collection. Further, they must address a suite of unique challenges, such as the increasing use of mobile devices by participants and avoiding bots or other survey fraud. We reviewed recent literature on online survey methods to examine the state of the field related to online data collection and dissemination. We illustrate the review with examples of key methodological decisions made during a recent national study of people who feed wild birds, in which survey respondents were recruited through an online panel and a sample generated via a project participant list. Conducting surveys online affords new opportunities for participant recruitment, design, and pilot testing. For instance, online survey panels can provide quick access to large and diverse samples of people. Based on the literature review and our own experiences, we suggest that to ensure high-quality online surveys one should account for potential sampling and nonresponse error, design survey instruments for use on multiple devices, test the instrument, and use multiple protocols to identify data quality problems. We also suggest that research funders, journal editors, and policy makers can all play a role in ensuring high-quality survey data are used to inform effective conservation programs and policies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ciencias Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16084-16096, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793211

RESUMEN

As COVID-19 exemplifies, respiratory diseases transmitted through aerosols or droplets are global threats to public health, and respiratory protection measures are essential first lines of infection prevention and control. However, common face masks are single use and can cause cross-infection due to the accumulated infectious pathogens. We developed salt-based formulations to coat membrane fibers to fabricate antimicrobial filters. Here, we report a mechanistic study on salt-induced pathogen inactivation. The salt recrystallization following aerosol exposure was characterized over time on sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and potassium chloride (KCl) powders and coatings, which revealed that NaCl and KCl start to recrystallize within 5 min and K2SO4 within 15 min. The inactivation kinetics observed for the H1N1 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae matched the salt recrystallization well, which was identified as the main destabilizing mechanism. Additionally, the salt-coated filters were prepared with different methods (with and without a vacuum process), which led to salt coatings with different morphologies for diverse applications. Finally, the salt-coated filters caused a loss of pathogen viability independent of transmission mode (aerosols or droplets), against both DI water and artificial saliva suspensions. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of the salt-recrystallization-based technology to develop highly versatile antimicrobial filters.


Asunto(s)
Filtración/instrumentación , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/efectos de los fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Máscaras , Cloruro de Potasio/química , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Sulfatos/química , Aerosoles , Filtros de Aire , Cristalización , Cinética , Membranas Artificiales , Polipropilenos , Polvos , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Temperatura , Difracción de Rayos X
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247682, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780473

RESUMEN

With the development of a large number of tall dams and large cascade reservoir projects in the Lantsang River Basin, a large water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) containing cascading reservoirs has formed. This newborn ecosystem is related to the sustainable development of hydropower projects, and has become a new problem to be studied urgently. Taking WLFZs in the Huangdeng, Xiaowan and Nuozhadu Reservoirs in the Lantsang River Basin as study areas, this study used multi-spectral remote-sensing field data obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to ascertain the species types, coverage, distribution characteristics, dominant species and pioneer species of naturally restored vegetation. The considered data were subjected to UAV data processing, vegetation classification using multi-spectral images and a geographic information system (GIS) terrain-distribution analysis. Results show that: Polygonum Plebeium, Cynodon dactylon, Xanthium sibiricum, Ageratum conyzoides, Eleusine indica, Digitaria sanguinalis and Verbena officinalis are the dominant species of vegetation that could be naturally restored in the WLFZ; the vegetation coverage and the number of species are significantly positively correlated with the age and restoration periods of the WLFZ; the vegetation coverage of each study area increases at first, and then decreases, as a function of elevation; gentle slopes about 0-25°are more suitable for vegetation restoration. This study provides first-hand data on the natural restoration of vegetation in WLFZs, and gives a useful reference for its ecological restoration as a consequence of hydropower cascade development in the Lantsang River Basin. Finally, the study demonstrates that light UAV remote sensing is an attractive choice for investigating vegetation in reservoir WLFZs.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Desarrollo de la Planta/fisiología , Plantas/clasificación , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/instrumentación , Biodiversidad , China , Ecosistema , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Lagos , Centrales Eléctricas , Ríos , Análisis Espacial
7.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1437-1450, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543510

RESUMEN

Recovery and conservation of threatened species require adequate institutional responses. We tested an approach to systematically identify and measure how an institutional framework acknowledges threats and required responses for the recovery of endangered species. We measured institutional functional fit with a drivers-pressure-state-impacts-response (DPSIR) model integrated with a quantitative text mining method and qualitative analysis of statutory instruments to examine regulatory responses that support the recovery of 2 endangered species native to Australia, the bridled nailtail wallaby (Onychogalea fraenata) and the Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus). The key components of the DPSIR model were present in the institutional framework at statutory and operational levels, but some institutional gaps remained in the protection and recovery of the Eastern Bristlebird, including feral predator control, weed control, and grazing management in some locations. However, regulatory frameworks varied in their geographic scope and the application and implementation of many instruments remained optional. Quantitative text mining can be used to quickly navigate a large volume of regulatory documents, but challenges remain in selection of terms, queries of co-occurrence, and interpretation of word frequency counts. To inform policy, we recommend that quantitative assessments of institutional fit be complemented with qualitative analysis and interpreted in light of the sociopolitical and institutional context.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Animales , Australia
8.
J Med Eng Technol ; 45(2): 129-135, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554700

RESUMEN

Mechanical ventilation bypasses the protective mechanisms of the upper respiratory tract which are designed to heat and humidify inspired air to 37 °C and 44 mg H2O/L respectively. Artificial humidification systems are therefore incorporated into ventilation circuits to condition cold and dry medical gases before they reach the lower respiratory tract and cause patient harm. Commonly either a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) or a heated humidifier (HH) are utilised for this purpose, however the inadvertent simultaneous use of both devices within the same circuit can cause critical airway occlusion within 24 h. The Humidicare HME (Medovate, Cambridge, UK) is a safety engineered temperature-dependent warning system designed to activate when inadvertently placed into a warm circuit containing a HH. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the Humidicare HME warning system in simulated clinical conditions. The threshold temperature for activation of the device was determined in a digital incubator, and the device was tested for efficacy with a HH present or absent from the breathing circuit. The device performed reliably and activated rapidly when required across all simulations. The Humidicare HME warning system is a simple and unobtrusive device which can effectively alert the operator to the error of dual humidification.


Asunto(s)
Humidificadores , Equipos de Seguridad , Respiración Artificial/instrumentación , Ventiladores Mecánicos , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Humedad , Temperatura
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246233, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539384

RESUMEN

Animal movement data are widely collected with devices such as sensors and collars, increasing the ability of researchers to monitor animal movement and providing information about animal behavioral patterns. Animal behavior is used as a basis for understanding the relationship between animals and the environment and for guiding decision-making by researchers and public agencies about environmental preservation and conservation actions. Animal movement and behavior are widely studied with a focus on identifying behavioral patterns, such as, animal group formation, the distance between animals and their home range. However, we observed a lack of research proposing a unified solution that aggregates resources for analyses of individual animal behavior and of social interactions between animals. The primary scientific contribution of this work is to present a framework that uses trajectory analysis and association rule mining [Jaiswal and Agarwal, 2012] to provide statistical measures of correlation and dependence to determine the relationship level between animals, their social interactions, and their interactions with other environmental factors based on their individual behavior and movement data. We demonstrate the usefulness of the framework by applying it to movement data from jaguars in the Pantanal, Brazil. This allowed us to describe jaguar behavior, social interactions among jaguars and their behavior in different landscapes, thus providing a highly detailed investigation of jaguar movement decisions at the fine scale.


Asunto(s)
Minería de Datos/métodos , Panthera/fisiología , Conducta Social , Algoritmos , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Masculino , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/instrumentación , Interacción Social
10.
Health Secur ; 19(4): 379-385, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434096

RESUMEN

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirators are required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) when personal respiratory protection is used in US occupational settings. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand for NIOSH-approved N95 filtering facepiece respirators overwhelmed the available supply. To supplement the national inventory of N95 respirators, contingency and crisis capacity strategies were implemented and incorporated a component that endorsed the use of non-NIOSH-approved respiratory protective devices that conformed to select international standards. The development and execution of this strategy required the collaborative effort of numerous agencies. The Food and Drug Administration temporarily authorized non-NIOSH-approved international respiratory protective devices through an emergency use authorization, OSHA relaxed their enforcement guidance concerning their use in US workplaces, and NIOSH initiated a supplemental performance assessment process to verify the quality of international devices. NIOSH testing revealed that many of the non-NIOSH-approved respiratory protective devices had filtration efficiencies below 95% and substantial inconsistencies in filtration performance. This article reports the results of the NIOSH testing to date and discusses how it has contributed to continuous improvement of the crisis strategy of temporarily permitting the use of non-NIOSH-approved respirators in US occupational settings during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Ambiental/normas , Filtración/normas , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S./normas , Salud Pública , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria/normas , Filtración/instrumentación , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
11.
Conserv Biol ; 35(3): 824-833, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885461

RESUMEN

Climate change is a key threat to biodiversity. To conserve species under climate change, ecologists and conservation scientists suggest 2 main conservation strategies regarding land use: supporting species' range shifts to enable it to follow its climatic requirements by creating migration pathways, such as corridors and stepping stones, and conserving climate refugia (i.e., existing habitat areas that are somewhat buffered from climate change). The policy instruments that could be used to implement these conservation strategies have yet to be evaluated comprehensively from an economic perspective. The economic analyses of environmental policy instruments are often based on ecological effectiveness and cost-effectiveness criteria. We adapted these general criteria to evaluate policy instruments for species' conservation under climate change and applied them to a conceptual analysis of land purchases, offsets, and conservation payments. Depending on whether the strategy supporting species' range shifts or conserving climate refugia is selected, the evaluation of the policy instruments differed substantially. For example, to ensure ecological effectiveness, habitat persistence over time was especially important for climate refugia and was best achieved by a land-purchase policy instrument. In contrast, for the strategy supporting range shifts to be ecologically effective, a high degree of flexibility in the location of conserved sites was required to ensure that new habitat sites can be created in the species' new range. Offset programs were best suited for that because the location of conservation sites can be chosen comparatively freely and may also be adapted over time.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cambio Climático , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Ecosistema , Política Ambiental
12.
Conserv Biol ; 35(3): 816-823, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779761

RESUMEN

Markets are increasingly being incorporated into many aspects of daily life and are becoming an important part of the conservation solution space. Although market-based solutions to environmental problems can result in improvements to conservation, a body of social science research highlights how markets may also have unforeseen consequences by crowding out or displacing 3 key types of behaviors potentially relevant to conservation, including people's willingness to engage in collective action and civic duty; tolerance for inflicting harm on others (third-party externalities); and desire for equity. Better understanding of the contexts and mechanisms through which this crowding out occurs and whether specific market-based instruments are more prone to different types of crowding out will be crucial to developing novel conservation initiatives that can reduce or prevent crowding out.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243079, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301487

RESUMEN

Tree growth and survival differ strongly between canopy trees (those directly exposed to overhead light), and understory trees. However, the structural complexity of many tropical forests makes it difficult to determine canopy positions. The integration of remote sensing and ground-based data enables this determination and measurements of how canopy and understory trees differ in structure and dynamics. Here we analyzed 2 cm resolution RGB imagery collected by a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS), also known as drone, together with two decades of bi-annual tree censuses for 2 ha of old growth forest in the Central Amazon. We delineated all crowns visible in the imagery and linked each crown to a tagged stem through field work. Canopy trees constituted 40% of the 1244 inventoried trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) > 10 cm, and accounted for ~70% of aboveground carbon stocks and wood productivity. The probability of being in the canopy increased logistically with tree diameter, passing through 50% at 23.5 cm DBH. Diameter growth was on average twice as large in canopy trees as in understory trees. Growth rates were unrelated to diameter in canopy trees and positively related to diameter in understory trees, consistent with the idea that light availability increases with diameter in the understory but not the canopy. The whole stand size distribution was best fit by a Weibull distribution, whereas the separate size distributions of understory trees or canopy trees > 25 cm DBH were equally well fit by exponential and Weibull distributions, consistent with mechanistic forest models. The identification and field mapping of crowns seen in a high resolution orthomosaic revealed new patterns in the structure and dynamics of trees of canopy vs. understory at this site, demonstrating the value of traditional tree censuses with drone remote sensing.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/instrumentación , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bosques , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Clima Tropical
14.
Agora USB ; 20(2): 219-234, jul.-dic. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152765

RESUMEN

Resumen El límite de expansión urbana oriental de Medellín, Colombia, está dado por las zonas de protección ambiental y la frontera con el corregimiento de Santa Elena; sin embargo, esta delimitación es ambigua entre lo que se ha planteado en el Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial vigente y lo que se encuentra en la realidad: el barrio El Pacífico, último asentamiento de este borde se ha comenzado a expandir incluso, a la zona de protección y a los suelos de uso rural. Existe una clara distancia entre lo planteado y sentado en los instrumentos de planificación, con lo interpretado o percibido por la comunidad que habita el territorio en cuestión. Existe un contraste urbano rural dado por la dinámica que plantean los actores fronterizos.


Abstract The eastern urban expansion edge of Medellin, Colombia, is given by environmental protection zones and the border with the Santa Elena Village. However, this delimitation is ambiguous between what has been raised in the current Territorial Ordering Plan and what is in reality: The El Pacífico neighborhood. The last settlement of this border has even begun to expand to the protection zone and to rural-use soils. The re exists a clear distance between what is raised and what is seated in the planning instruments, with what is interpreted or perceived by the community, who inhabits the territory in question. There is a rural urban contrast given by the dynamics posed by bordering actors.

15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1814): 20190447, 2020 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131437

RESUMEN

Acoustic approaches have been recently proposed to investigate critical ecological issues, such as biodiversity loss and different typologies of impacts, including climate change. However, the extensive use of acoustic monitoring is hampered by the lack of algorithms enabling the discrimination among different sound sources (e.g. geophysical, anthropogenic and biological). Eco- and bioacoustic indexes have been applied to provide non-invasive information on the temporal and spatial patterns of marine biodiversity and on the anthropogenic impact on marine life. Here, we review the potential of acoustic tools in expanding the monitoring of marine ecosystems from a current three-dimensional perception to a four-dimensional dimension. We also explore the use of acoustic indexes, mostly developed in terrestrial ecology, for the investigation of different marine ecosystems. Their appraisal, strengths and limits, and potential for future investigations in the biological exploration of the oceans are also discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Integrative research perspectives on marine conservation'.


Asunto(s)
Acústica/instrumentación , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Invertebrados/fisiología , Vertebrados/fisiología , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos/fisiología , Océanos y Mares , Sonido
16.
Conserv Biol ; 34(6): 1353-1363, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245805

RESUMEN

Conservation psychology has a history of measuring variables that cannot be seen (e.g., values, attitudes, norms). Such latent variables are critical drivers of human action and are often measured using responses to survey questions. Tools for establishing the psychometric adequacy of unobservable, latent variables has been a century-long pursuit and challenge for quantitative psychologists and statisticians. Fundamental questions at the heart of this challenge include is what is claimed to be measured (validity) being measured and is measurement consistent (reliability)? We examined common methods used to establish the validity and reliability of psychometric instruments. Through a case study of anglers in Texas, we investigated the protocols and metrics used to evaluate the measurement of latent variables. The indicators we tested (identity, awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and personal norms) validly and reliably assessed latent variables. Our findings also illustrated decision protocols (e.g., discriminant validity, convergent validity, internal consistency) involved in assessing the psychometric adequacy of latent variable indicators. The ability to correctly identify significant relationships among unobserved variables and their influence on human action is directly tied to the adequacy of measurement. In an era of instability and change that threatens social-ecological systems worldwide, the need for accuracy and precision in conservation social science has never been greater. Research that employs flawed measures has potential to lead to erroneous conclusions and undermine conservation and biodiversity protection.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas
17.
Sci Robot ; 5(48)2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239320

RESUMEN

Knowing the displacement capacity and mobility patterns of industrially exploited (i.e., fished) marine resources is key to establishing effective conservation management strategies in human-impacted marine ecosystems. Acquiring accurate behavioral information of deep-sea fished ecosystems is necessary to establish the sizes of marine protected areas within the framework of large international societal programs (e.g., European Community H2020, as part of the Blue Growth economic strategy). However, such information is currently scarce, and high-frequency and prolonged data collection is rarely available. Here, we report the implementation of autonomous underwater vehicles and remotely operated vehicles as an aid for acoustic long-baseline localization systems for autonomous tracking of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), one of the key living resources exploited in European waters. In combination with seafloor moored acoustic receivers, we detected and tracked the movements of 33 tagged lobsters at 400-m depth for more than 3 months. We also identified the best procedures to localize both the acoustic receivers and the tagged lobsters, based on algorithms designed for off-the-shelf acoustic tags identification. Autonomous mobile platforms that deliver data on animal behavior beyond traditional fixed platform capabilities represent an advance for prolonged, in situ monitoring of deep-sea benthic animal behavior at meter spatial scales.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Nephropidae , Robótica/instrumentación , Acústica , Algoritmos , Animales , Conducta Animal , Simulación por Computador , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Ecosistema , Diseño de Equipo , Nephropidae/fisiología , Océanos y Mares , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/instrumentación , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/estadística & datos numéricos , Robótica/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos Marinos
18.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(12): 1468-1474, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An association between wearing protective gear and eosinophilic folliculitis has not been reported. We aimed to investigate such during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In three outpatient clinics, we hand-reviewed records of all patients having consulted us during a Study Period (90 days) in the early phase of the pandemic. Our inclusion criteria for Study Subjects were: (i) clear clinical diagnosis, (ii) dermoscopic confirmation, (iii) differential diagnoses excluded, (iv) eosinophilia, (v) protective gear worn during sanitation services, (vi) temporal correlation, (vii) distributional correlation, (viii) physician-assessed association, and (ix) patient-assessed association. Control Periods in the same season were elected. RESULTS: Twenty-five study subjects fulfilled all inclusion criteria. The incidence was significantly higher than in the control periods (IR: 3.57, 95% CI: 1.79-7.43). Male predominance was significant (P < 0.001). Such for patients in the control periods were insignificant. Study subjects were 21.2 (95% CI: 11.0-31.4) years younger than patients in the control periods. For the study subjects, the distribution of erythematous or skin-colored folliculocentric dome-shaped papules and pustules were all compatible with body parts covered by the gear. Lesional biopsy performed on two patients revealed eosinophilic dermal infiltrates within and around the pilosebaceous units. Polarized dermoscopy revealed folliculitis with peri-/interfollicular vascular proliferation. Lesion onsets were 6.4 (SD: 2.1) days after wearing gear. Remissions were 16.7 (SD: 7.5) days after ceasing to wear gear and treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing protective gear in volunteered sanitizing works could be associated with eosinophilic folliculitis. Owing to the significant temporal and distributional correlations, the association might be causal.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Eosinofilia/epidemiología , Foliculitis/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/efectos adversos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Enfermedades Cutáneas Vesiculoampollosas/epidemiología , Voluntarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Biopsia , COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/instrumentación , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Dermoscopía , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/etiología , Eosinofilia/patología , Femenino , Foliculitis/diagnóstico , Foliculitis/etiología , Foliculitis/patología , Folículo Piloso/diagnóstico por imagen , Folículo Piloso/patología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamiento , Factores Sexuales , Enfermedades Cutáneas Vesiculoampollosas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cutáneas Vesiculoampollosas/etiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Vesiculoampollosas/patología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
20.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 9(3): 26-48, jul.-set.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121778

RESUMEN

Objetivo: encontrar possíveis convergências e desdobramentos entre os princípios do direito à saúde, da Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos e da Recomendação do Conselho sobre Inteligência Artificial da Organização para a Cooperação e o Desenvolvimento Econômico. Metodologia: pesquisa bibliográfica em textos acadêmicos sobre a principiologia em direito à saúde e pesquisa documental em instrumentos jurídicos internacionais do soft law ­Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos e a Recomendação sobre Inteligência Artificial do Conselho da Organização para a Cooperação e o Desenvolvimento Econômico.Resultados: os princípiosconvergem para eixos que permitem dividi-los em três grandes categorias: mais tradicionais (biológicas, biotecnológicas e biomédicas); amplas e inclusivas (sanitária, social, cultural, econômica, laboral, ambiental, moral e ética); e organizativas-jurídicas (responsabilidade individual, social, coletiva e política).Conclusão: os princípios devem embasar e equilibrar as políticas sociais em interligação ativa com o sistema de proteção jurídico-social de uma sociedade democrática. A convergência entre os princípios centra-se na dignidade humana, guiando para que as decisões tomadas sobre os sistemas de inteligência artificial em saúde e sua implementação sejam feitas de forma segura, imparcial e justa para toda a sociedade.


Objective:to find possible convergences and developments between the principles of the right to health, the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights and the Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Methods:bibliographic research in academic texts on the principle of right to health and documentary research in legal instruments of soft law: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights and the Council Recommendation onArtificial Intelligence of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Results:the principles converge to axes that allow dividing them into three major categories: more traditional (biological, biotechnological and biomedical); broad and inclusive (health, social, cultural, economic, labor, environmental, moral and ethical); and organizational-legal (individual, social, collective and political responsibility). Conclusion:the principles must underpin and balance social policies in active interconnection with the legal and social protection system of a democratic society. The convergence between the principles focuses on human dignity, guiding so that decisions made about artificial intelligence systems in health and their implementation are made in a safe, impartial and fair manner for the whole of society.


Objetivo:encontrar posibles convergencias y desarrollos entre los principios del derecho a la salud, la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos y la Recomendación del Consejo sobre Inteligencia Artificial de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. Metodología:investigación bibliográfica en textos académicos sobre el principio del derecho a la salud e investigación documental en instrumentos jurídicos de soft law: la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos y la Recomendación del Consejo sobre Inteligencia Artificial de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. Resultados:los principios convergen en ejes que permiten dividirlos en tres grandes categorías: más tradicionales (biológicos, biotecnológicos y biomédicos); amplio e inclusivo (sanitario, social, cultural, económico, laboral, medioambiental, moral y ético); y organizacional-legal (responsabilidad individual, social, colectiva y política). Conclusión:los principios deben apuntalar y equilibrar las políticas sociales en interconexión activa con el sistema legal y de protección social de una sociedad democrática. La convergencia entre los principios se centra en la dignidad humana, orientando para que las decisiones que se tomen sobre los sistemas de inteligencia artificial en salud y su implementación se tomen de manera segura, imparcial y justa para toda la sociedad.

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