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2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009614, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280204

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human mobility among residential locations can drive dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics. Recently, it was shown that individuals with symptomatic DENV infection exhibit significant changes in their mobility patterns, spending more time at home during illness. This change in mobility is predicted to increase the risk of acquiring infection for those living with or visiting the ill individual. It has yet to be considered, however, whether social contacts are also changing their mobility, either by socially distancing themselves from the infectious individual or increasing contact to help care for them. Social, or physical, distancing and caregiving could have diverse yet important impacts on DENV transmission dynamics; therefore, it is necessary to better understand the nature and frequency of these behaviors including their effect on mobility. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through community-based febrile illness surveillance and RT-PCR infection confirmation, 67 DENV positive (DENV+) residents were identified in the city of Iquitos, Peru. Using retrospective interviews, data were collected on visitors and home-based care received during the illness. While 15% of participants lost visitors during their illness, 22% gained visitors; overall, 32% of all individuals (particularly females) received visitors while symptomatic. Caregiving was common (90%), particularly caring by housemates (91%) and caring for children (98%). Twenty-eight percent of caregivers changed their behavior enough to have their work (and, likely, mobility patterns) affected. This was significantly more likely when caring for individuals with low "health-related quality of well-being" during illness (Fisher's Exact, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that social contacts of individuals with dengue modify their patterns of visitation and caregiving. The observed mobility changes could impact a susceptible individual's exposure to virus or a presymptomatic/clinically inapparent individual's contribution to onward transmission. Accounting for changes in social contact mobility is imperative in order to get a more accurate understanding of DENV transmission.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255218, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324573

RESUMEN

Globally, over 300,000 women die of cervical cancer annually. Given that human papillomavirus vaccines are highly effective in the primary prevention of cervical cancer, it is important to explore the barriers and facilitators to vaccination uptake in areas where the burden of disease remains high. This study, informed by the socio-ecological model, aimed to qualitatively explore vaccination uptake via in-depth interviews with eleven nurses and ten teachers involved in vaccine delivery in Iquitos, Peru. The results highlighted that vaccine uptake was influenced by multiple factors including individuals' knowledge and attitudes, community beliefs, geography, and policy level variables. Findings suggested that professionals were informed and supportive of the HPV vaccination program but perceived that parents were uninformed about the vaccine. There is a need for community education programs, for a revision of the process of obtaining parental consent, for improved communication between professionals and for involvement of grassroots staff in policy making.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 244-246, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260956

RESUMEN

Herd immunity is considered to be a relevant aspect of COVID-19 epidemiology. In this regard, seroprevalence studies are essential for understanding how far countries and regions are from that potential point. This study analyzed seroprevalence data in nine studies from South America, which is a region that has been badly affected by COVID-19. Seroprevalence values ​​were high, with percentages up to 70.0% (95% CI 67.0-73.4%) in Iquitos, Peru. A meta-analysis of such data enabled a pooled seroprevalence to be obtained, estimated at 33.6% (95% CI 28.6-38.5%). Despite this, the COVID-19 pandemic in South America continues to significantly affect countries such as Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Brasil , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Pandemias , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
5.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190360

RESUMEN

The trade in wild meat is an important economic component of rural people's livelihoods, but it has been perceived to be among the main causes of the decline of wildlife species. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light an additional concern of wildlife markets as a major human-health challenge. We analyzed data from the largest longitudinal monitoring (1973-2018) of the most important urban wild-meat markets in Iquitos, Peru, to examine the trends in and impacts of these markets on people's livelihoods. Over the last 45 years, wild meat sales increased at a rate of 6.4 t/year (SD 2.17), paralleling urban population growth. Wild meat sales were highest in 2018 (442 t), contributing US$2.6 million (0.76%) to the regional gross domestic product. Five species of ungulates and rodents accounted for 88.5% of the amount of biomass traded. Vulnerable and Endangered species represented 7.0% and 0.4% of individuals sold, respectively. Despite growth in sales, the contribution of wild meat to overall urban diet was constant: 1-2%/year of total meat consumed. This result was due to greater availability and higher consumption of cheaper meats (e.g., in 2018, poultry was 45.8% cheaper and was the most consumed meat) coupled with the lack of economic incentives to harvest wild meat species in rural areas. Most wild meat was sold salted or smoked, reducing the likelihood of foodborne diseases. Community-based wildlife management plans and the continued trade bans on primates and threatened taxa may avoid biodiversity loss. Considering the recent COVID-19 pandemic, future management plans should include potential viral hosts and regulation and enforcement of hygiene practices in wild-meat markets.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e925-e931, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022148

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among people at risk of infection is crucial for understanding both the past transmission of COVID-19 and vulnerability of the population to continuing transmission and, when done serially, the intensity of ongoing transmission over an interval in a community. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 in a representative population-based cohort in Iquitos, one of the regions with the highest mortality rates from COVID-19 in Peru, where a devastating number of cases occurred in March, 2020. METHODS: We did a population-based study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Iquitos at two timepoints: July 13-18, 2020 (baseline), and Aug 13-18, 2020 (1-month follow-up). We obtained a geographically stratified representative sample of the city population using the 2017 census data, which was updated on Jan 20, 2020. We included people who were inhabitants of Iquitos since COVID-19 was identified in Peru (March 6, 2020) or earlier. We excluded people living in institutions, people receiving any pharmacological treatment for COVID-19, people with any contraindication for phlebotomy, and health workers or individuals living with an active health worker. We tested each participant for IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Zhejiang Orient Gene Biotech, China). We used survey analysis methods to estimate seroprevalence accounting for the sampling design effect and test performance characteristics. FINDINGS: We identified 726 eligible individuals and enrolled a total of 716 participants (99%), distributed across 40 strata (four districts, two sexes, and five age groups). We excluded ten individuals who: did not have consent from a parent or legal representative (n=3), had moved to Iquitos after March 6, 2020 (n=3), were in transit (n=2), or had respiratory symptoms (n=1). After adjusting for the study sampling effects and sensitivity and specificity of the test, we estimated a seroprevalence of 70% (95% CI 67-73) at baseline and 66% (95% CI 62-70) at 1 month of follow-up, with a test-retest positivity of 65% (95% CI 61-68), and an incidence of new exposures of 2% (95% CI 1-3). We observed significant differences in the seroprevalence between age groups, with participants aged 18-29 years having lower seroprevalence than those aged younger than 12 years (prevalence ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·73-0·98]; p=0·029). INTERPRETATION: After the first epidemic peak, Iquitos had one of the highest rates of seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies worldwide. Nevertheless, the city experienced a second wave starting in January, 2021, probably due to the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 P1 variant, which has shown higher transmissibility and reinfection rates. FUNDING: Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto (DIRESA), Loreto, Peru. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009307, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901172

RESUMEN

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have the potential to identify infectious diseases quickly, minimize disease transmission, and could complement and improve surveillance and control of infectious and vector-borne diseases during outbreaks. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Joint Science and Technology Office (DTRA-JSTO) program set out to develop novel point-of-need RDTs for infectious diseases and deploy them for home use with no training. The aim of this formative study was to address two questions: 1) could community members in Iquitos, Peru and Phnom Penh, Cambodia competently use RDTs of different levels of complexity at home with visually based instructions provided, and 2) if an RDT were provided at no cost, would it be used at home if family members displayed febrile symptoms? Test kits with written and video (Peru only) instructions were provided to community members (Peru [n = 202]; Cambodia [n = 50]) or community health workers (Cambodia [n = 45]), and trained observers evaluated the competency level for each of the several steps required to successfully operate one of two multiplex RDTs on themselves or other consenting participant (i.e., family member). In Iquitos, >80% of residents were able to perform 11/12 steps and 7/15 steps for the two- and five-pathogen test, respectively. Competency in Phnom Penh never reached 80% for any of the 12 or 15 steps for either test; the percentage of participants able to perform a step ranged from 26-76% and 23-72%, for the two- and five-pathogen tests, respectively. Commercially available NS1 dengue rapid tests were distributed, at no cost, to households with confirmed exposure to dengue or Zika virus; of 14 febrile cases reported, six used the provided RDT. Our findings support the need for further implementation research on the appropriate level of instructions or training needed for diverse devices in different settings, as well as how to best integrate RDTs into existing local public health and disease surveillance programs at a large scale.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/normas , Personal de Salud/educación , Adolescente , Adulto , Cambodia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Educación/métodos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Instituciones de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Masculino , Melioidosis/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Perú , Peste/diagnóstico , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 345, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853587

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major global health problem and one of the greatest barriers to its control is poor adherence to treatment. Peru has one of the highest burdens of TB in South America, with an incidence rate of 123 per 100,000 populations. There is currently a lack of evidence in South America about factors that facilitate adherence to treatment, with most previous research focusing on factors that negatively influence adherence to TB treatment. SETTING: This study was conducted in Iquitos, the capital city of the Loreto region, north-eastern Peru. Loreto has a high incidence of tuberculosis, estimated at 99 per 100,000 population, and a high poverty rate. METHODS: Twenty face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted at two healthcare centres. Data collected from the interviews was analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the data set. Personal Qualities, such as responsibility and determination, were perceived as important factors facilitating adherence. Participants described their Trust in Healthcare Providers positively, particularly focusing on their trust in clinical staff, although knowledge of tuberculosis and its treatment was limited. Social Support, from a variety of sources, was also seen as a driving factor for continued adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that more emphasis should be placed on educating tuberculosis patients about their disease and its treatment. Additionally, consideration should be given to improving the social support available to patients, for example with tuberculosis support groups involving 'expert' tuberculosis patients.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Perú/epidemiología , Investigación Cualitativa , América del Sur , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899346

RESUMEN

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with multiple serogroups that infects wildlife and humans alike. Several studies have detected the presence of leptospiral antibodies in captive Neotropical primates, suggesting that they are asymptomatic carriers. However, the presence of antibodies in free-ranging primates and their potential role as reservoirs for this pathogen is not known. In this study, we used the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) to screen two species of free-ranging tamarins for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using a panel of 21 serogroups. A total of 56 primates (26 Leontocebus weddelli and 30 Saguinus imperator) were screened at the Estación Biológica Río Los Amigos in Madre de Dios, Peru. MAT results with titres of ≥100 in single samples were considered seropositive. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated for age group, sex and host species identity. Overall, 51.8% (29/56) of animals were reactive for at least one Leptospira serogroup. Serogroups were distributed as follows: Iquitos (41.1%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (14.3%), Sejroe (3.6%), Autumnalis (1.8%) and Bataviae (1.8%). No significant differences (p > .05) were found for seropositivity frequencies among categories within assessed variables. These results suggest that free-ranging L. weddelli and S. imperator might serve as reservoirs for pathogenic Leptospira serogroups. Given increasing human-wildlife contact, future studies that test for active infection are required to determine potential transmission risks to humans.

11.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 28(2): e20463, abr.-jun 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280514

RESUMEN

Resumen Con excepción de los bosques de la cuenca del río Itaya, área de influencia de la carretera Iquitos-Nauta y cuenca media de los ríos Nanay y Tigre, no hay información sobre el estado actual de la población y hábitat de Cheracebus sp., lo que motivó el desarrollo de este estudio cuyos objetivos estuvieron orientados a obtener más información sobre el estado actual de esta especie. Para ello, de mayo a noviembre del 2019 se realizaron censos por transecto lineal en bosques de las cuencas de los ríos Itaya, Nanay y Tigre. En 1659 km de longitud recorrida se avistaron 32 grupos de Cheracebus sp., de ellos, 17 correspondieron a la cuenca del río Nanay. Grupos con cuatro individuos se avistaron con más frecuencia en la cuenca del río Nanay; la abundancia relativa y la densidad poblacional fue ligeramente mayor en la cuenca del río Itaya con 0.3 grupos/10 km y 4.2 individuos/km2. En el área de estudio, los bosques están muy perturbados desde las orillas de los ríos y quebradas hasta aproximadamente 0.7 km al interior. La baja densidad poblacional de Cheracebus sp. es consecuencia de la alta presión de caza, en particular en la cuenca del río Tigre; a ella se suma la alta perturbación de los bosques por la extracción de árboles maderables y otros recursos, lo que estaría ocasionando escasez de recursos alimenticios para éste y otros primates.


Abstract With the exception of the forests of the Itaya river basin, the area of influence of the Iquitos-Nauta highway and the middle basin of the Nanay and Tigre rivers, there is no information on the current status of Cheracebus sp. populations and habitat, which motivated this study. The objectives were aimed at obtaining more information on Cheracebus sp. and the state of its populations. Linear transect censuses were conducted from May to November 2019 in forests of the Itaya, Nanay and Tigre river basins. In 1659 km of covered length, 32 groups were sighted; of them, 17 corresponded to the Nanay river basin. Groups with four individuals were seen more frequently in the Nanay river basin; relative abundance and population density were slightly higher in the Itaya river basin with 0.3 groups/ 10 km and 4.2 individuals/ km2. In the study area, forests are highly disturbed from the banks of rivers and streams up to approximately 0.7 km inland. The low population density of Cheracebus sp. is a consequence of high hunting pressure, particularly in the Tigre river basin; added to this is the high disturbance of the forests due to the extraction of timber trees and other resources; which would be causing a shortage of food resources for this and other primates.

12.
Med Anthropol Q ; 35(2): 190-208, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788964

RESUMEN

The following article discusses a collaborative, reenactment film made with the residents of a drug rehabilitation center in Iquitos, Peru. In so doing, it raises questions about narratives of recovery from addiction, and the tensions that emerge between these narratives and the often-ambivalent feelings of the people who tell them. Practices of filmmaking and reenactment generate a collaborative theorization of lived experience-in this case, the multifaceted natures of both addiction and recovery. At the same time, these practices are also attentive to the embodied memories and complex feelings of the film's actors. Further engagement with the filmic materials demonstrates how the film became an active exploration of the ongoing nature of recovery, complicating the therapeutic trajectories of a group of actors struggling to reconcile ambivalent feelings as they attempt to craft new narratives of self.


Asunto(s)
Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Antropología Médica , Humanos , Narración , Perú/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
13.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668710

RESUMEN

Background. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is responsible for tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1-associated leukemia/lymphoma. The infection is endemic in some areas of Peru, but its prevalence in the Peruvian Amazon is not well established. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women in the Peruvian Amazon. Moreover, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of HTLV infection in Peru. (2) Methods. This is a prospective cross-sectional study involving pregnant women attending health centers in the city of Iquitos, Peru, in May and June 2019. The presence of antibodies against HTLV-1 was assessed using ELISA (HTLV I + II ELISA recombinant v.4.0, Wiener lab, Rosario, Argentina). Positive cases were confirmed by Western Blot and HTLV-1 proviral load. (3) Results. The study included 300 pregnant women with a mean age of 26 years (standard deviation [SD] 6.4). Five patients were diagnosed with HTLV-1 infection (prevalence 1.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7% to 3.8%). Pregnant women with HTLV-1 infection were discretely younger (mean age 22.6 [SD 22.6] vs 26.8 [SD 6.3]; p = 0.128). None of the five women had been transfused, and all were asymptomatic. Two (40%) also had a positive serology for Strongyloides, but larvae were not detected in any of the parasitological stool studies. The systematic review component identified 40 studies, which showed that the prevalence of HTLV infection in the general population was 2.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 5.3%) and in women of childbearing age, 2.5% (95% CI 1.2% to 4.0%). (4) Conclusion. The prevalence of HTLV-1 in the Peruvian Amazon basin is about 1.7%, indicating an endemic presence. Screening for HTLV-1 in prenatal care is warranted.

14.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21249913

RESUMEN

BackgroundDetection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among people at risk is critical for understanding both the prior transmission of COVID-19 and vulnerability of the population to the continuing transmission and, when done serially, the intensity of ongoing transmission over an interval in a community. In this study, we estimated the seroprevalence of COVID-19 in a representative population-based cohort of Iquitos, one of the regions with the highest mortality rates from COVID-19 in Peru, where a devastating number of cases occurred in March 2020. MethodsWe conducted a population-based study of transmission tested each participant using the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test from Orient Gene Biotech and used survey analysis methods to estimate seroprevalence accounting for the sampling design effect and test performance characteristics. Here we report results from the baseline (13 to 18 July 2020) and the first month of follow-up (13 to 18 August 2020) study. FindingsWe enrolled a total of 716 participants and estimated seroprevalence of 70.0% (95% CI: 67.0%-73.4%), a test-re-test positivity of 65% (95% CI: 61.0%-68.3%), and an incidence of new exposures of 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9%-3.2%) data that suggest that transmission is ongoing but is occurring at low levels. We observed significant differences in the seroprevalence between age groups, with participants 18 to 29 years of age having lower seroprevalence than children <12 years of age (Prevalence ratio =0.85 [PR]; 95% CI: 0.73 - 0.98), suggesting that children were not refractory to infection in this setting. InterpretationIquitos demonstrates one of the highest rates of seroprevalence of COVID-19 worldwide. Current data shows a limited case burden in Iquitos for the past seven months and suggests that these levels are sufficient to provide significant but incomplete herd immunity. FundingDireccion Regional de Salud de Loreto, DIRESA, Loreto, Peru

15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(1): 372-381, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146117

RESUMEN

Using previously validated microbial source tracking markers, we detected and quantified fecal contamination from avian species and avian exposure, dogs, and humans on household cooking tables and floors. The association among contamination, infrastructure, and socioeconomic covariates was assessed using simple and multiple ordinal logistic regressions. The presence of Campylobacter spp. in surface samples was linked to avian markers. Using molecular methods, animal feces were detected in 75.0% and human feces in 20.2% of 104 households. Floors were more contaminated than tables as detected by the avian marker Av4143, dog marker Bactcan, and human marker Bachum. Wood tables were consistently more contaminated than non-wood surfaces, specifically with the mitochondrial avian markers ND5 and CytB, fecal marker Av4143, and canine marker Bactcan. Final multivariable models with socioeconomic and infrastructure characteristics included as covariates indicate that detection of avian feces and avian exposure was associated with the presence of chickens, maternal age, and length of tenancy, whereas detection of human markers was associated with unimproved water source. Detection of Campylobacter in surface samples was associated with the avian fecal marker Av4143. We highlight the critical need to detect and measure the burden of animal fecal waste when evaluating household water, hygiene, and sanitation interventions, and the possibility of decreasing risk of exposure through the modification of surfaces to permit more effective household disinfection practices. Animals may be a more important source of household fecal contamination than humans in many low-resource settings, although interventions have historically focused almost exclusively on managing human waste.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Microbiología Ambiental/normas , Heces , Vivienda , Higiene , Saneamiento , Animales , Pollos , Perros , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Propiedad , Perú , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminación del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
16.
J Med Entomol ; 58(3): 1384-1388, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210706

RESUMEN

We evaluated the potential for mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, to become infected with and transmit Murutucu (MURV) and Itaqui viruses (ITQV) (Order Bunyavirales, Family: Peribunyaviridae, Genus: Orthobunyavirus). Viremia levels in Syrian hamsters peaked 2 d after infection with either virus, and both viruses were highly lethal in hamsters with virtually all hamsters dying prior to 3-d postinfection. For almost all of the mosquito species tested some individuals were susceptible to infection and some developed a disseminated infection after oral exposure to either MURV or ITQV. However, only the Culex species (Culex (Culex) coronator Dyar and Knab [Diptera, Culicidae], Culex (Melanoconian) gnomatos Sallum, Huchings, and Ferreira [Diptera, Culicidae], Culex (Mel.) pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin [Diptera, Culicidae], and Culex (Mel.) vomerifer Komp [Diptera, Culicidae]) successfully transmitted virus by bite. However, even among these species, only about 37% of the individuals with a disseminated infection successfully transmitted these viruses, indicating a significant salivary gland barrier. Although little is known about the medical or veterinary importance of many members of the genus Orthobunyavirus, we have demonstrated that Culex spp. (Diptera, Culicidae) could be potential vectors.

17.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(2): 131-138, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085530

RESUMEN

The consumption of wildlife meat is traditionally accepted in the Peruvian Amazon; however, little is known about the pathogens present in this type of food. One of the most frequently consumed species is a rodent, the paca (Cuniculus paca) or "majaz" in the Peruvian language. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Salmonella enterica and its antimicrobial resistance profile in paca carcasses sold in the Belen Market of Iquitos-Peru. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out. Fresh and smoked paca carcasses (72 samples) were evaluated during the low-rain period (July 2019) in the traditional market of Iquitos, in the Amazonian Region. Meat samples were swabbed, and International Standards Organization (ISO) 6579-1: 2017 protocol was followed to Salmonella isolation. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis was performed by the disk diffusion method. In addition, serotyping was performed by using the Kauffmann-White scheme. A total of 25 strains of S. enterica were isolated in the paca carcasses, mainly in fresh carcasses (48.6%). The serovars isolated were Agona (45.8%), Infantis (41.7%), Wangata (8.3%), and Javiana (4.2%). A considerable number of the isolated strains were multidrug resistant (40%). The highest prevalence of resistance corresponded to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (64%) followed by nitrofurantoin (44%), chloramphenicol (40%), cefotaxime (40%), and nalidixic acid (40%). Ten strains isolated (40%) were identified as producers of extended spectrum beta lactamases, all in S. enterica serovar Infantis. This study describes the presence of Salmonella Infantis with multidrug resistance profiles in wildlife meat carcasses, making the consumption of this type of products a risk factor for the development of foodborne diseases in the Amazon region. Institutional Review Board: Approval Resolution of Thesis Project: N° 024-DACMVZ-DAFCVB-U.CIENTÍFICA-2019.

18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291580

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate 199 health sciences students in the city of Iquitos. Their socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, level of physical activity, type of food, substance abuse, and prevalence of overweight and obesity were ascertained using purpose-validated questionnaires, i.e., the Systematic Alcohol Consumption Interview (Interrogatorio Sistematizado de Consumos Alcohólicos/ISCA), a questionnaire on the frequency of dietary intake (CFCA), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and anthropometric measurements. The prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) was 26.5% (95% CI = 19.9-33.0%) and that of obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) was 7.9% (95% CI = 3.8-12.1%). A total of 34.4% of students (95% CI = 27.4-41.4%) presented with a BMI > 25 kg/m2. The frequency of overweight was significantly higher in persons aged over 20 years (OR = 2.5) and smokers (OR = 3.2), and the frequency of obesity was significantly higher in older students (OR = 4.1) and males (OR = 5.5). In conclusion, a considerable proportion of health sciences students in the Amazonia region presented with a high BMI. The proportion of students with overweight was higher among students aged over 20 years and smokers, while that of obesity was also higher among males. In the university setting, the development of more overweight- and obesity-preventive activities and educational interventions would therefore be desirable.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037408, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028551

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe and quantify the dengue-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of residents in an urban shantytown in Lima, Peru. DESIGN/SETTING: A cross-sectional survey of adults between 18 and 80 years living in approximately 120 blocks in Oasis, an urban shantytown situated in the low-to-middle income district of Villa El Salvador in Southern Lima. The survey was adapted from an existing survey previously used in Iquitos, Peru, and included questions relating to knowledge of dengue symptoms, transmission, prevention and current mosquito control practices. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 240 surveys were completed with 80% of respondents being female and approximately 50% of all respondents describing themselves as housewives. RESULTS: Although 97.9% of respondents had heard of dengue, only 6.2% of people knew someone who had experienced the disease. Approximately half (54.2%) of the respondents knew dengue was transmitted by mosquitoes and 51.7% were able to identify fever and one other correct symptom of dengue. Female sex was significantly associated with greater symptom knowledge (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.72) and prevention knowledge (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.21). Past or current higher education attendance was significantly associated with symptom knowledge (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.44) and transmission knowledge (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.69 to 7.57). Knowledge of dengue was not significantly associated with carrying out practices to control mosquitoes (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.87 to 3.54). CONCLUSIONS: This population demonstrated baseline dengue knowledge. However, this was incomplete and substantially less when compared with endemic areas. Given the sporadic nature of dengue transmission in Lima, it is not surprising that knowledge of the disease was not associated with carrying out practices to reduce mosquitoes. However, as dengue transmission in Lima is likely to increase, understanding how best to improve public knowledge of the disease and how to translate this into appropriate community action will be a key public health consideration.


Asunto(s)
Dengue , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/prevención & control , El Salvador , Femenino , Humanos , Perú/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 556, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102543

RESUMEN

Aims: To assess the prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women in Iquitos City, Peru. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in 300 pregnant women in Iquitos (Peru) from 1 May 2019 to 15 June 2019. Women were tested using an ELISA serology test. Results: Serology was positive in one case (prevalence: 0.33%; 95% confidence interval: 7.1-13.9%), of a 25-year-old woman who lived in a wooden house with a leaf roof in a periurban area of Iquitos. She was familiar with kissing bugs and had chronic, asymptomatic Chagas disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of Chagas disease is low in the urban and peri-urban area of the city of Iquitos.

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